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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1078, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597508

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10-8, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115781

RESUMO

Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (FCCTX) comprises a heterogeneous group of families with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other related tumors, but with mismatch repair-proficient, microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors. Unfortunately, the genetic basis underlying their cancer predisposition remains unknown. Although pathogenic germline variants in BRIP1 increase the risk of developing hereditary ovarian cancer, the involvement of BRIP1 in hereditary CRC is still not well known. Our aim was to identify new BRIP1 variants associated with inherited CRC. Affected and non-affected individuals from 18 FCCTX or high-risk MSS CRC families were evaluated by whole-exome sequencing, and another 62 CRC patients from FCCTX or high-risk MSS CRC families were screened by an NGS multigene panel. The families were recruited at the Genetic Counseling Unit of Hospital Clínico San Carlos of Madrid. A total of three different BRIP1 mutations in three unrelated families were identified. Among them, there were two frameshift variants [c.1702_1703del, p.(Asn568TrpfsTer9) and c.903del, p.(Leu301PhefsTer2)] that result in the truncation of the protein and are thus classified as pathogenic (class 5). The remaining was a missense variant [c.2220G>T, p.(Gln740His)] considered a variant of uncertain significance (class 3). The segregation and loss of heterozygosity studies provide evidence linking the two BRIP1 frameshift variants to CRC risk, with suggestive but not definitive evidence that the third variant may be benign. The results here presented suggest that germline BRIP1 pathogenic variants could be associated with hereditary CRC predisposition.

4.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

6.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 442-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115800

RESUMO

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
8.
Gastroenterology ; 159(1): 227-240.e7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A significant proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have familial aggregation but little is known about the genetic factors that contribute to these cases. We performed an exhaustive functional characterization of genetic variants associated with familial CRC. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing analyses of 75 patients from 40 families with a history of CRC (including early-onset cases) of an unknown germline basis (discovery cohort). We also sequenced specific genes in DNA from an external replication cohort of 473 families, including 488 patients with colorectal tumors that had normal expression of mismatch repair proteins (validation cohort). We disrupted the Fas-associated factor 1 gene (FAF1) in DLD-1 CRC cells using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing; some cells were transfected with plasmids that express FAF1 missense variants. Cells were analyzed by immunoblots, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and functional assays monitoring apoptosis, proliferation, and assays for Wnt signaling or nuclear factor (NF)-kappa-B activity. RESULTS: We identified predicted pathogenic variant in the FAF1 gene (c.1111G>A; p.Asp371Asn) in the discovery cohort; it was present in 4 patients of the same family. We identified a second variant in FAF1 in the validation cohort (c.254G>C; p.Arg85Pro). Both variants encoded unstable FAF1 proteins. Expression of these variants in CRC cells caused them to become resistant to apoptosis, accumulate beta-catenin in the cytoplasm, and translocate NF-kappa-B to the nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: In whole-exome sequencing analyses of patients from families with a history of CRC, we identified variants in FAF1 that associate with development of CRC. These variants encode unstable forms of FAF1 that increase resistance of CRC cells to apoptosis and increase activity of beta-catenin and NF-kappa-B.

10.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1568-1577, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525256

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disorder for which the majority of the underlying germline predisposition factors remain still unidentified. Here, we combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) and linkage analysis in families with multiple relatives affected by CRC to identify candidate genes harboring rare variants with potential high-penetrance effects. Forty-seven affected subjects from 18 extended CRC families underwent WES. Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed under linear and exponential models. Suggestive linkage peaks were identified on chromosomes 1q22-q24.2 (maxSNP = rs2134095; LODlinear = 2.38, LODexp = 2.196), 7q31.2-q34 (maxSNP = rs6953296; LODlinear = 2.197, LODexp = 2.149) and 10q21.2-q23.1 (maxSNP = rs1904589; LODlinear = 1.445, LODexp = 2.195). These linkage signals were replicated in 10 independent sets of random markers from each of these regions. To assess the contribution of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic, we performed a family-based segregation test with 89 rare variants predicted to be deleterious from 78 genes under the linkage intervals. This analysis showed significant segregation of rare variants with CRC in 18 genes (weighted p-value > 0.0028). Protein network analysis and functional evaluation were used to suggest a plausible candidate gene for germline CRC predisposition. Etiologic rare variants implicated in cancer germline predisposition may be identified by combining traditional linkage with WES data. This approach can be used with already available NGS data from families with several sequenced members to further identify candidate genes involved germline predisposition to disease. This approach resulted in one candidate gene associated with increased risk of CRC but needs evidence from further studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exoma , Ligação Genética , Cromossomos Humanos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
12.
Cancer Res ; 80(3): 624-638, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723001

RESUMO

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in BRCA1/2 were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 BRCA1 and 171 BRCA2 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 BRCA1 and 2,880 BRCA2 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of BRCA2 (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; P = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; P = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; P = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; P = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in BRCA1. These results demonstrate that specific BRCA2 PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9814, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285513

RESUMO

Attenuated adenomatous polyposis (AAP) is a heterogeneous syndrome in terms of clinical manifestations, heritability and etiology of the disease. Genetic heterogeneity and low penetrance alleles are probably the best explanation for this variability. Certainly, it is known that APC and MUTYH are high penetrance predisposition genes for adenomatous polyposis, but they only account for 5-10% of AAP. Other new predisposition genes, such as POLE, POLD1, NTHL1, AXIN2 or MSH3, have been recently described and have been associated with AAP, but their relative contribution is still not well defined. In order to evaluate the genetic predisposition to AAP in a hospital based population, germline DNAs from 158 AAP subjects were screened for genetic variants in the coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of seven associated genes through a next-generation sequencing (NGS) custom gene panel. Splicing, segregation studies, somatic mutational screening and RNA quantitative expression assays were conducted for selected variants. In four of the probands the adenoma susceptibility could be explained by actionable mutations in APC or MUTYH, and one other patient was a double carrier of two truncating variants in both POLE and NTHL1. Furthermore, 16 additional patients harbored uncertain significance variants in the remaining tested genes. This report gives information about the contribution of the newly described adenomatous polyposis predisposition genes in a Spanish attenuated polyposis cohort. Our results highly support the convenience of NGS multigene panels for attenuated polyposis genetic screening and reveals POLE frameshift variants as a plausible susceptibility mechanism for AAP.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Penetrância , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Espanha
15.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
16.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Processamento Alternativo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
18.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 566-577, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817846

RESUMO

There is still around 50% of the familial breast cancer (BC) cases with an undefined genetic cause, here we have used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to identify new BC susceptibility genes. This approach has led to the identification of RECQL5, a member of RECQL-helicases family, as a new BC susceptibility candidate, which deserves further study. We have used a combination of whole exome sequencing in a family negative for mutations in BRCA1/2 throughout (BRCAX), in which we found a probably deleterious variant in RECQL5, and targeted NGS of the complete coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of the candidate gene in 699 BC Spanish BRCAX families and 665 controls. Functional characterization and in silico inference of pathogenicity were performed to evaluate the deleterious effect of detected variants. We found at least seven deleterious or likely deleterious variants among the cases and only one in controls. These results prompt us to propose RECQL5 as a gene that would be worth to analyze in larger studies to explore its possible implication in BC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , RecQ Helicases/genética , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Família Multigênica , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 453-460, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PALB2 monoallelic loss-of-function germ-line variants confer a breast cancer risk comparable to the average BRCA2 pathogenic variant. Recommendations for risk reduction strategies in carriers are similar. Elaborating robust criteria to identify loss-of-function variants in PALB2-without incurring overprediction-is thus of paramount clinical relevance. Towards this aim, we have performed a comprehensive characterisation of alternative splicing in PALB2, analysing its relevance for the classification of truncating and splice site variants according to the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. METHODS: Alternative splicing was characterised in RNAs extracted from blood, breast and fimbriae/ovary-related human specimens (n=112). RNAseq, RT-PCR/CE and CloneSeq experiments were performed by five contributing laboratories. Centralised revision/curation was performed to assure high-quality annotations. Additional splicing analyses were performed in PALB2 c.212-1G>A, c.1684+1G>A, c.2748+2T>G, c.3113+5G>A, c.3350+1G>A, c.3350+4A>C and c.3350+5G>A carriers. The impact of the findings on PVS1 status was evaluated for truncating and splice site variant. RESULTS: We identified 88 naturally occurring alternative splicing events (81 newly described), including 4 in-frame events predicted relevant to evaluate PVS1 status of splice site variants. We did not identify tissue-specific alternate gene transcripts in breast or ovarian-related samples, supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based splicing studies. CONCLUSIONS: PVS1 is not necessarily warranted for splice site variants targeting four PALB2 acceptor sites (exons 2, 5, 7 and 10). As a result, rare variants at these splice sites cannot be assumed pathogenic/likely pathogenic without further evidences. Our study puts a warning in up to five PALB2 genetic variants that are currently reported as pathogenic/likely pathogenic in ClinVar.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Sítios de Splice de RNA
20.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 10-26, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862463

RESUMO

The present article summarizes recent developments in the characterization of genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). The main themes covered include new hereditary CRC and polyposis syndromes, non-CRC hereditary cancer genes found mutated in CRC patients, strategies used to identify novel causal genes, and review of candidate genes that have been proposed to predispose to CRC and/or colonic polyposis. We provide an overview of newly described genes and syndromes associated with predisposition to CRC and polyposis, including: polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis, NTHL1-associated polyposis, mismatch repair gene biallelic inactivation-related adenomatous polyposis (including MSH3- and MLH3-associated polyposes), GREM1-associated mixed polyposis, RNF43-associated serrated polyposis, and RPS20 mutations as a rare cause of hereditary nonpolyposis CRC. The implementation of next generation sequencing approaches for genetic testing has exposed the presence of pathogenic germline variants in genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes not traditionally linked to CRC, which may have an impact on genetic testing, counseling and surveillance. The identification of new hereditary CRC and polyposis genes has not deemed an easy endeavor, even though known CRC-related genes explain a small proportion of the estimated familial risk. Whole-genome sequencing may offer a technology for increasing this proportion, particularly if applied on pedigree data allowing linkage type of analysis. The final section critically surveys the large number of candidate genes that have been recently proposed for CRC predisposition.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos
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