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1.
Environ Res ; 197: 111027, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gestational exposure to chemical mixtures, which is prevalent among pregnant women, may be associated with adverse childhood neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined relations between gestational chemical mixture exposure and children's cognitive abilities. METHODS: In a cohort of 253 pregnant women and their children from Cincinnati, OH (enrolled 2003-2006), we quantified biomarker concentrations of 43 metals, phthalates, phenols, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, and environmental tobacco smoke in blood or urine. Using k-means clustering and principal component (PC) analysis, we characterized chemical mixtures among pregnant women. We assessed children's cognitive abilities using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV at ages 5 and 8 years, respectively. We estimated covariate-adjusted differences in children's cognitive ability scores ]=cross clusters, and with increasing PC scores and individual biomarker concentrations. RESULTS: Geometric mean biomarker concentrations were generally highest, intermediate, and lowest among women in clusters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Children born to women in clusters 1 and 2 had 5.1 (95% CI: 9.4,-0.8) and 2.0 (95% CI: 5.5, 1,4) lower performance IQ scores compared to children in cluster 3, respectively. PC scores and individual chemical biomarker concentrations were not associated with cognitive abilities. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, combined prenatal exposure to phenols, certain phthalates, pesticides, and perfluoroalkyl substances was inversely associated with children's cognition, but some individual chemical biomarker concentrations were not. Additional studies should determine if the aggregate impact of these chemicals on cognition is different from their individual effects.

2.
Environ Int ; 152: 106485, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in high-incidence areas of China, Iran and Brazil, but PAH assessments have not been conducted in East Africa, another ESCC hot spot. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate demographic or lifestyle factors associated with the PAH biomarker concentrations in the study population, and whether PAH metabolite concentrations showed any associations with esophageal precancerous lesions. METHODS: We recruited a community-based sample of 289 asymptomatic adults from a rural area of Kenya and performed Lugol's chromoendoscopy to detect esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD); participants completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine specimen. We analyzed urine for seven hydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at the U.S. National Center for Environmental Health, and compared creatinine-corrected PAH metabolite concentrations with questionnaire data and the presence of ESD. RESULTS: PAH metabolite concentrations among never tobacco users in these rural Kenya residents were 2.4-28.1 times higher than those reported from never tobacco users in Iran, Brazil and the USA. Female sex, cooking indoors, having no post-primary education, and age <50, but not tobacco use, were positively and significantly associated with PAH metabolite concentrations. Almost all participants used wood as cooking fuel. Nine participants had advanced ESD. Adjusted logistic regression showed a significant association between 2-hydroxynaphthalene (OR = 4.19, 95%CI: 1.01-17.47) and advanced ESD. All other PAH metabolites had positive but non-significant associations with advanced ESD. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary PAH metabolite concentrations among never tobacco users are markedly higher in this group from Kenya than in other populations and are associated with indoor cooking with wood on open, unvented stoves. These metabolite concentrations were also associated with the presence of advanced esophageal dysplasia. Our findings underline the importance of assessing alternative cooking conditions to reduce PAH exposure in this population.

3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778842

RESUMO

Production of organophosphate esters (OPEs), which represent a major flame retardant class present in consumer goods, has risen over the past two decades. Experimental studies suggest that OPEs may be associated with thyroid hormone disruption, but few human studies have examined this association. We quantified OPE metabolites in the urine of 298 pregnant women in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study from Cincinnati, Ohio (enrolled 2003-2006) at three time points (16 and 26 weeks' gestation, delivery), and thyroid hormones in 16-week maternal and newborn cord sera. Urinary bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate concentrations were generally associated with decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine and increased thyroid stimulating hormone in maternal and newborn thyroid hormones in quartile dose-response analyses and multiple informant models. There was weaker evidence for thyroid hormone alterations in association with diphenyl-phosphate and di-n-butyl-phosphate. Bis-2-chloroethyl-phosphate was not associated with alterations in thyroid hormones in any analyses. We did not observe any evidence of effect modification by infant sex. These results suggest that gestational exposure to some OPEs may influence maternal and neonatal thyroid function, although replication in other cohorts is needed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740056

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may alter body composition by lowering anabolic hormones and increasing inflammation, but data are limited, particularly in adolescence when body composition is rapidly changing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of PFAS plasma concentrations in childhood with change in body composition through early adolescence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: 537 children in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort. METHODS: We used multivariable linear regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to examine associations of plasma concentrations of six PFAS, quantified by mass spectrometry, in mid-childhood (mean age 7.9 years; 2007-2010) with change in body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from mid-childhood to early adolescence (mean age 13.1 years). RESULTS: In single PFAS linear regression models, children with higher concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) had less accrual of lean mass (e.g., -0.33 [95% CI: -0.52, -0.13] kg/m 2 per doubling of PFOA). Children with higher PFOS and PFHxS had less accrual of total and truncal fat mass (e.g., -0.32 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.11] kg/m 2 total fat mass per doubling of PFOS), particularly subcutaneous fat mass (e.g., -17.26 [95% CI -32.25, -2.27] g/m 2 per doubling of PFOS). Children with higher PFDA and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) had greater accrual of visceral fat mass (e.g., 0.44 [95% CI: 0.13, 0.75] g/m 2 per doubling of PFDA). Results from BKMR mixture models were consistent with linear regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to some but not all PFAS may be associated with adverse changes in body composition.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern about children's chronic low-level pesticide exposure and its impact on health. Green building practices (e.g., reducing leakage of the thermal and pressure barrier that surrounds the structure, integrated pest management, improved ventilation) have the potential to reduce pesticide exposure. However, the potential impact of living in green housing on children's pesticide exposure is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To address this question, a longitudinal study of pyrethroid metabolites (3-phenoxybenzoic acid [3-PBA], 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid [4-F-3-PBA], trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid [trans-DCCA]) in first morning void urine, collected from 68 children from New Orleans, Louisiana residing in green and non-green housing was conducted. METHODS: Children were followed for 1 year with three repeated measures of pesticide exposure. Generalized estimating equations examined associations between housing type (green vs. non-green) and urinary pyrethroid metabolite concentrations adjusting for demographic and household factors over the year. RESULTS: Ninety-five percent of samples had detectable concentrations of 3-PBA (limit of detection [LOD]: 0.1 µg/L); 8% of 4-F-3-PBA (LOD: 0.1 µg/L), and 12% of trans-DCCA (LOD: 0.6 µg/L). In adjusted models, green housing was not associated with statistically significant differences in children's 3-PBA urinary concentrations compared to non-green housing.

6.
Epidemiology ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have examined one of these chemicals at a time in association with an outcome; studying mixtures better approximates human experience. We investigated the association of prenatal exposure to mixtures of persistent endocrine disruptors [per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides] with birth size among female offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), based in the United Kingdom in 1991-1992. METHODS: We quantified concentrations of 52 endocrine-disrupting chemicals in maternal serum collected during pregnancy at median 15 weeks' gestation. Birth weight, crown-to-heel length, and head circumference were measured at birth; ponderal index and small for gestational age were calculated from these. We used repeated holdout weighted quantile sum regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression to examine mixtures in 313 mothers. RESULTS: Using weighted quantile sum regression, all mixtures (each chemical class separately and all three together) were inversely associated with birth weight. A one-unit increase in WQS index (a one-decile increase in chemical concentrations) for all three classes combined was associated with 55 g (ß: -55 g, 95% CI: -89, -22 g) lower birth weight. Associations were weaker but still inverse using Bayesian kernel machine regression. Under both methods, PFAS were the most important contributors to the association with birth weight. We also observed inverse associations for crown-to-heel length. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to mixtures of persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals affects birth size.

7.
Environ Res ; 196: 110939, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have neurobehavioral toxicity in experimental studies. Evidence on associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and child's cognitive development is inconsistent partly due to differences in assessment time points and tools. We examined associations of prenatal maternal serum PFAS concentrations with child's cognitive development assessed at multiple time points in infancy and toddlerhood. METHODS: We included 140 mother-child pairs from MARBLES (Markers of Autism Risk in Babies - Learning Early Signs), a longitudinal cohort of children with a first degree relative who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder followed from birth. Study children's cognitive development was assessed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) which provides an overall Early Learning Composite (normative mean of 100 and SD of 15) and four subscales (i.e., fine motor, visual reception, receptive language, and expressive language abilities; normative mean of 50 and SD of 10). Nine PFAS were quantified in maternal serum collected during pregnancy. We examined associations of log 2-transformed prenatal maternal serum PFAS concentrations with the MSEL Composite and each of the subscale scores at each time point as well as longitudinal changes in the scores over the four time points. We also classified trajectories into low- and high-score groups and fit Poisson regression models to estimate associations expressed as relative risks (RR). RESULTS: Among six PFAS detected in more than 60% of the samples, prenatal maternal serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was inversely associated with child's Composite score at 24 months (ß = -5.22, 95% CI: -8.27, -2.17) and 36 months of age (ß = -5.18, 95% CI: -9.46, -0.91), while other five PFAS were not strongly associated with Composite score at any time points. When assessing longitudinal changes in the scores over the four time points, PFOA was associated with trajectories having a negative slope for Composite scores and all four subscales. When examining trajectories of the scores between low- and high-score groups, PFOA was associated with having lower and/or decreasing Composite scores (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PFOA appears to adversely affect child's cognitive development in toddlerhood in this study population. Because a large fraction of MARBLES children is at risk for atypical development, population-based studies are needed to confirm our findings.

8.
Environ Int ; 151: 106415, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is thought to account for most adult human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Children are particularly vulnerable to adverse health effects of PFAS and may have different eating habits than adults. However, studies of dietary patterns and PFAS in children are limited. METHODS: We studied 548 Boston-area children with food frequency questionnaire data (89 food items) in early childhood (median age 3.3 years) and plasma concentrations of 6 PFAS quantified in mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). We used univariate linear regression to examine associations between each food item and PFAS, accounting for multiple comparisons. We next used reduced rank regression (RRR) to estimate overall percent variation in PFAS explained by diet and identify dietary patterns most correlated with PFAS. All models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, maternal education, and household income. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetate (MeFOSAA) plasma concentrations were 17.8% (95% CI: 7.2, 29.5) and 17.0% (95% CI: 6.4, 28.7) higher per SD increment in intake of ice cream and soda, respectively. RRR identified 6 dietary patterns that together explained 18% variation in the plasma concentrations of the 6 PFAS, of which 50% was explained by a dietary pattern consisting of primarily packaged foods (including ice cream and soda) and fish. Children with higher intake of the packaged foods and fish dietary pattern had higher plasma concentrations of all PFAS, particularly MeFOSAA and PFOS. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis examined food intake in association with several PFAS in children and identified dietary determinants that may be sources of PFAS exposure or reflect correlated lifestyle or toxicokinetic factors. Further investigation may help inform measures to modify childhood PFAS exposure.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that could disrupt normal physiologic function, triggering detrimental impacts on bone. We evaluated associations between urinary phthalate biomarkers and BMD in postmenopausal women participating in the prospective Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: We included WHI participants enrolled in the BMD substudy and selected for a nested case-control study of phthalates and breast cancer (N=1255). We measured thirteen phthalate biomarkers and creatinine in 2-3 urine samples per participant collected over 3 years, when all participants were cancer-free. Total hip and femoral neck BMD were measured at baseline and year 3, concurrent with urine collection, via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We fit multivariable generalized estimating equation models and linear mixed effects models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations, respectively, with stratification on postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) use. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate and the sum of di-isobutyl phthalate metabolites were inversely associated with total hip BMD among HT non-users, but not among HT users. Longitudinal analyses showed greater declines in total hip BMD among HT non-users and with highest concentrations of mono-3-carboxyoctyl phthalate (-1.80%, 95% CI -2.81 - -0.78%) or mono-carboxynonyl phthalate (-1.84%, 95% CI -2.80 - -0.89%); similar associations were observed with femoral neck BMD. Among HT users, phthalate biomarkers were not associated with total hip or femoral neck BMD change. DISCUSSION: Certain phthalate biomarkers are associated with greater percent decreases in total hip and femoral neck BMD. These findings suggest that phthalate exposure may have clinically important effects on BMD, and potentially fracture risk.

10.
Environ Res ; 195: 110825, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of prenatal per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behaviors in children are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between maternal serum PFAS concentrations and child behavior in 241 mother-child dyads within the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. METHODS: We quantified perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in maternal serum collected during pregnancy or at delivery. We evaluated a total of 17 outcomes of child behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) at 5 and 8 years (n = 240) and ADHD diagnostic symptoms and criteria with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Young Child (DISC-YC) at 5 years (n = 190). We used linear mixed models and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to assess associations between PFAS and continuous or dichotomous "at risk" BASC-2 scores; negative binomial regression to calculate incident rate ratios for counts of ADHD symptoms; and Poisson regression with robust standard errors to calculate relative risks of meeting ADHD diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Each ln-unit increase in PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA was associated with higher BASC-2 scores and increased odds of "at-risk" scores for externalizing behaviors, including hyperactivity (PFOS: odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 5.9; PFHxS: OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5, 4.3; PFNA: OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 8.0). PFHxS was also associated with internalizing problems (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.4) and somatization (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2, 4.0). PFOS and PFNA were significantly associated with 50-80% more DISC-YC symptoms and diagnostic criteria related to hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD. Prenatal PFNA was associated with increased risk of any-type ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were consistently associated with measures related to hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD across two validated assessment instruments. PFHxS was associated with increased problems with both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. No associations were noted between PFOA and child neurobehavior.

11.
Chemosphere ; 274: 129427, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529959

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pesticides are the most used pesticides in the United States. Most organophosphorus pesticides are composed of a phosphate (or phosphorothioate or phosphorodithioate) moiety and a variable organic group. Organophosphorus pesticides are scrutinized by regulatory bodies and agencies because of their toxicity or suspected carcinogenicity. Upon exposure, organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites eliminate in urine; these urinary biomarkers are useful to evaluate human exposure. We developed a method using stable isotope dilution, ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for quantification in urine of 6 O,O-dialkylphosphates, metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides, and glyphosate, the most used herbicide in the United States. With simple and minimal sample preparation, the analytical method is selective and sensitive (limits of detection are 0.2-0.8 µg/L), accurate (>85%) and precise (relative standard deviation <20%), depending on the analyte. To assess the suitability of the method in real exposure scenarios, we analyzed samples collected anonymously from subjects with suspected exposure to pesticides (n = 40) or who had been on an organic diet (n = 50). We detected glyphosate in 80% of subjects reporting an organic diet and in 78% of those with suspected glyphosate exposure; concentrations ranged from <0.2 to 28.6 µg/L. Median concentrations were 0.39 µg/L for the organic diet group and 0.40 µg/L for individuals with suspected exposure. Interestingly, interquartile ranges were considerably higher among those reporting pesticide exposure (0.63 µg/L) than those consuming organic diets (0.42 µg/L). These data suggest that the method meets typical validation benchmark values and is sensitive to investigate background exposures in the general population.

12.
Environ Int ; 151: 106446, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors including elevated body weight and hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, PFAS may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no previous study has evaluated associations between PFAS exposure and arterial calcification. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study used data from 666 prediabetic adults enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program trial who had six PFAS quantified in plasma at baseline and two years after randomization, as well as measurements of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and ascending (AsAC) and descending (DAC) thoracic aortic calcification 13-14 years after baseline. We performed multinomial regression to test associations between PFAS and CAC categorized according to Agatston score [low (<10), moderate (11-400) and severe (>400)]. We used logistic regression to assess associations between PFAS and presence of AsAC and DAC. We adjusted models for baseline sex, age, BMI, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, education, treatment assignment (placebo or lifestyle intervention), and statin use. PFAS concentrations were similar to national means; 53.9% of participants had CAC > 11, 7.7% had AsAC, and 42.6% had DAC. Each doubling of the mean sum of plasma concentrations of linear and branched isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was associated with 1.49-fold greater odds (95% CI: 1.01, 2.21) of severe versus low CAC. This association was driven mainly by the linear (n-PFOS) isomer [1.54 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.25) greater odds of severe versus low CAC]. Each doubling of mean plasma N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid concentration was associated with greater odds of CAC in a dose-dependent manner [OR = 1.26 (95% CI:1.08, 1.47) for moderate CAC and OR = 1.37 (95% CI:1.07, 1.74) for severe CAC, compared to low CAC)]. Mean plasma PFOS and n-PFOS were also associated with greater odds of AsAC [OR = 1.67 (95% CI:1.10, 2.54) and OR = 1.70 (95% CI:1.13, 2.56), respectively], but not DAC. Other PFAS were not associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Prediabetic adults with higher plasma concentrations of select PFAS had higher risk of coronary and thoracic aorta calcification. PFAS exposure may be a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health among high-risk populations.

13.
Environ Int ; 151: 106440, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental preconception exposure to select phenols and phthalates was previously associated with increased risk of preterm birth in single chemical analyses. However, the joint effect of phenol and phthalate mixtures on preterm birth is unknown. METHODS: We included 384 female and 211 male (203 couples) participants seeking infertility treatment in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study who gave birth to 384 singleton infants between 2005 and 2018. Mean preconception urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), parabens, and eleven phthalate biomarkers, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, were examined. We used principal component analysis (PCA) with log-Poisson regression and Probit Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) with hierarchical variable selection to examine maternal and paternal phenol and phthalate mixtures in relation to preterm birth. Couple-based BKMR model was fit to assess couples' joint mixtures in relation to preterm birth. RESULTS: PCA identified the same four factors for maternal and paternal preconception mixtures. Each unit increase in PCA scores of maternal (adjusted Risk Ratio (aRR): 1.36, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.84) and paternal (aRR: 1.47, 95%CI: 0.90, 2.42) preconception DEHP-BPA factor was positively associated with preterm birth. Maternal and paternal BKMR models consistently presented the DEHP-BPA factor with the highest group Posterior Inclusion Probability (PIP). BKMR models further showed that maternal preconception BPA and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and paternal preconception mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were positively associated with preterm birth when the remaining mixture components were held at their median concentrations. Couple-based BKMR models showed a similar relative contribution of paternal (PIP: 61%) and maternal (PIP: 77%) preconception mixtures on preterm birth. We found a positive joint effect on preterm birth across increasing quantiles of couples' total mixture concentrations. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort of subfertile couples, maternal BPA and DEHP, and paternal DEHP exposure before conception were positively associated with preterm birth. Both parental windows jointly contributed to the outcome. These results suggest that preterm birth may be a couple-based pregnancy outcome.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116705, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592441

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is ubiquitous. EDC exposure, especially during critical periods of development like the prenatal window, may interfere with the body's endocrine system, which can affect growth and developmental outcomes such as puberty. Most studies have examined one EDC at a time in relation to disease; however, humans are exposed to many EDCs. By studying mixtures, the human experience can be more closely replicated. We investigated the association of prenatal exposure to persistent EDCs (poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) as mixtures with early menarche among female offspring in a nested case-control study within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the United Kingdom in 1991-1992. Concentrations of 52 EDCs were quantified in maternal serum samples collected during pregnancy. Daughter's age at menarche was ascertained through mailed questionnaires sent annually. We used repeated holdout weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to examine the association between prenatal exposure to multiple EDCs and early menarche (<11.5 (n = 218) vs. ≥11.5 years (n = 230)) for each chemical class separately (PFAS, PCBs, and OCPs) and for all three classes combined. Models adjusted for maternal age at menarche, maternal education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal age, prenatal smoking, and gestational week at sample collection. Mixture models showed null associations between prenatal exposure to EDC mixtures and early menarche. Using WQS regression, the odds ratio for early menarche for a one-decile increase in chemical concentrations for all three classes combined was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.05); using BKMR, the odds ratio when all exposures were at the 60th percentile compared to the median was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.05). Results suggest the overall effect of prenatal exposure to persistent EDC mixtures is not associated with early menarche.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Exposição Materna , Menarca , Gravidez , Reino Unido
15.
Environ Int ; 148: 106375, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482440

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitously detected in populations worldwide and may hinder kidney function. The objective of the study was to determine longitudinal associations of plasma PFAS concentrations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and evaluate whether a lifestyle intervention modify the associations. We studied 875 participants initially randomized to the lifestyle or placebo arms in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, 1996-2002) trial and Outcomes Study (DPPOS, 2002-2014). We ran generalized linear mixed models accounting a priori covariates to evaluate the associations between baseline PFAS concentrations and repeated measures of eGFR, separately, for six PFAS (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, EtFOSAA, MeFOSAA, PFNA); then used quantile-based g-computation to evaluate the effects of the six PFAS chemicals as a mixture. The cohort was 64.9% female; 73.4% 40-64 years-old; 29.4% with hypertension; 50.5% randomized to lifestyle intervention and 49.5% to placebo and had similar plasma PFAS concentrations as the general U.S. population in 1999-2000. Most participants had normal kidney function (eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2) over the approximately 14 years of follow-up. We found that plasma PFAS concentrations during DPP were inversely associated with eGFR during DPPOS follow-up. Each quartile increase in baseline plasma concentration of the 6 PFAS as a mixture was associated with 2.26 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR (95% CI: -4.12, -0.39) at DPPOS Year 5, approximately 9 years since DPP randomization and PFAS measurements. The lifestyle intervention did not modify associations, but inverse associations were stronger among participants with hypertension at baseline. Among prediabetic adults, we found inverse associations between baseline plasma PFAS concentrations and measures of eGFR throughout 14 years of follow-up. The lifestyle intervention of diet, exercise and behavioral changes did not modify the associations, but persons with hypertension may have heightened susceptibility.

16.
Environ Int ; 147: 106344, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may adversely influence cardiometabolic risk. However, few studies have examined if the timing of early life PFAS exposure modifies their relation to cardiometabolic risk. We examined the influence of gestational and childhood PFAS exposure on adolescents' cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: We quantified concentrations of four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate [PFOA], perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS], perfluorononanoate [PFNA], and perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS]) in sera collected during pregnancy, at birth, and at ages 3, 8, and 12 years from 221 mother-child pairs in the HOME Study (enrolled 2003-06, Cincinnati, Ohio). We measured cardiometabolic risk factors using physical examinations, fasting serum biomarkers, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at age 12 years. Cardiometabolic risk summary scores were calculated by summing age- and sex-standardized z-scores for individual cardiometabolic risk factors. We used multiple informant models to estimate covariate-adjusted associations of serum PFAS concentrations (log2-transformed) at each visit with cardiometabolic risk scores and their individual components, and tested for differences in associations across visits. RESULTS: The associations of serum PFOA concentrations with cardiometabolic risk scores differed across visits (P for heterogeneity = 0.03). Gestational and cord serum PFOA concentrations were positively associated with cardiometabolic risk scores (ßs and 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]: gestational 0.8 [0.0, 1.6]; cord 0.9 [-0.1, 1.9] per interquartile range increase). These positive associations were primarily driven by homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (ß = 0.3 [0.1, 0.5]) and adiponectin to leptin ratio (ß = -0.5 [-1.0, 0.0]). Other individual cardiometabolic risk factors associated with gestational PFOA included insulin and waist circumference. Gestational and cord PFHxS were also associated with higher cardiometabolic risk scores (ßs: gestational 0.9 [0.2, 1.6]; cord 0.9 [0.1, 1.7]). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of children with higher gestational PFOA exposure, fetal exposure to PFOA and PFHxS was associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk in adolescence.

17.
Environ Int ; 147: 106328, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has shown potential to adversely affect child brain development, but epidemiologic evidence remains inconsistent. We examined whether prenatal exposure to PFAS was associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants were 173 mother-child pairs from MARBLES (Markers of Autism Risk in Babies - Learning Early Signs), a high-risk ASD cohort. At 3 years old, children were clinically confirmed for ASD and classified into ASD (n = 57) and typical development (TD, n = 116). We quantified nine PFAS in maternal serum collected during pregnancy. We examined associations of ASD with individual PFAS as well as the combined effect of PFAS on ASD using scores of the first principal component (PC-1) accounting for the largest variance. RESULTS: Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) showed positive associations (per 2 nanogram per milliliter increase: relative risk (RR) = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.61 [PFOA]; RR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.69 [PFNA]), while perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) showed a negative association (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01) with ASD risk. When examining associations of ASD with untransformed PFAS concentrations, PFOA, PFNA, and PC-1 were associated with increased ASD risk (per nanogram per milliliter increase: RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.65; RR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.85; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.25, respectively), while the RR of PFHxS moved toward the null. CONCLUSIONS: From this high-risk ASD cohort, we observed increased risk of ASD in children exposed to PFOA and PFNA. Further studies should be conducted in the general population because this population may have a larger fraction of cases resulting from genetic sources.

18.
Environ Res ; 194: 110638, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), such as phthalates and phenols, during pregnancy may be associated with excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future health of the mother and the offspring. There is however a paucity of literature examining this association, and no study has accounted for the complex nature of EDCs exposure as a time-varying mixture of chemicals. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between trimester-specific EDCs mixture and GWG in pregnant women attending a fertility clinic, to identify windows of susceptibility to such exposures, and assess the individual contribution of each chemical over pregnancy. METHODS: We included 243 pregnant women from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study, who provided up to 3 urine samples (one per trimester), and with available data on GWG. Urinary concentrations of 7 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, and 2 parabens, corrected for specific gravity, were included in the analysis. The association between trimester-specific EDCs mixture and GWG was evaluated using multiple regression models - categorizing exposures into concentration quartiles- and with Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR), while adjusting for potential confounders. Hierarchical BKMR (hBKMR) was used to account for the time-varying nature of chemical concentrations over pregnancy, identifying the most important trimester and most important EDC within each trimester. RESULTS: During 1st trimester, higher GWG was observed at higher sum of metabolites of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) from both multiple regression (e.g. comparing the 4th quartile with the 1st: ß = 2.36 kg, 95% CI: 0.47, 5.19) and BKMR. During 2nd and 3rd trimesters, positive associations with mono-n-butyl phthalate and propylparaben, and negative with ΣDEHP and methylparaben were observed. When evaluating exposures as a time-varying mixture with hBKMR, 1st trimester was the most important exposure window when evaluating prenatal urinary EDCs in relation to GWG. Within the 1st trimester, urinary ΣDEHP, mono-isobutyl phthalate and propylparaben had the highest contribution in the positive association between the mixture and GWG. CONCLUSION: We observed positive associations between urinary EDCs during pregnancy, especially DEHP metabolites, and GWG. Our results suggest the 1st trimester of pregnancy as the time window of highest susceptibility to the effects of EDCs on GWG, with potential indication for the design of public health interventions, informing prevention strategies for reducing sources of exposure at specific time points.

19.
Environ Res ; 192: 110275, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In biomarker-based studies, collecting repeated biospecimens per participant can decrease measurement error, particularly for biomarkers displaying high within-subject variability. Guidelines to combine such repeated biospecimens do not exist. AIMS: To compare the efficiency of several designs relying on repeated biospecimens to estimate exposure over 7 days. METHODS: We quantified triclosan and bisphenol A (BPA) in all urine voids (N = 427) collected over seven days from eight individuals. We estimated the volume-weighted concentrations for all urine samples collected during a week and compared these gold standards with the concentrations obtained for equal-volume pools (standardized or not for urine dilution), unequal-volume pools (based on sample volume or creatinine concentration), and for the mean of the creatinine-standardized concentrations measured in each spot sample. RESULTS: For both chemicals, correlations with gold standards were similar for equal- and unequal-volume pooling designs. Only for BPA, correlation coefficients were markedly lower after standardization for specific gravity or creatinine of concentrations estimated in equal-volume pools. Averaging BPA creatinine-standardized concentrations measured in each spot sample led also to lower correlations with gold standards compared to those obtained for unstandardized pooling designs. CONCLUSION: For BPA and triclosan, considering individual urine sample volume or creatinine concentrations when pooling is unnecessary because equal-volume pool adequately estimates concentrations in gold standards. Standardization for specific gravity or creatinine of the concentrations assessed in equal-volume pool as well as averaging creatinine-standardized concentrations measured in each individual spot sample are not suitable for BPA. These results provide a practical framework on how to combine repeated biospecimens in epidemiological studies.

20.
Environ Int ; 147: 106317, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental phenols, such as parabens, bisphenol A, and triclosan, are ubiquitous in indoor environments because of their use in packaging, plastics, personal care products, and as anti-microbials. The primary pathways of exposure, as well as habits and behaviors that may lead to greater exposure, are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: Herein, we investigate the relationships between phenols found in residential environments by comparing levels in paired samples of house dust and hand wipes with children's urine. In addition, phenols were analyzed in a novel exposure tool, the silicone wristbands, to investigate which external matrix best correlates with individual exposure based on urinary phenol biomarkers. METHODS: Children aged 3-6 years in central North Carolina, United States, provided paired hand wipe (n = 202), wristband (n = 76), and spot urine samples (n = 180), while legal guardians completed questionnaires on habits and behaviors. House dust samples (n = 186) were collected from the main living area during home visits completed between 2014 and 2016. RESULTS: Environmental phenols were detected frequently in all matrices investigated. Ethyl, methyl, and propylparaben levels observed in hand wipes, dust, and on wristbands were significantly correlated to their associated urinary biomarkers. In addition, intra-paraben correlations were noted, with biomarkers of ethyl, methyl, and propylparabens generally positively and significantly correlated, which suggests co-application of parabens in products. Triclosan levels in dust were positive and significantly correlated with levels in hand wipes and wristbands and with urinary concentrations, suggesting non-personal care product sources may be important in children's overall triclosan exposure. Generally, chemicals on wristbands were more highly correlated with urinary biomarkers than with chemicals in hand wipes or house dust. In addition, more frequent lotion use was positively associated with urinary concentrations of paraben biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the home environment is an important source of exposure which has been under-investigated for some environmental phenols (e.g., triclosan in house dust). Associations between wristbands and biomarkers of exposure, which were stronger than for hand wipes and house dust, suggest that silicone wristbands may provide a suitable exposure assessment tool for some phenols.

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