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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(2): 27010, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Features of the urban physical environment may be linked to the development of high blood pressure, a leading risk factor for global burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of urban physical environment features with hypertension and blood pressure measures in adults across 230 Latin American cities. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we used health, social, and built environment data from the SALud URBana en América Latina (SALURBAL) project. The individual-level outcomes were hypertension and levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The exposures were city and subcity built environment features, mass transit infrastructure, and green space. Odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multilevel logistic and linear regression models, with single- and multiple-exposure models adjusted for individual-level age, sex, education, and subcity educational attainment. RESULTS: A total of 109,176 participants from 230 cities and eight countries were included in the hypertension analyses and 50,228 participants from 194 cities and seven countries were included in the blood pressure measures analyses. Participants were 18-97 years of age. In multiple-exposure models, higher city fragmentation was associated with higher odds of having hypertension (OR per standard deviation (SD) increase=1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21); presence (vs. no presence) of mass transit in the city was associated with higher odds of having hypertension (OR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.54); higher subcity population density was associated with lower odds of having hypertension (OR per SD increase=0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.94); and higher subcity intersection density was associated with higher odds of having hypertension [OR per SD increase=1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15). The presence of mass transit was also associated with slightly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure in multiple-exposure models adjusted for treatment. Except for the association between intersection density and hypertension, associations were attenuated after adjustment for country. An inverse association of greenness with continuous blood pressure emerged after country adjustment. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that urban physical environment features-such as fragmentation, mass transit, population density, and intersection density-may be related to hypertension in Latin American cities. Reducing chronic disease risks in the growing urban areas of Latin America may require attention to integrated management of urban design and transport planning. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7870.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia
3.
J Urban Health ; 97(4): 552-560, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900840

RESUMO

Virtual audits using Google Street View are an increasingly popular method of assessing neighborhood environments for health and urban planning research. However, the validity of these studies may be threatened by issues of image availability, image age, and variance of image age, particularly in the Global South. This study identifies patterns of Street View image availability, image age, and image age variance across cities in Latin America and assesses relationships between these measures and measures of resident socioeconomic conditions. Image availability was assessed at 530,308 near-road points within the boundaries of 371 Latin American cities described by the SALURBAL (Salud Urbana en America Latina) project. At the subcity level, mixed-effect linear and logistic models were used to assess relationships between measures of socioeconomic conditions and image availability, average image age, and the standard deviation of image age. Street View imagery was available at 239,394 points (45.1%) of the total sampled, and rates of image availability varied widely between cities and countries. Subcity units with higher scores on measures of socioeconomic conditions had higher rates of image availability (OR = 1.11 per point increase of combined index, p < 0.001) and the imagery was newer on average (- 1.15 months per point increase of combined index, p < 0.001), but image capture date within these areas varied more (0.59-month increase in standard deviation of image age per point increase of combined index, p < 0.001). All three assessed threats to the validity of Street View virtual audit studies spatially covary with measures of socioeconomic conditions in Latin American cities. Researchers should be attentive to these issues when using Street View imagery.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Características de Residência , Cidades , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/normas , Humanos , América Latina , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(12): e503-e510, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latin America is one of the most unequal regions in the world, but evidence is lacking on the magnitude of health inequalities in urban areas of the region. Our objective was to examine inequalities in life expectancy in six large Latin American cities and its association with a measure of area-level socioeconomic status. METHODS: In this ecological analysis, we used data from the Salud Urbana en America Latina (SALURBAL) study on six large cities in Latin America (Buenos Aires, Argentina; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; San José, Costa Rica; Mexico City, Mexico; and Panama City, Panama), comprising 266 subcity units, for the period 2011-15 (expect for Panama city, which was for 2012-16). We calculated average life expectancy at birth by sex and subcity unit with life tables using age-specific mortality rates estimated from a Bayesian model, and calculated the difference between the ninth and first decile of life expectancy at birth (P90-P10 gap) across subcity units in cities. We also analysed the association between life expectancy at birth and socioeconomic status at the subcity-unit level, using education as a proxy for socioeconomic status, and whether any geographical patterns existed in cities between subcity units. FINDINGS: We found large spatial differences in average life expectancy at birth in Latin American cities, with the largest P90-P10 gaps observed in Panama City (15·0 years for men and 14·7 years for women), Santiago (8·9 years for men and 17·7 years for women), and Mexico City (10·9 years for men and 9·4 years for women), and the narrowest in Buenos Aires (4·4 years for men and 5·8 years for women), Belo Horizonte (4·0 years for men and 6·5 years for women), and San José (3·9 years for men and 3·0 years for women). Higher area-level socioeconomic status was associated with higher life expectancy, especially in Santiago (change in life expectancy per P90-P10 change unit-level of educational attainment 8·0 years [95% CI 5·8-10·3] for men and 11·8 years [7·1-16·4] for women) and Panama City (7·3 years [2·6-12·1] for men and 9·0 years [2·4-15·5] for women). We saw an increase in life expectancy at birth from east to west in Panama City and from north to south in core Mexico City, and a core-periphery divide in Buenos Aires and Santiago. Whereas for San José the central part of the city had the lowest life expectancy and in Belo Horizonte the central part of the city had the highest life expectancy. INTERPRETATION: Large spatial differences in life expectancy in Latin American cities and their association with social factors highlight the importance of area-based approaches and policies that address social inequalities in improving health in cities of the region. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile , Cidades , Costa Rica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panamá , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(19): 3649-65, 2011 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21741680

RESUMO

Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 µW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 µW/cm(2).


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Telecomunicações
6.
Addiction ; 106(1): 143-51, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20955486

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among non-injecting cocaine users (NICUs) and to compare practices associated with HCV and HIV infection. DESIGN: An intercountry cross-sectional study. Setting Buenos Aires and Montevideo metropolitan areas. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 871 NICUs. MEASUREMENTS: NICUs were interviewed and their blood was drawn and used for HCV, HIV, HBV surface antigen (HbsAg), HB-anticore and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VRDL) antibody assays. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses included comparisons of HCV and HIV mono-infected participants with HCV-HIV seronegatives. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates were 8.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9-10.8) for HCV and 7.9 (95% CI: 6.1-9.7) for HIV. HCV-infected NICUs were twice as likely as HCV-HIV seronegatives to have shared straws for cocaine snorting or sniffing, even when adjusted for other variables. HCV prevalence rates ranged from 3.6% among NICUs who denied sharing straws and having had an injection drug user (IDU) or an HIV-positive sexual partner to 12.6% among participants who reported ever having shared straws or having had either an IDU- or HIV-positive sexual partner (χ(2) (trend) = 6.56, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Non-injecting cocaine users from South America are vulnerable to multiple infections and HCV infection appears to occur through the sharing of straws. HCV infection is associated with intimate relationships with IDUs or HIV-seropositive partners, supporting the hypothesis that HCV risk may be due primarily to risk-taking behaviour associated with drugs in this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Comorbidade , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Uruguai/epidemiologia
7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 168(11): 1373-82, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19238437

RESUMO

This study aims to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disorders in schoolchildren living in Ouro Preto City, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population-based sampling of schoolchildren (6-14 years old), randomly selected and stratified by the proportion of students according to age and gender in each schools of the city. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometric variables as well as physical activity and family history were used in a logistic regression model for obesity or arterial hypertension. Out of 780 schoolchildren sampled, the risk of obesity was greater in subjects presenting high triglyceride and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and those whose parents were obese, while the risk of hypertension was high in obese subjects and those who presented low birth weight. It was observed that 44.4% of the schoolchildren were exposed to two or three cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and 8.2% were exposed to four or six factors. These findings should be considered in preventive measures to reduce the future risk for CVD among schoolchildren in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem , Estudantes , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 30(2): 108-113, mar.-abr. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-496277

RESUMO

Crescimento significativo da preocupação com a segurança transfusional vem sendo observado nas últimas décadas, paralelo às alterações demográficas e sociais da população, além dos avanços técnico-científicos, que aumentam naturalmente a demanda por transfusões de sangue. Entretanto, apesar dos investimentos na captação de doadores, seu déficit continua sendo crônico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar aspectos demográficos e socioeconômicos entre indivíduos aptos, inaptos temporários e inaptos permanentes na triagem clínica para a doação de sangue, visando identificar fatores diferenciais. Constou de estudo caso-referente realizado no Hemocentro de Belo Horizonte (1994-1995), a partir de um inquérito envolvendo 3.527 candidatos à doação. Comparações das características dos candidatos aptos e inaptos foram realizadas, estratificadas por sexo. Regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para investigar os fatores associados à aptidão para a doação. Os candidatos à doação se assemelhavam quanto ao nível socioeconômico e eram dissimilares na distribuição por sexo, faixa etária e tipo de doação. Para ambos os sexos, as seguintes características se associaram estatisticamente à aptidão: ser mais jovem (18 a 29 anos), ter união estável, estar trabalhando e não possuir automóvel. Para homens incluiu-se, ainda, ter até duas pessoas por dormitório na residência. Distintos perfis demográficos e socioeconômicos foram identificados, de acordo com o sexo e categorias de aptidão, com maior similaridade entre o perfil dos indivíduos inaptos clínicos temporários, principalmente mulheres, com o dos aptos clínicos. Portanto, justifica-se a adoção de múltiplas estratégias de captação de doadores para atingir públicos alvos específicos.


Over the last decades, growing concern regarding transfusional safety has been observed, parallel to demographic and social changes as well as technological advances and increasing demand for blood transfusions. However, despite investment to increase the number of blood donors, there is a chronic shortage of blood. The aim of this study was to compare demographic and social-economic characteristics comparing individuals that were considered eligible with temporarily and permanent non-eligible blood donors. A case-comparison study was carried out at the Blood Donation Center (Hemocentro) of Belo Horizonte from a survey involving 3,527 candidates for blood donation. Comparisons stratified by gender were made for all characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to verify the association between the variables and eligibility for blood donation. Candidates for blood donation were similar according to the socio-economic level and dissimilar according to gender, age and type of donation. For both genders, the following characteristics were statistically associated in respect to eligibility for blood donation: to be young (18 to 29 years), to have a stable relationship and employment and not to own an automobile. For men, the presence of less than two people per bedroom of their residence was also statistically significant. Distinct demographic and social-economic profiles were identified in relation to gender and eligibility category. Similar profiles were found between temporarily non-eligible and eligible candidates, especially among women. Therefore, adopting multiple strategies in blood donor recruitment is justified in order to make contact with the different groups.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doadores de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Bancos de Sangue/normas , Grupos Populacionais , Segurança
9.
J Urban Health ; 84(3 Suppl): i42-53, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17458704

RESUMO

A full understanding of the role of the urban environment in shaping the health of populations requires consideration of different features of the urban environment that may influence population health. The social environment is key to understanding the way in which cities affect the health of populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) are important, generally, yet can have different effects in different settings from urban to rural, between countries, between cities, and within cities. Failure to acknowledge, and more importantly, to understand the role of SDH in health and access to health and social services will hamper any effort to improve the health of the population. In this paper, we will briefly summarize a few key SDH and their measurement. We will also consider methodologic tools and some methodologic challenges. The concepts presented here are broadly applicable to a variety of settings: developed and developing countries, slum areas, inner cities, middle income neighborhoods, and even higher income neighborhoods. However, our focus will be on some of the more vulnerable urban populations who are most profoundly affected by SDH.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Meio Social , População Urbana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Pesquisa
10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 41(6-7): 937-51, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16809180

RESUMO

This article assesses the operations of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, (southern Brazil) needle exchange program (NEP), a setting where HIV infection rates have been on the rise among injection drug users (IDUs) in recent years, contrasting with substantial declines observed in this population, in major Brazilian cities (located in the southeast and southernmost part of Brazilian northeast). We explored local syringe dynamics, with the exclusive delivery in the local NEP of tagged syringes, and the subsequent monitoring of returned tagged/untagged used syringes from January to September 2002. We further assessed local NEP operations using focus groups and field observation, trying to expose the underlying reasons for the substantial delay in the return of tagged syringes and the continuous and relevant return of untagged syringes throughout the study period. We found that local IDUs reuse, divert, and create caches of syringes at their discretion. All efforts should be made to increase the availability of clean syringes and to fully integrate syringe exchange with comprehensive health education and health screening to effectively curb HIV spread.


Assuntos
Programas de Troca de Agulhas/provisão & distribuição , Pobreza , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Agulhas/provisão & distribuição , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/prevenção & controle
11.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 99(1): 55-61, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15550262

RESUMO

A case-comparison study was carried out to identify risk factors for mucosal manifestations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in southeast Brazil, using a series of 2820 patients, diagnosed with ACL between 1966 and 1999. The significant factors independently associated with mucosal leishmaniasis were: gender, age, nutritional status and length of disease. Mucosal leishmaniasis occurred 1.7 times more frequently among males than females; twice as often in individuals older than 22 years compared with the younger group; almost four times as often in individuals with severe malnutrition compared with those who were well nourished; and almost four times more frequently in individuals reporting the disease for more than 4 months compared with those reporting a shorter duration of the disease. Among individuals older than 22 years the risk of mucosal leishmaniasis increased significantly (from 1.9 to 9.6) as the nutritional status decreased, when compared with younger and well-nourished patients. The characteristics herein described and correlated with severe forms could be used as diagnostic markers as part of clinical screening in areas endemic for ACL.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Abuso de Idosos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Rev. bras. nutr. clín ; 13(1): 30-40, jan.-mar. 1998. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-314600

RESUMO

Este trabalho apresenta a metodologia usada no estudo do Inquérito Brasileiro de Avaliaçäo Nutricional Hospitalar (IBRANUTRI). A Sociedade Brasileira de Nutriçäo Parenteral e Enteral considerando de alta importância avaliar a desnutriçäo hospitalar no Brasil, desenvolveu um estudo multicêntrico em todo o território nacional, envolvendo 25 hospitais com atendimento a pacientes adultos do Sistema ünico de Saúde. Os principais objetivos do IBRANUTRI foram: diagnosticar o estado nutricional, através da técnica de avaliaçäo nutricional subjetiva(ANS), e verificar a preocupaçäo das equipes de saúde com o estado nutricional dos doentes, além de se aquilatar o uso da Terapia Nutricional. Foi um estudo seccional, com sorteio aleatório de 4.000 pacientes, de 1 de maio a 30 de outubro de 1996. Equipes de profissionais de saúde especialmente treinadas para este estudo avaliaram individualmente cada um dos doentes sorteados. É descrito o estudo piloto usado para validar o emprego da técnica de ANS populaçäo a ser analisada.(au)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica , Dietoterapia , Hospitalização , Morbidade , Avaliação Nutricional , Transtornos Nutricionais
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 88(2): 253-61, abr.-jun. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-119486

RESUMO

A case-control study evaluating the association between mental retardation and toxoplasmosis was conducted among 845 school children in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Cases (450) were mentally retarded children attending a public school for special education. Controls (395) were children from the regular public school system. Clinical and anthropometric examinations and interviews were carried out to determine risk factors for toxoplasmosis and mental retardation. Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection was based upon an indirect immunofluorescent test (IFA); 55% of cases and 29% of controls were positive. The Relative Odds of mental retardation in children with positive serology was 3.0 (95% CI 2.2-4.0). Maternal exposure to cats and contact with soil were associated with an increased risk of mental retardation. Retinochoroiditis was fourfold more prevalent among cases than controls and was only diagnosed in T. gondii IFA positive participants. Congenital toxoplasmosis, in its subclinical form, appears to be an important component in the etiology of mental retardation, especially in high risk (lower socio-economic) groups. The population attributable risk was estimated as 6.0 - 9.0%, suggesting the amount of mental retardation associated with this infection


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Toxoplasmose
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