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2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 75(2): 141-147, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789884

RESUMO

Atrial apoptosis has been found to be majorly involved in the pathogenesis of human atrial fibrillation (AF). Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor exerts an antiapoptotic effect for multiple cell types. However, the correlation between MANF and atrial apoptosis in AF is still undefined. In this study, 59 patients with valvular or congenital heart disease were divided into 2 groups: AF group and sinus rhythm (SR) group. We found that the apoptotic atrial myocytes in the right atrial appendage tissues of the AF group were significantly more than those of the SR group, whereas mRNA and protein levels of MANF in the AF group were significantly down-regulated compared with those in the SR group. The serum MANF in patients with AF was markedly lower than that in patients with SR, which was inversely correlated with atrial apoptosis in patients with AF. In addition, the AF group had the greater inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress compared with the SR group. These findings suggest that MANF downregulation may lead to more atrial apoptosis in human chronic AF, indicating MANF as a potential therapeutic agent in AF treatment.

3.
PeerJ ; 7: e8064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824757

RESUMO

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites regulating plant growth response. To date, the evolutionary history of the PAL family in Rosaceae plants remains unclear. In this study, we identified 16 PAL homologous genes in five Rosaceae plants (Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, Prunus persica, and Malus × domestica). We classified these PALs into three categories based on phylogenetic analysis, and all PALs were distributed on 13 chromosomes. We tracked gene duplication events and performed sliding window analysis. These results revealed the evolution of PALs in five Rosaceae plants. We predicted the promoter of the PbPALs by PLANT CARE online software, and found that the promoter region of both PbPAL1 and PbPAL3 have at least one AC element. The results of qRT-PCR analysis found that PbPAL1 and PbPAL2 were highly expressed in the stems and roots, while expression level of PbPAL3 was relatively low in different tissues. The expression of PbPAL1 and PbPAL2 increased firstly and then decreased at different developmental periods of pear fruit. Among them, the expression of PbPAL1 reached the highest level 55 days after flowering. Three PbPALs were induced by abiotic stress to varying degrees. We transfected PbPAL1 and PbPAL2 into Arabidopsis thaliana, which resulted in an increase in lignin content and thickening of the cell walls of intervascular fibres and xylem cells. In summary, this research laid a foundation for better understanding the molecular evolution of PALs in five Rosaceae plants. Furthermore, the present study revealed the role of PbPALs in lignin synthesis, and provided basic data for regulating lignin synthesis and stone cells development in pear plants.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861760

RESUMO

Studies have shown that the type II pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (PLP_deC) genes produce secondary metabolites and flavor volatiles in plants, and TDC (tryptophan decarboxylase), a member of the PLP_deC family, plays an important role in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). In this study, we identified eight PLP_deC genes in Dendrobium officinale (D. officinale) and six in Phalaenopsis equestris (P. equestris), and their structures, physicochemical properties, response elements, evolutionary relationships, and expression patterns were preliminarily predicted and analyzed. The results showed that PLP_deC genes play important roles in D. officinale and respond to different exogenous hormone treatments; additionally, the results support the selection of appropriate candidates for further functional characterization of PLP_deC genes in D. officinale.

5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 417, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The content of stone cells and lignin is one of the key factors affecting the quality of pear fruit. In a previous study, we determined the developmental regularity of stone cells and lignin in 'Dangshan Su' pear fruit 15-145 days after pollination (DAP). However, the development of fruit stone cells and lignin before 15 DAP has not been heavily researched. RESULTS: In this study, we found that primordial stone cells began to appear at 7 DAP and that the fruit had formed a large number of stone cells at 15 DAP. Subsequently, transcriptome sequencing was performed on fruits at 0, 7, and 15 DAP and identified 3834 (0 vs. 7 DAP), 4049 (7 vs. 15 DAP) and 5763 (0 vs. 15 DAP) DEGs. During the 7-15 DAP period, a large number of key enzyme genes essential for lignin biosynthesis are gradually up-regulated, and their expression pattern is consistent with the accumulation of lignin in this period. Further analysis found that the biosynthesis of S-type lignin in 'Dangshan Su' pear does not depend on the catalytic activity of PbSAD but is primarily generated by the catalytic activity of caffeoyl-CoA through CCoAOMT, CCR, F5H, and CAD. We cloned PbCCR1, 2 and analysed their functions in Chinese white pear lignin biosynthesis. PbCCR1 and 2 have a degree of functional redundancy; both demonstrate the ability to participate in lignin biosynthesis. However, PbCCR1 may be the major gene for lignin biosynthesis, while PbCCR2 has little effect on lignin biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that 'Dangshan Su' pear began to form a large number of stone cells and produce lignin after 7 DAP and mainly accumulated materials from 0 to 7 DAP. PbCCR1 is mainly involved in the biosynthesis of lignin in 'Dangshan Su' pear and plays a positive role in lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Transcriptoma , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Heliyon ; 5(9): e02374, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517114

RESUMO

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of quercetin from Dendrobium officinale was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using high-performance liquid chromatography as a separative method. Based on single-factor experiments and two-level factorial analysis, the ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power were selected as significant response factors. The amount of quercetin that we extracted from Dendrobium officinale was 2.506-2.594 µg/g under the extraction conditions, which showed that optimization could improve the extration rate of quercetin from Dendrobium officinale. Quercetin was extracted and detected within 12 consecutive months after the germination of Dendrobium officinale by optimizing the extraction process to analyze the accumulation of quercetin. The UV-B exposure experiments showed that the Dendrobium officinale leaves have different responses to low- and high-dose UV light. The results showed that the quercetin content in Dendrobium officinale could be changed by UV-B radiation, and the response of distinct tissue parts to varying intensities of UV-B radiation was different.

7.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(5)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562192

RESUMO

Metabolic remodelling has emerged as critical for stem cell pluripotency; however, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we found that the glycine cleavage system (GCS) is highly activated to promote stem cell pluripotency and during somatic cell reprogramming. Mechanistically, we revealed that the expression of Gldc, a rate-limiting GCS enzyme regulated by Sox2 and Lin28A, facilitates this activation. We further found that the activated GCS catabolizes glycine to fuel H3K4me3 modification, thus promoting the expression of pluripotency genes. Moreover, the activated GCS helps to cleave excess glycine and prevents methylglyoxal accumulation, which stimulates senescence in stem cells and during reprogramming. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby GCS activation controls stem cell pluripotency by promoting H3K4me3 modification and preventing cellular senescence.

8.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527450

RESUMO

Negatively selected genes (NSGs) and positively selected genes (PSGs) are the two types of most nuclear protein-coding genes in organisms. However, the evolutionary rates and characteristics of different types of genes have been rarely understood. In the present study, we investigate the rates of synonymous substitution (Ks) and the rates of non-synonymous substitution (Ka) by comparing the orthologous genes of two sequenced Pyrus species, Pyrus bretschneideri and Pyrus communis. Subsequently, we compared the evolutionary rates, gene structures, and expression profiles during different fruit development between PSGs and NSGs. Compared with the NSGs, the PSGs have fewer exons, shorter gene length, lower synonymous substitution rates and have higher evolutionary rates. Remarkably, gene expression patterns between two Pyrus species fruit indicated functional divergence for most of the orthologous genes derived from a common ancestor, and subfunctionalization for some of them. Overall, the present study shows that PSGs differs from NSGs not only under environmental selective pressure (Ka/Ks), but also in their structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. Additionally, our resulting data provides important insights for the evolution and highlights the diversification of orthologous genes in two Pyrus species.

9.
EMBO Rep ; 20(10): e48115, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379107

RESUMO

Lin28 plays an important role in promoting tumor development, whereas its exact functions and underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that both human homologs of Lin28 accelerate de novo fatty acid synthesis and promote the conversion from saturated to unsaturated fatty acids via the regulation of SREBP-1. By directly binding to the mRNAs of both SREBP-1 and SCAP, Lin28A/B enhance the translation and maturation of SREBP-1, and protect cancer cells from lipotoxicity. Lin28A/B-stimulated tumor growth is abrogated by SREBP-1 inhibition and by the impairment of the RNA binding properties of Lin28A/B, respectively. Collectively, our findings uncover that post-transcriptional regulation by Lin28A/B enhances de novo fatty acid synthesis and metabolic conversion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids via SREBP-1, which is critical for cancer progression.

10.
Front Genet ; 10: 632, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333718

RESUMO

Stone cells are a characteristic trait of pear fruit, but the contents and sizes of stone cells negatively correlate with fruit texture and flavor. Secondary cell wall thickening and lignification have been established as key steps of stone cell development. KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX) proteins play important roles in plant cell growth and development, including cell wall formation and lignification. Although the characteristics and biological functions of KNOX proteins have been investigated in other plants, this gene family has not been functionally characterized in pear. Eighteen PbKNOX genes were identified in the present study, and all of the identified family members contained the KNOX I and/or KNOX II domains. Based on the phylogenetic tree and chromosomal localization, the 18 PbKNOX genes were divided into five subfamilies [SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM)-like, BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP)-like, KNOTTED ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 2/6 (KNAT2/6)-like, KNAT7-like, and KNAT3-5-like] and were distributed among 10 chromosomes. In addition, we identified 9, 11, and 11 KNOX genes in the genomes of grape, mei, and strawberry, respectively, and the greatest number of collinear KNOX gene pairs formed between pears and peaches. Analyses of the spatiotemporal expression patterns showed that the tissue specificity of PbKNOX gene expression was not very significant and that the level of the PbKNOX1 transcript showed an opposite trend to the levels of stone cells and lignin accumulation. Furthermore, PbKNOX1 has high sequence identity and similarity with Arabidopsis BP. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis, plants overexpressing PbKNOX1 not only showed an approximately 19% decrease in the secondary cell wall thickness of vessel cells but also exhibited an approximately 13% reduction in the lignin content of inflorescence stems. Moreover, the expression of several genes involved in lignin biosynthesis was downregulated in transgenic lines. Based on our results, PbKNOX1/BP participates in cell wall-thickening and lignin biosynthesis and represses the transcription of key structural genes involved in lignin synthesis, providing genetic evidence for the roles of KNOX in cell wall thickening and lignin biosynthesis in pear.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 245, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that BBX (B-BOX) genes play crucial roles in regulatory networks controlling plant growth, developmental processes and stress response. Nevertheless, comprehensive study of BBX genes in orchids (Orchidaceae) is not well studied. The newly released genome sequences of Dendrobium officinale and Phalaenopsis equestris have allowed a systematic analysis of these important BBX genes in orchids. RESULTS: Here we identified 19 (DoBBX01-19) and 16 (PeBBX01-16) BBX genes from D. officinale and P. equestris, respectively, and clustered into five clades (I-V) according to phylogenetic analysis. Thirteen orthologous, two DoBBXs paralogous and two PeBBXs paralogous gene pairs were validated. This gene family mainly underwent purifying selection, but five domains experienced positive selection during evolution. Noteworthy, the expression patterns of root, root_tips, stem, leaf, speal, column, lip, and flower_buds revealed that they might contribution to the formation of these tissues. According to the cis-regulatory elements analysis of BBX genes, qRT-PCR experiments were carried out using D. officinale PLBs (protocorm-like bodies) and displayed that these BBX genes were differentially regulated under AgNO3, MeJA (Methyl Jasmonate), ABA (abscisic acid) and SA (salicylic acid) treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis exposed that DoBBX genes play significant roles in plant growth and development, and response to different environmental stress conditions of D. officinale, which provide aid in the selection of appropriate candidate genes for further functional characterization of BBX genes in plants.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Ácido Abscísico/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclopentanos/administração & dosagem , Dendrobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/administração & dosagem , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem , Nitrato de Prata/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Cells ; 8(6)2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146469

RESUMO

: The accumulation of lignin in fruit has a significant negative impact on the quality of fruit-producing trees, and in particular the lignin formation stimulates the development of stone cells in pear fruit. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for lignin polymerization. However, knowledge of the RBOH family, a key enzyme in ROS metabolism, remains unknown in most fruit trees. In this study, a total of 40 RBOHs were identified from five fruit-producing trees (Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Citrus sinensis, Vitis vinifera, and Prunus mume), and 10 of these sequences came from Pyrus bretschneideri. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that all 10 PbRBOHs contained the NADPH_Ox domain and the six alpha-helical transmembrane domains (TM-I to TM-VI). Chromosome localization and interspecies phylogenetic tree analysis showed that 10 PbRBOHs irregularly distributed on 8 chromosomes and 3 PbRBOHs (PbRBOHA, PbRBOHB, and PbRBOHD) are closely related to known lignification-related RBOHs. Furthermore, hormone response pattern analysis showed that the transcription of PbRBOHs is regulated by SA, ABA and MeJA. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that PbRBOHA, PbRBOHB, and PbRBOHD accumulated high transcript abundance in pear fruit, and the transcriptional trends of PbRBOHA and PbRBOHD was consistent with the change of stone cell content during fruit development. In addition, subcellular localization revealed that PbRBOHA and PbRBOHD are distributed on the plasma membrane. Combining the changes of apoplastic superoxide (O2.-) content and spatio-temporal expression analysis, these results indicate that PbRBOHA and PbRBOHD, which are candidate genes, may play an important role in ROS metabolism during the lignification of pear stone cells. This study not only provided insight into the molecular characteristics of the RBOH family in fruit-producing trees, but also lays the foundation for studying the role of ROS in plant lignification.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Lignina/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Pyrus/enzimologia , Pyrus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Éxons/genética , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Genoma , Íntrons/genética , NADPH Oxidases/química , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sintenia/genética , Árvores/enzimologia , Árvores/genética
13.
PeerJ ; 7: e6628, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941270

RESUMO

The INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) gene family encodes hybrid transcription factors with distinct zinc finger motifs and appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. IDD genes have been identified throughout the genomes of the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, and the functions of many members of this gene family have been studied. However, few studies have investigated the IDD gene family in Rosaceae species (among these species, a genome-wide identification of the IDD gene family has only been completed in Malus domestica). This study focuses on a comparative genomic analysis of the IDD gene family in five Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, Rubus occidentalis and Prunus avium). We identified a total of 68 IDD genes: 16 genes in Chinese white pear, 14 genes in F. vesca, 13 genes in Prunus mume, 14 genes in R. occidentalis and 11 genes in Prunus avium. The evolution of the IDD genes in these five Rosaceae species was revealed by constructing a phylogenetic tree, tracking gene duplication events, and performing a sliding window analysis and a conserved microsynteny analysis. The expression analysis of different organs showed that most of the pear IDD genes are found at a very high transcription level in fruits, flowers and buds. Based on our results with those obtained in previous research, we speculated that PbIDD2 and PbIDD8 might participate in flowering induction in pear. A temporal expression analysis showed that the expression patterns of PbIDD3 and PbIDD5 were completely opposite to the accumulation pattern of fruit lignin and the stone cell content. The results of the composite phylogenetic tree and expression pattern analysis indicated that PbIDD3 and PbIDD5 might be involved in the metabolism of lignin and secondary cell wall (SCW) formation. In summary, we provide basic information about the IDD genes in five Rosaceae species and thereby provide a theoretical basis for studying the function of these IDD genes.

14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 91, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, we demonstrated that pollen chamber formation (PCF) in G. biloba ovules was a process of programmed cell death (PCD) within the nucellar cells at the micropylar end. However, the signal triggering the cascades of the programmed events in these nucellar cells remains unexplored. RESULTS: A transcriptomic strategy was employed to unravel the mechanism underlying the nucellar PCD via the comparative profiles of RNA-seq between pre-PCF and post-PCF ovules. A total of 5599 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with significance was identified from G. biloba ovules and classified into three main categories of GO annotation, including 17 biological processes, 15 cellular components and 17 molecular functions. KEGG analysis showed that 72 DEGs were enriched in "Plant hormone signal transduction". Furthermore, 99 DEGs were found to be associated with the PCD process, including the genes involved in ethylene signaling pathway, PCD initiation, and PCD execution. Moreover, calcium-cytochemical localization indicated that calcium could play a role in regulating PCD events within the nucellar cells during pollen chamber formation in G. biloba ovules. CONCLUSIONS: A putative working model, consisting of three overlapping processes, is proposed for the nucellar PCD: at the stage of PCD preparation, ethylene signaling pathway is activated for transcriptional regulation of the downstream targets; subsequently, at the stage of PCD initiation, the upregulated expression of several transcription factors, i.e., NAC, bHLH, MADS-box, and MYB, further promotes the corresponding transcript levels of CYTOCHROME C and CALMODULINs, thereby, leads to the PCD initiation via the calcium-dependent signaling cascade; finally, at the stage of PCD execution, some proteases like metacaspases and vacuolar processing enzyme for hydrolysis, together with the process of autophagy, play roles in the clearance of cellular components. Afterwards, a pollen chamber is generated from the removal of specific nucellar cells in the developing ovule.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ginkgo biloba/citologia , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1266, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718750

RESUMO

MADS-box transcription factors widely regulate all aspects of plant growth including development and reproduction. Although the MADS-box gene family genes have been extensively characterized in many plants, they have not been studied in closely related species. In this study, 73 and 74 MADS-box genes were identified in European pear (Pyrus communis) and Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), respectively. Based on the phylogenetic relationship, these genes could be clustered into five groups (Mα, Mß, Mr, MIKCC, MIKC*) and the MIKCC group was further categorized into 10 subfamilies. The distribution of MADS-box genes on each chromosome was significantly nonrandom. Thirty-seven orthologs, twenty-five PcpMADS (P. communis MADS-box) paralogs and nineteen PbrMADS (P. bretschneideri MADS-box) paralogs were predicted. Among these paralogous genes, two pairs arose from tandem duplications (TD), nineteen from segmental duplication (SD) events and twenty-three from whole genome duplication (WGD) events, indicating SD/WGD events led to the expansion of MADS-box gene family. The MADS-box genes expression profiles in pear fruits indicated functional divergence and neo-functionalization or sub-functionalization of some orthologous genes originated from a common ancestor. This study provided a useful reference for further analysis the mechanisms of species differentiation and biodiversity formation among closely related species.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211635, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794567

RESUMO

Metacaspase (MC), which is discovered gene family with distant caspase homologs in plants, fungi, and protozoa, may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) processes during plant development and respond abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the evolutionary relationship of MC gene family in Rosaceae genomes, we identified 8, 7, 8, 12, 12, and 23 MC genes in the genomes of Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus communis, Pyrus bretschneideri and Malus domestica, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the MC genes could be grouped into three clades: Type I*, Type I and Type II, which was supported by gene structure and conserved motif analysis. Microsynteny analysis revealed that MC genes present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of P. communis, P. bretschneideri and M. domestica, and further suggested that large-scale duplication events play an important role in the expansion of MC gene family members in these three genomes than other Rosaceae plants (F. vesca, P. mume and P. persica). RNA-seq data showed the specific expression patterns of PbMC genes in response to drought stress. The expression analysis of MC genes demonstrated that PbMC01 and PbMC03 were able to be detected in all four pear pollen tubes and seven fruit development stages. The current study highlighted the evolutionary relationship and duplication of the MC gene family in these six Rosaceae genomes and provided appropriate candidate genes for further studies in P. bretschneideri.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Tubo Polínico/genética , Pyrus/genética , Rosaceae/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Fragaria/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Malus/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus/genética , Sintenia/genética
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(2): 2153-2175, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734172

RESUMO

Stone cells are a characteristic trait of pear fruits, and excessive stone cell formation has a significant negative impact on the texture and flavour of the pulp. Lignin is one of the main components of stone cells. Family-1 uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are responsible for the glycosylation modification of monolignols. However, information remains limited regarding the relationship between UGTs and stone cell formation. To address this problem, we identified 139 UGTs from the pear genome, which were distributed in 15 phylogenetic groups (A-M, O, and P). We also performed a collinearity analysis of UGTs among four Rosaceae plants (pear, peach, mei, and strawberry). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that 13 PbUGTs might be related to the glycosylation of monolignols. Analysis of expression patterns demonstrated that most putative monolignol glycosylation-related PbUGTs not only showed high expression levels in flowers and buds but were also induced by exogenous ABA, SA, and MeJA. In addition, the transcript level of Pbr005014.1 (named PbUGT72AJ2) was consistent with the changing trend of lignin content in pear fruit, and the transcript level was also higher in 'Dangshan Su' pear with higher lignin and stone cell contents. Subcellular localization results showed that PbUGT72AJ2 was located mainly in the cytomembrane and cytoplasm. Based on our study, PbUGT72AJ2 is considered to be a monolignol glycosylation-related UGT. Our results provide an important source for the identification of UGTs and a foundation for the future understanding and manipulation of lignin metabolism and stone cell formation in pear fruit.


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases/genética , Pyrus/genética , Sementes/genética , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Lignina/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210892, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753186

RESUMO

The content and size of stone cell clusters affects the quality of pear fruit, and monolignol polymerization and deposition in the cell walls constitute a required step for stone cell formation. Laccase (LAC) is the key enzyme responsible for the polymerization of monolignols. However, there are no reports on the LAC family in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and the identity of the members responsible for lignin synthesis has not been clarified. Here, 41 LACs were identified in the whole genome of pear. All Pyrus bretschneideri LACs (PbLACs) were distributed on 13 chromosomes and divided into four phylogenetic groups (I-IV). In addition, 16 segmental duplication events were found, implying that segmental duplication was a primary reason for the expansion of the PbLAC family. LACs from the genomes of three Rosaceae species (Prunus mummer, Prunus persica, and Fragaria vesca) were also identified, and an interspecies collinearity analysis was performed. The phylogenetic analysis, sequence alignments and spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis suggested that PbLAC1, 5, 6, 29, 36 and 38 were likely associated with lignin synthesis and stone cell formation in fruit. The two target genes of Pyr-miR1890 (a microRNA identified from pear fruit that is associated with lignin and stone cell accumulation), PbLAC1 and PbLAC14, were selected for genetic transformation. Interfamily transfer of PbLAC1 into Arabidopsis resulted in a significant increase (approximately 17%) in the lignin content and thicker cell walls in interfascicular fibre and xylem cells, which demonstrated that PbLAC1 is involved in lignin biosynthesis and cell wall development. However, the lignin content and cell wall thickness were not changed significantly in the PbLAC14-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This study revealed the function of PbLAC1 in lignin synthesis and provides important insights into the characteristics and evolution of the PbLAC family.


Assuntos
Frutas , Genoma de Planta , Lacase , Lignina , Proteínas de Plantas , Pyrus , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lacase/biossíntese , Lacase/genética , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/enzimologia , Pyrus/genética
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(1): 161-175, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467666

RESUMO

The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) protein belongs to a secondary transporter family, which plays a role in transporting different kinds of substrates like phytohormones and secondary metabolites. In plant, MATE transporters related to the endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of detoxification for secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, anthocyanins and other secondary metabolites have been studied. However, a genome-wide analysis of the MATE family is rarely reported in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In the study, a total of 72 GhMATEs were identified from the genome of upland cotton, which were classified into four subfamilies with possible diverse functions such as transport of proanthocyanidins (PAs), accumulation of alkaloids, extrusion of xenobiotic compounds, regulation of disease resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Meanwhile, the gene structure, evolutionary relationship, physical location, conservative motifs, subcellular localization and gene expression pattern of GhMATEs have been further analysed. Three of these MATE genes (GhMATE12, GhMATE16 and GhMATE38) were identified as candidate genes due to their functions in transport of PA similar to GhTT12. These results provide a new perspective on upland cotton MATE gene family for their potential roles in transport of PA and a theoretical basis for further analyzing the function of MATE genes and improving the fiber quality of brown cotton.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
20.
Gene ; 686: 237-249, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468911

RESUMO

Lignin is the main component of stone cells, which are a key factor in determining pear quality. Therefore, modification of lignin biosynthesis has important implications for regulating stone cell formation. LIMs are involved in plant development, stress response and metabolism. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the pear LIM family and lignin-related LIMs. To address this problem, we identified 14 LIMs from the pear genome and named them. Phylogenomic and feature domain analysis showed that they were divided into CRP- and DA&DAR-LIM groups and five subclades. LIMs from the genomes of four rosids (Prunus mummer, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca and Vitis vinifera) were also identified, and microsynteny analysis revealed the most orthologous gene pairs in the cross of pear/grape and pear/mei. The transcript levels of PbLIMs were significantly affected by SA, ABA and MeJA. Spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that PbLIMs of the δLIM2 subfamily were highly expressed in the flowers. Changes in the expression levels of PbWLIM1a and PbWLIM1b during fruit development was consistent with the changes in lignin content. Combining phylogenetic analyses, protein three-dimensional structure determination and sequence alignment analyses, these two genes were suggested as lignin-related PbLIMs. Subcellular localization results showed that PbWLIM1a and PbWLIM1b were located mainly in the chloroplast. This study lays the foundation for revealing the mechanism of LIM-mediated lignin metabolism to regulate stone cell formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Cloroplastos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Lignina , Família Multigênica/fisiologia , Filogenia , Pyrus , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/genética , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo
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