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1.
Parasitol Res ; 117(5): 1357-1370, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516213

RESUMO

Colombia is a megadiverse country with about 600 species of reptiles; however, there are few studies on species of hemoparasites found in this taxonomic group. Here, we document the presence of Plasmodium spp. in four species of reptiles from the northern part of the Orinoco-Amazon region in Colombia. Individuals analyzed in this study were captured in localities between 200 and 500 m altitude, in the department of Guaviare. Each sample was screened for haemosporidian parasites by using morphology and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol that targets the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Four morphotypes of the genus Plasmodium were found; two of these species are re-described using morphological and molecular data (cytb). For the other two morphotypes, it was not possible to assign a described species. Among those, Plasmodium screened one species was only detected by microscopy. Considering the potential species diversity, it is possible that commonly used primers may not detect all species, reinforcing the importance of using microscopy in haematozoa surveys. There was no correspondence between the morphological traits associated with the subgenera and the phylogenetic relationships that we found in our analyses. Additionally, we found an expansion in the geographical distribution of these two species, and a new host for P. kentropyxi, demonstrating that studies of tropical herpetofauna and their parasites deserve more attention.


Assuntos
Citocromos b/genética , Lagartos/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Serpentes/parasitologia , Animais , Colômbia , Primers do DNA/genética , Lagartos/classificação , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Serpentes/classificação
2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 93: 188-211, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26234274

RESUMO

Understanding the phylogenetic and geographical history of Neotropical lineages requires having adequate geographic and taxonomic sampling across the region. However, Colombia has remained a geographical gap in many studies of Neotropical diversity. Here we present a study of Neotropical skinks of the genus Mabuya, reptiles that are difficult to identify or delimit due to their conservative morphology. The goal of the present study is to propose phylogenetic and biogeographic hypotheses of Mabuya including samples from the previously under-studied territory of Colombia, and address relevant biogeographic and taxonomic issues. We combined molecular and morphological data sampled densely by us within Colombia with published data representing broad sampling across the Neotropical realm, including DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and cytochrome b) and three nuclear genes (Rag2, NGFB and R35). To evaluate species boundaries we employed a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model applied to the mitochondrial data set. Our results suggest that the diversity of Mabuya within Colombia is higher than previously recognized, and includes lineages from Central America and from eastern and southern South America. The genus appears to have originated in eastern South America in the Early Miocene, with subsequent expansions into Central America and the Caribbean in the Late Miocene, including at least six oceanic dispersal events to Caribbean Islands. We identified at least four new candidate species for Colombia and two species that were not previously reported in Colombia. The populations of northeastern Colombia can be assigned to M. zuliae, while specimens from Orinoquia and the eastern foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia correspond to M. altamazonica. The validity of seven species of Mabuya sensu lato was not supported due to a combination of three factors: (1) non-monophyly, (2) <75% likelihood bootstrap support and <0.95 Bayesian posterior probability, and (3) GMYC analysis collapsing named species. Finally, we suggest that Mabuya sensu stricto may be regarded as a diverse monophyletic genus, widely distributed throughout the Neotropics.


Assuntos
Lagartos/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Colômbia , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Proteínas de Répteis/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Mol Ecol ; 24(7): 1523-42, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25712551

RESUMO

Interspecific gene flow is pervasive throughout the tree of life. Although detecting gene flow between populations has been facilitated by new analytical approaches, determining the timing and geography of hybridization has remained difficult, particularly for historical gene flow. A geographically explicit phylogenetic approach is needed to determine the overlap of ancestral populations. In this study, we performed population genetic analyses, species delimitation, simulations and a recently developed approach of species tree diffusion to infer the phylogeographic history, timing and geographic extent of gene flow in lizards of the Sceloporus spinosus group. The two species in this group, S. spinosus and S. horridus, are distributed in eastern and western portions of Mexico, respectively, but populations of these species are sympatric in the southern Mexican highlands. We generated data consisting of three mitochondrial genes and eight nuclear loci for 148 and 68 individuals, respectively. We delimited six lineages in this group, but found strong evidence of mito-nuclear discordance in sympatric populations of S. spinosus and S. horridus owing to mitochondrial introgression. We used coalescent simulations to differentiate ancestral gene flow from secondary contact, but found mixed support for these two models. Bayesian phylogeography indicated more than 60% range overlap between ancestral S. spinosus and S. horridus populations since the time of their divergence. Isolation-migration analyses, however, revealed near-zero levels of gene flow between these ancestral populations. Interpreting results from both simulations and empirical data indicate that despite a long history of sympatry among these two species, gene flow in this group has only recently occurred.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Simpatria , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , México , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Acta biol. colomb ; 19(2): 167-174, mayo-ago. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-715197

RESUMO

Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, including Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape) define structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test these predictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.


Anolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En Colombia, su amplia distribución en distintas zonas de vida sugiere que estos lagartos ocupan distintos ambientes, y por tanto, posiblemente exhiben variación geográfica en el uso de microhabitat. Por otra parte, algunas observaciones sugieren que estos lagartos prefieren zonas abiertas, seleccionando pastizales y por tanto, una hipótesis alternativa es que usan el mismo microhabitat en toda su distribución. En Anolis, las variables corporales relacionadas con el movimiento (tamaño y forma corporal) definen el uso del microhabitat, así que pueden esperarse dos patrones en esta especie: tamaño y forma corporal conservativos o altamente variables a lo largo de su distribución. Caracterizamos la variación geográfica en variables morfométricas de esta especie en Colombia. Hembras y machos mostraron tamaño corporal similar, pero fueron distintos en la forma del cuerpo. La forma corporal varía también en machos y hembras de distintas regiones, sugiriendo un uso heterogéneo del microhabitat estructural. Como alternativa, la divergencia filogenética entre poblaciones podría explicar las diferencias observadas. La ausencia de datos ecológicos y filogenéticos para la especie limita las hipótesis sobre causas de este patrón. Proveemos un marco general para explorar hipótesis que expliquen la evolución de tamaño y forma corporal en esta especie.

5.
Rev Biol Trop ; 61(1): 255-62, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23894978

RESUMO

Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Variação Genética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Somatotipos , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(1): 255-262, Mar. 2013. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-674077

RESUMO

Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.


La diversificación fenotípica al interior de una especie en características de dimensiones corporales relacionadas con la locomoción de los lagartos, se ha estudiado poco en especies de Anolis. Los datos de algunas especies de isla revelan patrones distintos de variación geográfica y sugieren que la adaptación local, debida a la heterogeneidad del hábitat, ocurre a este nivel. Los estudios de especies de continente son particularmente escasos y sugieren patrones distintos: un lagarto altoandino altamente variable y poblaciones poco diferenciadas en una especie amazónica. Caracterizamos la variación inter poblacional en el tamaño y forma del cuerpo del lagarto altoandino Anolis ventrimaculatus, especie endémica del Oeste de Colombia. Encontramos variación geográfica en el dimorfismo sexual en tamaño y forma. El patrón de variación en las proporciones corporales entre poblaciones fue distinto en machos y en hembras, sugiriendo que las presiones de selección sexual o natural son diferentes en cada localidad. Dado que la especie exhibe una distribución fragmentada en alta montaña, la divergencia genética entre poblaciones puede ser otro factor causal de la variación observada. Datos ecológicos, etológicos y morfológicos adicionales, así como información filogenética puede contribuir al entendimiento de los procesos evolutivos responsables del patrón de variación geográfica encontrado en esta especie.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Variação Genética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Somatotipos , Especificidade da Espécie
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