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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its premalignant lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), are characterized by a strong and yet unexplained male predominance (with a male-to-female ratio in EA incidence of up to 6:1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for these conditions. However, potential sex differences in genetic associations with BE/EA remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Given strong genetic overlap, BE and EA cases were combined into a single case group for analysis. These were compared with population-based controls. We performed sex-specific GWAS of BE/EA in 3 separate studies and then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to provide summary estimates for >9 million variants for male and female individuals. A series of downstream analyses were conducted separately in male and female individuals to identify genes associated with BE/EA and the genetic correlations between BE/EA and other traits. RESULTS: We included 6758 male BE/EA cases, 7489 male controls, 1670 female BE/EA cases, and 6174 female controls. After Bonferroni correction, our meta-analysis of sex-specific GWAS identified 1 variant at chromosome 6q11.1 (rs112894788, KHDRBS2-MTRNR2L9, PBONF = .039) that was statistically significantly associated with BE/EA risk in male individuals only, and 1 variant at chromosome 8p23.1 (rs13259457, PRSS55-RP1L1, PBONF = 0.057) associated, at borderline significance, with BE/EA risk in female individuals only. We also observed strong genetic correlations of BE/EA with gastroesophageal reflux disease in male individuals and obesity in female individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The identified novel sex-specific variants associated with BE/EA could improve the understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease and the reasons for the male predominance.

2.
Cancer Cell ; 38(4): 516-533.e9, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976773

RESUMO

PIK3CA, encoding the PI3Kα isoform, is the most frequently mutated oncogene in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors are used clinically but intrinsic and acquired resistance limits their utility. Improved selection of patients that will benefit from these drugs requires predictive biomarkers. We show here that persistent FOXM1 expression following drug treatment is a biomarker of resistance to PI3Kα inhibition in ER+ breast cancer. FOXM1 drives expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) but not hexokinase 2 (HK-II). The downstream metabolic changes can therefore be detected using MRI of LDH-catalyzed hyperpolarized 13C label exchange between pyruvate and lactate but not by positron emission tomography measurements of HK-II-mediated trapping of the glucose analog 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Rapid assessment of treatment response in breast cancer using this imaging method could help identify patients that benefit from PI3Kα inhibition and design drug combinations to counteract the emergence of resistance.

3.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(40): 1-190, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The addition of adjuvant trastuzumab to chemotherapy has significantly improved outcomes for people with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, early, potentially curable breast cancer. Twelve months' trastuzumab, tested in registration trials, was adopted as standard adjuvant treatment in 2006. Subsequently, similar outcomes were demonstrated using 9 weeks of trastuzumab. Shorter durations were therefore tested for non-inferiority. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether or not 6 months' adjuvant trastuzumab is non-inferior to 12 months' in the treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer using a primary end point of 4-year disease-free survival. DESIGN: This was a Phase III randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. SETTING: The setting was 152 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4088 patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer who it was planned would receive both chemotherapy and trastuzumab took part. INTERVENTION: Randomisation (1 : 1) to 6 months' or 12 months' trastuzumab treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary end point was disease-free survival. The secondary end points were overall survival, cost-effectiveness and cardiac function during treatment with trastuzumab. Assuming a 4-year disease-free survival rate of 80% with 12 months' trastuzumab, 4000 patients were required to demonstrate non-inferiority of 6 months' trastuzumab (5% one-sided significance, 85% power), defining the non-inferiority limit as no worse than 3% below the standard arm. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years were estimated using a within-trial analysis and a lifetime decision-analytic model. RESULTS: Between 4 October 2007 and 31 July 2015, 2045 patients were randomised to 12 months' trastuzumab and 2043 were randomised to 6 months' trastuzumab. Sixty-nine per cent of patients had ER-positive disease; 90% received anthracyclines (49% with taxanes; 41% without taxanes); 10% received taxanes without anthracyclines; 54% received trastuzumab sequentially after chemotherapy; and 85% received adjuvant chemotherapy (58% were node negative). At 6.1 years' median follow-up, with 389 (10%) deaths and 566 (14%) disease-free survival events, the 4-year disease-free survival rates for the 4088 patients were 89.5% (95% confidence interval 88.1% to 90.8%) in the 6-month group and 90.3% (95% confidence interval 88.9% to 91.5%) in the 12-month group (hazard ratio 1.10, 90% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.26; non-inferiority p = 0.01), demonstrating non-inferiority of 6 months' trastuzumab. Congruent results were found for overall survival (non-inferiority p = 0.0003) and landmark analyses 6 months from starting trastuzumab [non-inferiority p = 0.03 (disease-free-survival) and p = 0.006 (overall survival)]. Six months' trastuzumab resulted in fewer patients reporting adverse events of severe grade [365/1929 (19%) vs. 460/1935 (24%) for 12-month patients; p = 0.0003] or stopping early because of cardiotoxicity [61/1977 (3%) vs. 146/1941 (8%) for 12-month patients; p < 0.0001]. Health economic analysis showed that 6 months' trastuzumab resulted in significantly lower lifetime costs than and similar lifetime quality-adjusted life-years to 12 months' trastuzumab, and thus there is a high probability that 6 months' trastuzumab is cost-effective compared with 12 months' trastuzumab. Patient-reported experiences in the trial highlighted fatigue and aches and pains most frequently. LIMITATIONS: The type of chemotherapy and timing of trastuzumab changed during the recruitment phase of the study as standard practice altered. CONCLUSIONS: PERSEPHONE demonstrated that, in the treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer, 6 months' adjuvant trastuzumab is non-inferior to 12 months'. Six months' treatment resulted in significantly less cardiac toxicity and fewer severe adverse events. FUTURE WORK: Ongoing translational work investigates patient and tumour genetic determinants of toxicity, and trastuzumab efficacy. An individual patient data meta-analysis with PHARE and other trastuzumab duration trials is planned. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52968807, EudraCT 2006-007018-39 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00712140. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 40. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

4.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 878-883, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747825

RESUMO

Response and resistance to anticancer therapies vary due to intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity1. Here, we map differentially enriched G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structure-forming regions (∆G4Rs) in 22 breast cancer patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models. ∆G4Rs are associated with the promoters of highly amplified genes showing high expression, and with somatic single-nucleotide variants. Differences in ΔG4R landscapes reveal seven transcription factor programs across PDTXs. ∆G4R abundance and locations stratify PDTXs into at least three G4-based subtypes. ∆G4Rs in most PDTXs (14 of 22) were found to associate with more than one breast cancer subtype, which we also call an integrative cluster (IC)2. This suggests the frequent coexistence of multiple breast cancer states within a PDTX model, the majority of which display aggressive triple-negative IC10 gene activity. Short-term cultures of PDTX models with increased ∆G4R levels are more sensitive to small molecules targeting G4 DNA. Thus, G4 landscapes reveal additional IC-related intratumor heterogeneity in PDTX biopsies, improving breast cancer stratification and potentially identifying new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA/genética , Feminino , Quadruplex G , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Mol Oncol ; 14(8): 1589-1615, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749074

RESUMO

A comprehensive translational cancer research approach focused on personalized and precision medicine, and covering the entire cancer research-care-prevention continuum has the potential to achieve in 2030 a 10-year cancer-specific survival for 75% of patients diagnosed in European Union (EU) member states with a well-developed healthcare system. Concerted actions across this continuum that spans from basic and preclinical research through clinical and prevention research to outcomes research, along with the establishment of interconnected high-quality infrastructures for translational research, clinical and prevention trials and outcomes research, will ensure that science-driven and social innovations benefit patients and individuals at risk across the EU. European infrastructures involving comprehensive cancer centres (CCCs) and CCC-like entities will provide researchers with access to the required critical mass of patients, biological materials and technological resources and can bridge research with healthcare systems. Here, we prioritize research areas to ensure a balanced research portfolio and provide recommendations for achieving key targets. Meeting these targets will require harmonization of EU and national priorities and policies, improved research coordination at the national, regional and EU level and increasingly efficient and flexible funding mechanisms. Long-term support by the EU and commitment of Member States to specialized schemes are also needed for the establishment and sustainability of trans-border infrastructures and networks. In addition to effectively engaging policymakers, all relevant stakeholders within the entire continuum should consensually inform policy through evidence-based advice.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) dynamics during treatment in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients receiving first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: Serial CTC data from 469 patients (2,202 samples) were used to build a novel latent mixture model to identify groups with similar CTC trajectory (tCTC) patterns during the course of treatment. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in groups based on baseline CTCs (bCTC), combined CTC status at baseline to the end of cycle 1 (cCTC), and tCTC. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was used to select the model that best predicted PFS and OS. RESULTS: Latent mixture modeling revealed 4 distinct tCTC patterns: undetectable CTCs (tCTCneg, 56.9% ), low (tCTClo, 23.7%), intermediate (tCTCmid, 14.5%), or high (tCTChi, 4.9%). Patients with tCTClo, tCTCmid and tCTChi patterns had statistically significant inferior PFS and OS compared to those with tCTCneg (P<.001). AIC indicated that the tCTC model best predicted PFS and OS when compared to bCTC and cCTC models. Validation studies in an independent cohort of 1,856 MBC patients confirmed these findings. Further validation using only a single pretreatment CTC measurement confirmed prognostic performance of the tCTC model. CONCLUSIONS: We identified four novel prognostic groups in MBC based on similarities in CTC trajectory patterns during chemotherapy. Prognostic groups included patients with very poor outcome (tCTCmid+tCTChi, 19.4%) who could benefit from more effective treatment. Our novel prognostic classification approach may be utilized for fine-tuning of CTC-based risk-stratification strategies to guide future prospective clinical trials in MBC.

7.
Radiol Imaging Cancer ; 2(4): e200017, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803167

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare hyperpolarized carbon 13 (13C) MRI with dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) MRI in the detection of early treatment response in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, a woman with triple-negative breast cancer (age, 49 years) underwent 13C MRI after injection of hyperpolarized [1-carbon 13 {13C}]-pyruvate and DCE MRI at 3 T at baseline and after one cycle of neoadjuvant therapy. The 13C-labeled lactate-to-pyruvate ratio derived from hyperpolarized 13C MRI and the pharmacokinetic parameters transfer constant (K trans) and washout parameter (k ep) derived from DCE MRI were compared before and after treatment. Results: Exchange of the 13C label between injected hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate and the endogenous lactate pool was observed, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. After one cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a 34% reduction in the 13C-labeled lactate-to-pyruvate ratio resulted in correct identification of the patient as a responder to therapy, which was subsequently confirmed via a complete pathologic response. However, DCE MRI showed an increase in mean K trans (132%) and mean k ep (31%), which could be incorrectly interpreted as a poor response to treatment. Conclusion: Hyperpolarized 13C MRI enabled successful identification of breast cancer response after one cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and may improve response prediction when used in conjunction with multiparametric proton MRI.Published under a CC BY 4.0 license.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e209486, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633764

RESUMO

Importance: There is no proven test that can guide the optimal treatment, either endocrine therapy or chemotherapy, for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Objective: To investigate the associations of sperm-associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) transcript and SPAG5 protein expressions with treatment response in systemic therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Design, Settings, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy with or without neoadjuvant anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy (NACT) derived from 11 cohorts from December 1, 1986, to November 28, 2019. The associations of SPAG5 transcript and SPAG5 protein expression with pathological complete response to NACT were evaluated, as was the association of SPAG5 mRNA expression with response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. The associations of distal relapse-free survival with SPAG5 transcript or SPAG5 protein expressions were analyzed. Data were analyzed from September 9, 2015, to November 28, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were breast cancer-specific survival, distal relapse-free survival, pathological complete response, and clinical response. Outcomes were examined using Kaplan-Meier, multivariable logistic, and Cox regression models. Results: This study included 12 720 women aged 24 to 78 years (mean [SD] age, 58.46 [12.45] years) with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, including 1073 women with SPAG5 transcript expression and 361 women with SPAG5 protein expression of locally advanced disease stage IIA through IIIC. Women with SPAG5 transcript and SPAG5 protein expressions achieved higher pathological complete response compared with those without SPAG5 transcript or SPAG5 protein expressions (transcript: odds ratio, 2.45 [95% CI, 1.71-3.51]; P < .001; protein: odds ratio, 7.32 [95% CI, 3.33-16.22]; P < .001). Adding adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy to adjuvant endocrine therapy for SPAG5 mRNA expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer was associated with prolonged 5-year distal relapse-free survival in patients without lymph node involvement (hazard ratio, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.14-0.87]; P = .03) and patients with lymph node involvement (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.18-0.68]; P = .002) compared with receiving 5-year endocrine therapy alone. Mean (SD) SPAG5 transcript was found to be downregulated after 2 weeks of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy compared with pretreatment levels in 68 of 92 patients (74%) (0.23 [0.18] vs 0.34 [0.24]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that SPAG5 transcript and SPAG5 protein expressions could be used to guide the optimal therapies for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Retrospective and prospective clinical trials are warranted.

12.
Oncogene ; 39(32): 5455-5467, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587399

RESUMO

As the catalog of oncogenic driver mutations is expanding, it becomes clear that alterations in a given gene might have different functions and should not be lumped into one class. The transcription factor GATA3 is a paradigm of this. We investigated the functions of the most common GATA3 mutation (X308_Splice) and five additional mutations, which converge into a neoprotein that we called "neoGATA3," associated with excellent prognosis in patients. Analysis of available molecular data from >3000 breast cancer patients revealed a dysregulation of the ER-dependent transcriptional response in tumors carrying neoGATA3-generating mutations. Mechanistic studies in vitro showed that neoGATA3 interferes with the transcriptional programs controlled by estrogen and progesterone receptors, without fully abrogating them. ChIP-Seq analysis indicated that ER binding is reduced in neoGATA3-expressing cells, especially at distal regions, suggesting that neoGATA3 interferes with the fine tuning of ER-dependent gene expression. This has opposite outputs in distinct hormonal context, having pro- or anti-proliferative effects, depending on the estrogen/progesterone ratio. Our data call for functional analyses of putative cancer drivers to guide clinical application.

13.
Mol Oncol ; 14(8): 1640-1652, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484602

RESUMO

TP53 gene mutations are very common in human cancer. While such mutations abrogate the tumor suppressive activities of the wild-type (wt) p53 protein, some of them also endow the mutant (mut) protein with oncogenic gain of function (GOF), facilitating cancer progression. Yet, p53 may acquire altered functionality even without being mutated; in particular, experiments with cultured cells revealed that wtp53 can be rewired to adopt mut-like features in response to growth factors or cancer-mimicking genetic manipulations. To assess whether such rewiring also occurs in human tumors, we interrogated gene expression profiles and pathway deregulation patterns in the METABRIC breast cancer (BC) dataset as a function of TP53 gene mutation status. Harnessing the power of machine learning, we optimized a gene expression classifier for ER+Her2- patients that distinguishes tumors carrying TP53 mutations from those retaining wt TP53. Interestingly, a small subset of wt TP53 tumors displayed gene expression and pathway deregulation patterns markedly similar to those of TP53-mutated tumors. Moreover, similar to TP53-mutated tumors, these 'pseudomutant' cases displayed a signature for enhanced proliferation and had worse prognosis than typical wtp53 tumors. Notably, these tumors revealed upregulation of genes which, in BC cell lines, were reported to be positively regulated by p53 GOF mutants. Thus, such tumors may benefit from mut p53-associated activities without having to accrue TP53 mutations.

14.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(548)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554709

RESUMO

Circulating tumor-derived DNA (ctDNA) can be used to monitor cancer dynamics noninvasively. Detection of ctDNA can be challenging in patients with low-volume or residual disease, where plasma contains very few tumor-derived DNA fragments. We show that sensitivity for ctDNA detection in plasma can be improved by analyzing hundreds to thousands of mutations that are first identified by tumor genotyping. We describe the INtegration of VAriant Reads (INVAR) pipeline, which combines custom error-suppression methods and signal-enrichment approaches based on biological features of ctDNA. With this approach, the detection limit in each sample can be estimated independently based on the number of informative reads sequenced across multiple patient-specific loci. We applied INVAR to custom hybrid-capture sequencing data from 176 plasma samples from 105 patients with melanoma, lung, renal, glioma, and breast cancer across both early and advanced disease. By integrating signal across a median of >105 informative reads, ctDNA was routinely quantified to 1 mutant molecule per 100,000, and in some cases with high tumor mutation burden and/or plasma input material, to parts per million. This resulted in median area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.98 in advanced cancers and 0.80 in early-stage and challenging settings for ctDNA detection. We generalized this method to whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, showing that INVAR may be applied without requiring personalized sequencing panels so long as a tumor mutation list is available. As tumor sequencing becomes increasingly performed, such methods for personalized cancer monitoring may enhance the sensitivity of cancer liquid biopsies.

16.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 665-671, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-153534

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic challenges oncologists to profoundly re-organize oncological care in order to dramatically reduce hospital visits and admissions and therapy-induced immune-related complications without compromising cancer outcomes. Since COVID-19 is a novel disease, guidance by scientific evidence is often unavailable, and impactful decisions are inevitably made on the basis of expert opinions. Here we report how the seven comprehensive cancer centers of Cancer Core Europe have organized their healthcare systems at an unprecedented scale and pace to make their operations 'pandemic proof'. We identify and discuss many commonalities, but also important local differences, and pinpoint critical research priorities to enable evidence-based remodeling of cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, we discuss how the current situation offers a unique window of opportunity for assessing the effects of de-escalating anticancer regimens, which may fast-forward the development of more-refined and less-toxic treatments. By sharing our joint experiences, we offer a roadmap for proceeding and aim to mobilize the global research community to generate the data that are critically needed to offer the best possible care to patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
17.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 665-671, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405058

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic challenges oncologists to profoundly re-organize oncological care in order to dramatically reduce hospital visits and admissions and therapy-induced immune-related complications without compromising cancer outcomes. Since COVID-19 is a novel disease, guidance by scientific evidence is often unavailable, and impactful decisions are inevitably made on the basis of expert opinions. Here we report how the seven comprehensive cancer centers of Cancer Core Europe have organized their healthcare systems at an unprecedented scale and pace to make their operations 'pandemic proof'. We identify and discuss many commonalities, but also important local differences, and pinpoint critical research priorities to enable evidence-based remodeling of cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, we discuss how the current situation offers a unique window of opportunity for assessing the effects of de-escalating anticancer regimens, which may fast-forward the development of more-refined and less-toxic treatments. By sharing our joint experiences, we offer a roadmap for proceeding and aim to mobilize the global research community to generate the data that are critically needed to offer the best possible care to patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
18.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 153, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242091

RESUMO

Somatic copy number alterations are a frequent sign of genome instability in cancer. A precise characterization of the genome architecture would reveal underlying instability mechanisms and provide an instrument for outcome prediction and treatment guidance. Here we show that the local spatial behavior of copy number profiles conveys important information about this architecture. Six filters were defined to characterize regional traits in copy number profiles, and the resulting Copy Aberration Regional Mapping Analysis (CARMA) algorithm was applied to tumors in four breast cancer cohorts (n = 2919). The derived motifs represent a layer of information that complements established molecular classifications of breast cancer. A score reflecting presence or absence of motifs provided a highly significant independent prognostic predictor. Results were consistent between cohorts. The nonsite-specific occurrence of the detected patterns suggests that CARMA captures underlying replication and repair defects and could have a future potential in treatment stratification.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3720-3731, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: AZD5363/capivasertib is a pan-AKT catalytic inhibitor with promising activity in combination with paclitaxel in triple-negative metastatic breast cancer harboring PI3K/AKT-pathway alterations and in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in combination with fulvestrant. Here, we aimed to identify response biomarkers and uncover mechanisms of resistance to AZD5363 and its combination with paclitaxel. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Genetic and proteomic markers were analyzed in 28 HER2-negative patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and in patient samples, and correlated to AZD5363 sensitivity as single agent and in combination with paclitaxel. RESULTS: Four PDX were derived from patients receiving AZD5363 in the clinic which exhibited concordant treatment response. Mutations in PIK3CA/AKT1 and absence of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-activating alterations, for example, in MTOR or TSC1, were associated with sensitivity to AZD5363 monotherapy. Interestingly, excluding PTEN from the composite biomarker increased its accuracy from 64% to 89%. Moreover, resistant PDXs exhibited low baseline pAKT S473 and residual pS6 S235 upon treatment, suggesting that parallel pathways bypass AKT/S6K1 signaling in these models. We identified two mechanisms of acquired resistance to AZD5363: cyclin D1 overexpression and loss of AKT1 p.E17K. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into putative predictive biomarkers of response and acquired resistance to AZD5363 in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

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