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1.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(8): 1393-1401, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224068

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We present the validation of PROST, a robotic device for prostate biopsy. PROST is designed to minimize human error by introducing some autonomy in the execution of the key steps of the procedure, i.e., target selection, image fusion and needle positioning. The robot allows executing a targeted biopsy through ultrasound (US) guidance and fusion with magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the target was defined. METHODS: PROST is a parallel robot with 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) to orient the needle and 1 DOF to rotate the US probe. We reached a calibration error of less than 2 mm, computed as the difference between the needle positioning in robot coordinates and in the US image. The autonomy of the robot is given by the image analysis software, which employs deep learning techniques, the integrated image fusion algorithms and automatic computation of the needle trajectory. For safety reasons, the insertion of the needle is assigned to the doctor. RESULTS: System performance was evaluated in terms of positioning accuracy. Tests were performed on a 3D printed object with nine 2-mm spherical targets and on an anatomical commercial phantom that simulates human prostate with three lesions and the surrounding structures. The average accuracy reached in the laboratory experiments was [Formula: see text] in the first test and [Formula: see text] in the second test. CONCLUSIONS: We introduced a first prototype of a prostate biopsy robot that has the potential to increase the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and, by including some level of autonomy, to simplify the procedure, to reduce human errors and shorten training time. The use of a robot for the biopsy of the prostate will create the possibility to include also a treatment, such as focal ablation, to be delivered through the same system.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Robótica/métodos , Software , Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Projetos Piloto , Ultrassonografia
2.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 28(9): 2053-2062, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746325

RESUMO

Selecting actuators for assistive exoskeletons involves decisions in which designers usually face contrasting requirements. While certain choices may depend on the application context or design philosophy, it is generally desirable to avoid oversizing actuators in order to obtain more lightweight and transparent systems, ultimately promoting the adoption of a given device. In many cases, the torque and power requirements can be relaxed by exploiting the contribution of an elastic element acting in mechanical parallel. This contribution considers one such case and introduces a methodology for the evaluation of different actuator choices resulting from the combination of different motors, reduction gears, and parallel stiffness profiles, helping to match actuator capabilities to the task requirements. Such methodology is based on a graphical tool showing how different design choices affect the actuator as a whole. To illustrate the approach, a back-support exoskeleton for lifting tasks is considered as a case study.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Torque
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