Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4944, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666520

RESUMO

Urban residential buildings make large contributions to energy consumption. Energy consumption per square meter is most widely used to measure energy efficiency in urban residential buildings. This study aims to explore whether it is an appropriate indicator. An extended STIRPAT model was used based on the survey data from 867 households. Here we present that building area per household has a dilution effect on energy consumption per square meter. Neglecting this dilution effect leads to a significant overestimation of the effectiveness of building energy savings standards. Further analysis suggests that the peak of energy consumption per square meter in China's urban residential buildings occurred in 2012 when accounting for the dilution effect, which is 11 years later than it would have occurred without considering the dilution effect. Overall, overlooking the dilution effect may lead to misleading judgments of crucial energy-saving policy tools, as well as the ongoing trend of residential energy consumption in China.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 677: 315-327, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059875

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2) caused by residential building sector is essential for China to achieve its 2030 carbon emission peak. As the indicator to control the total CO2 emissions, CO2 intensity feature should be preferentially analyzed. Through the decomposition and decoupling approaches, this paper is the first to investigate whether CO2 intensity decouples from the income level in residential building sector of China and its four megacities [Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Shanghai (SH), and Chongqing (CQ)] from 2000 to 2016. Major findings indicate that: (1) The nationwide status was the weak decoupling during 2001-2016 excluding 2003 (the expansive coupling) and 2014 (the strong decoupling). (2) At the megacity scale, only four decoupling levels appeared and the decoupling effect rank of four megacities is as follows: CQ > TJ > BJ > SH (2001-2004), BJ > TJ > CQ > SH (2005-2008), SH > BJ > TJ > CQ (2009-2012), and SH > BJ > TJ > CQ (2013-2016). (3) Carbon Kuznets curves explained the different decoupling modes of four megacities and the increasing decoupling effects in 2001-2016 are attributable to the implementation of energy conservation strategy. Overall, this paper fills the gap of decoupling CO2 intensity from the income level in residential building sector. Furthermore, a significant contribution is made by this paper to the carbon emission peak analysis in residential building sector of China, and our efforts will also be a case for other countries and cities to evaluate the decoupling effect in their residential building sectors.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 1): 42-60, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223220

RESUMO

China has launched the energy efficiency project (EEP) for its civil building sector beginning in the mid-1980s; however, its implementation has not been effective. To better promote the EEP for the Chinese civil building sector, the Chinese government issued the China Act on the Energy Efficiency of Civil Buildings in 2008. This is the first paper to present a review of this act's implementation over the past decade. Based on China Database of Building Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions and official documents, the achievements of this act are assessed by examining a variety of indicators. The success of the act can be attributed to the following factors: 1) a strong and sustained government commitment to top policies of building energy efficiency (BEE); 2) extensive efforts to apply the BEE standards to newly built civil buildings; 3) various incentive schemes involving energy efficiency retrofitting for existing civil buildings; 4) the increasing adoption of renewable energy to the civil building sector and of systems and platforms of energy efficiency supervision to commercial buildings; and 5) the rapid development of green buildings. Nevertheless, the revised act must address several challenges in the upcoming phase. These challenges mainly include the following: 1) the "double-control" strategy for the civil building sector; 2) the substantial development of the EEP in rural China; 3) the further development of green buildings for the low-carbon civil buildings; 4) the improvement of official statistical data systems on energy consumption and carbon emissions for civil buildings; and 5) building industrialization and informatization. It's expected that our efforts as constituting significant guidance for evaluating the EEP in the Chinese civil building sector, and the efforts will also be treated as an example for other developing countries to evaluate and revise their BEE acts.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 427-437, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199687

RESUMO

Accurate estimation of urban residential building-related energy consumption (URBEC) and energy intensity per unit floor area at the national level has significant implications for the analysis of carbon emission peaks. However, reliable data on China's building floor space (BFS) are lacking, resulting in unclear energy intensity levels. This study proposes a China BFS estimation method (CBFSEM) based on improved building stock turnover model. Using CBFSEM, it estimates the BFS of historic urban dwelling stock, the demolished and newly built dwelling from 2000 to 2015. It then estimates the corresponding energy consumption and intensity based on the obtained urban residential BFS data. Results showed that total URBEC in China increased dramatically from 217.1 Mtce in 2000 to 417.2 Mtce in 2015 with an average annual growth rate of 4.45%. China's total dwelling stock almost doubled, from 10.6 billion m2 in 2000 to 27.4 billion m2 in 2015 with an annual growth rate of 6.56%. The operational energy consumption accounted for approximately 70% of total URBEC and the building material production energy intensity was the highest in total URBEC, >60 kgce/m2. A comparison with the China Population Census showed that the deviations were well below 8%, which indicated the reliability of the CBFSEM and the estimated results. In general, this study fills the gap in available data and addresses the shortage of estimation methods for BFS and energy intensity. It also provides the government with technical support and scientific evidence to promote building energy efficiency.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 822-834, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308857

RESUMO

Decoupling economic development from carbon emissions generated from China's commercial buildings (CECCB) is regarded as an important indicator for evaluating the energy efficiency of the commercial building sector in China. Our study is the first to propose a decoupling method based on a Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition analysis with the Kaya identity to analyze the relationship between economic development in China's Tertiary Industry and the CECCB growth at both national and municipal levels. The following three main results are found. (1) At the national level, commercial building sector decoupling from 2001 to 2015 is limited. Only four decoupling stages are observed at the municipal level with the ordering of municipal decoupling measured as follows: Tianjin > Beijing > Shanghai > Chongqing (2001-2010), Chongqing > Beijing > Tianjin > Shanghai (2011-2015). (2) Two extended versions of Environmental Kuznets Curves further show what drives different decoupling levels in the four municipalities. (3) More significant decoupling effects observed in recent years can be attributed to significant improvements made in the energy efficiency work of China's commercial building sector. Overall, our approach successfully covers a research gap relevant to the decoupling of the relationship between CECCB growth and the economic development of China's Tertiary Industry. Furthermore, we believe our results can be used to guide the evaluation of energy efficiency work in China's commercial building sector, and such efforts can also enrich diverse research conducted on China's low carbon economic systems.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 634: 884-899, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660883

RESUMO

Energy efficiency in the building sector is expected to contribute >50% to the nationwide carbon mitigation efforts for achieving China's carbon emission peak in 2030, and carbon mitigation in Chinese commercial buildings (CMCCB) is an indicator of this effort. However, the CMCCB assessment has faced the challenge of ineffective and inadequate approaches; therefore, we have followed a different approach. Using the China Database of Building Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions as our data source, our study is the first to employ the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) to decompose five driving forces from the Kaya identity of Chinese commercial building carbon emissions (CCBCE) to assess the CMCCB values in 2001-2015. The results of our study indicated that: (1) Only two driving forces (i.e., the reciprocal of GDP per capita of Tertiary Industry in China and the CCBCE intensity) contributed negatively remi to CCBCE during 2001-2015, and the quantified negative contributions denoted the CMCCB values. Specifically, the CMCCB values in 2001-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015 were 123.96, 252.83, and 249.07 MtCO2, respectively. (2) The data quality control involving the CMCCB values proved the reliability of our CMCCB assessment model, and the universal applicability of this model was also confirmed. (3) The substantial achievements of the energy efficiency project in the Chinese commercial building sector were the root cause of the rapidly growing CMCCB. Overall, we believe that our model successfully bridges the research gap of the nationwide CMCCB assessment and that the proposed model is also suitable either at the provincial level or in different building climate zones in China. Meanwhile, a global-level assessment of the carbon mitigation in the commercial building sector is feasible through applying our model. Furthermore, we consider our contribution as constituting significant guidance for developing the building energy efficiency strategy in China in the upcoming phase.

7.
PLoS One ; 7(4): e35335, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22536374

RESUMO

Sperm-mediated gene transfer can be a very efficient method to produce transgenic pigs, however, the results from different laboratories had not been widely repeated. Genomic integration of transgene by injection of pseudotyped lentivirus to the perivitelline space has been proved to be a reliable route to generate transgenic animals. To test whether transgene in the lentivirus can be delivered by sperm, we studied incubation of pseudotyped lentiviruses and sperm before insemination. After incubation with pig spermatozoa, 62±3 lentiviral particles were detected per 100 sperm cells using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The association of lentivirus with sperm was further confirmed by electron microscopy. The sperm incubated with lentiviral particles were artificially inseminated into pigs. Of the 59 piglets born from inseminated 5 sows, 6 piglets (10.17%) carried the transgene based on the PCR identification. Foreign gene and EGFP was successfully detected in ear tissue biopsies from two PCR-positive pigs, revealed via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Offspring of one PCR-positive boar with normal sows showed PCR-positive. Two PCR-positive founders and offsprings of PCR-positive boar were further identified by Southern-blot analysis, out of which the two founders and two offsprings were positive in Southern blotting, strongly indicating integration of foreign gene into genome. The results indicate that incubation of sperm with pseudotyped lentiviruses can incorporated with sperm-mediated gene transfer to produce transgenic pigs with improved efficiency.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Espermatozoides/virologia , Suínos/genética , Transformação Genética , Animais , Southern Blotting , Orelha Externa/metabolismo , Feminino , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Inseminação Artificial , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Transcrição Genética , Transgenes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA