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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1908176, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495483

RESUMO

The biaxial van der Waals semiconductor α-phase molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3 ) has recently received significant attention due to its ability to support highly anisotropic phonon polaritons (PhPs)-infrared (IR) light coupled to lattice vibrations-offering an unprecedented platform for controlling the flow of energy at the nanoscale. However, to fully exploit the extraordinary IR response of this material, an accurate dielectric function is required. Here, the accurate IR dielectric function of α-MoO3 is reported by modeling far-field polarized IR reflectance spectra acquired on a single thick flake of this material. Unique to this work, the far-field model is refined by contrasting the experimental dispersion and damping of PhPs, revealed by polariton interferometry using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) on thin flakes of α-MoO3 , with analytical and transfer-matrix calculations, as well as full-wave simulations. Through these correlative efforts, exceptional quantitative agreement is attained to both far- and near-field properties for multiple flakes, thus providing strong verification of the accuracy of this model, while offering a novel approach to extracting dielectric functions of nanomaterials. In addition, by employing density functional theory (DFT), insights into the various vibrational states dictating the dielectric function model and the intriguing optical properties of α-MoO3 are provided.

2.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 7725-7734, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650843

RESUMO

Hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) are generated when infrared photons couple to polar optic phonons in anisotropic media, confining long-wavelength light to nanoscale volumes. However, to realize the full potential of HPhPs for infrared optics, it is crucial to understand propagation and loss mechanisms on substrates suitable for applications from waveguiding to infrared sensing. We employ scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) and nano-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, in concert with analytical and numerical calculations, to elucidate HPhP characteristics as a function of the complex substrate dielectric function. We consider propagation on suspended, dielectric and metallic substrates to demonstrate that the thickness-normalized wavevector can be reduced by a factor of 25 simply by changing the substrate from dielectric to metallic behavior. Moreover, by incorporating the imaginary contribution to the dielectric function in lossy materials, the wavevector can be dynamically controlled by small local variations in loss or carrier density. Counterintuitively, higher-order HPhP modes are shown to exhibit the same change in the polariton wavevector as the fundamental mode, despite the drastic differences in the evanescent ranges of these polaritons. However, because polariton refraction is dictated by the fractional change in the wavevector, this still results in significant differences in polariton refraction and reduced sensitivity to substrate-induced losses for the higher-order HPhPs. Such effects may therefore be used to spatially separate hyperbolic modes of different orders and for index-based sensing schemes. Our results advance our understanding of fundamental hyperbolic polariton excitations and their potential for on-chip photonics and planar metasurface optics.

3.
4.
ACS Nano ; 13(6): 6730-6741, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184132

RESUMO

Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs), the surface-bound electromagnetic modes of a polar material resulting from the coupling of light with optic phonons, offer immense technological opportunities for nanophotonics in the infrared (IR) spectral region. However, once a particular material is chosen, the SPhP characteristics are fixed by the spectral positions of the optic phonon frequencies. Here, we provide a demonstration of how the frequency of these optic phonons can be altered by employing atomic-scale superlattices (SLs) of polar semiconductors using AlN/GaN SLs as an example. Using second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy, we show that the optic phonon frequencies of the SLs exhibit a strong dependence on the layer thicknesses of the constituent materials. Furthermore, new vibrational modes emerge that are confined to the layers, while others are centered at the AlN/GaN interfaces. As the IR dielectric function is governed by the optic phonon behavior in polar materials, controlling the optic phonons provides a means to induce and potentially design a dielectric function distinct from the constituent materials and from the effective-medium approximation of the SL. We show that atomic-scale AlN/GaN SLs instead have multiple Reststrahlen bands featuring spectral regions that exhibit either normal or extreme hyperbolic dispersion with both positive and negative permittivities dispersing rapidly with frequency. Apart from the ability to engineer the SPhP properties, SL structures may also lead to multifunctional devices that combine the mechanical, electrical, thermal, or optoelectronic functionality of the constituent layers. We propose that this effort is another step toward realizing user-defined, actively tunable IR optics and sources.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1682, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975986

RESUMO

Phonon polaritons, hybrid light-matter quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of the electromagnetic field with the lattice vibrations of polar crystals are a promising platform for mid-infrared photonics but for the moment there has been no proposal allowing for their electrical pumping. Electrical currents in fact mainly generate longitudinal optical phonons, while only transverse ones participate in the creation of phonon polaritons. We demonstrate how to exploit long-cell polytypes of silicon carbide to achieve strong coupling between transverse phonon polaritons and zone-folded longitudinal optical phonons. We develop a microscopic theory predicting the existence of the resulting hybrid longitudinal-transverse excitations. We then provide an experimental observation by tuning the resonance of a nanopillar array through the folded longitudinal optical mode, obtaining a clear spectral anti-crossing. The hybridisation of phonon polaritons with longitudinal phonons could represent an important step toward the development of phonon polariton-based electrically pumped mid-infrared emitters.

6.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 948-957, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582700

RESUMO

Polaritonic materials that support epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) modes offer the opportunity to design light-matter interactions at the nanoscale through extreme subwavelength light confinement, producing phenomena like resonant perfect absorption. However, the utility of ENZ modes in nanophotonic applications has been limited by a flat spectral dispersion, which leads to small group velocities and extremely short propagation lengths. Here, we overcome this constraint by hybridizing ENZ and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes in doped cadmium oxide epitaxial bilayers. This results in strongly coupled hybrid modes that are characterized by an anticrossing in the polariton dispersion and a large spectral splitting on the order of 1/3 of the mode frequency. These hybrid modes simultaneously achieve modal propagation and ENZ mode-like interior field confinement, adding propagation character to ENZ mode properties. We subsequently tune the resonant frequencies, dispersion, and coupling of these polaritonic-hybrid-epsilon-near-zero (PH-ENZ) modes by tailoring the modal oscillator strength and the ENZ-SPP spectral overlap. PH-ENZ modes ultimately leverage the most desirable characteristics of both ENZ and SPP modes, allowing us to overcome the canonical plasmonic trade-off between confinement and propagation length.

7.
Opt Express ; 26(22): 29363-29374, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470101

RESUMO

Gap surface plasmons (GSPs) serve a diverse range of plasmonic applications, including energy harvesting, communications, molecular sensing, and optical detection. GSPs may be realized where tightly spaced plasmonic structures exhibit strong spatial overlap between the evanescent fields. We demonstrate that within similar, nested geometries that the near-fields of the GSPs within the individual nanostructures are hybridized. This creates two or more distinct resonances exhibiting near-field distributions extended over adjacent spatial regions. In contrast, dissimilar, nested structures exhibit two distinct resonances with nominally uncoupled near-fields, resulting in two or more individual antenna resonance modes. We deploy plasmonic band structure calculations to provide insight into the type and degree of hybridization within these systems, comparing the individual components. This understanding can be used in the optimized design of polaritonic metamaterial structures for desired applications.

8.
Nature ; 562(7728): 499-501, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356189
9.
Nano Lett ; 18(7): 4285-4292, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894195

RESUMO

We report the first observation of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) phonon polaritons in an ultrathin AlN film fully hybridized with surface phonon polaritons (SPhP) supported by the adjacent SiC substrate. Employing a strong coupling model for the analysis of the dispersion and electric field distribution in these hybridized modes, we show that they share the most prominent features of the two precursor modes. The novel ENZ-SPhP coupled polaritons with a highly propagative character and deeply subwavelength light confinement can be utilized as building blocks for future infrared and terahertz nanophotonic integration and communication devices.

10.
Opt Lett ; 43(9): 2177-2180, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714783

RESUMO

Phonon polaritons (PhPs) are long-lived electromagnetic modes that originate from the coupling of infrared (IR) photons with the bound ionic lattice of a polar crystal. Cubic-boron nitride (cBN) is such a polar, semiconductor material which, due to the light atomic masses, can support high-frequency optical phonons. Here we report on random arrays of cBN nanostructures fabricated via an unpatterned reactive ion etching process. Fourier-transform infrared reflection spectra suggest the presence of localized surface PhPs within the reststrahlen band, with quality factors in excess of 38 observed. These can provide the basis of next-generation IR optical components such as antennas for communication, improved chemical spectroscopies, and enhanced emitters, sources, and detectors.

11.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1628-1636, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451802

RESUMO

The inherent crystal anisotropy of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) provides the ability to support hyperbolic phonon polaritons, that is, polaritons that can propagate with very large wave vectors within the material volume, thereby enabling optical confinement to exceedingly small dimensions. Indeed, previous research has shown that nanometer-scale truncated nanocone hBN cavities, with deep subdiffractional dimensions, support three-dimensionally confined optical modes in the mid-infrared. Because of optical selection rules, only a few of the many theoretically predicted modes have been observed experimentally via far-field reflection and scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). The photothermal induced resonance (PTIR) technique probes optical and vibrational resonances overcoming weak far-field emission by leveraging an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe to transduce local sample expansion caused by light absorption. Here we show that PTIR enables the direct observation of previously unobserved, dark hyperbolic modes of hBN nanostructures. Leveraging these optical modes and their wide range of angular and radial momenta could provide a new degree of control over the electromagnetic near-field concentration, polarization in nanophotonic applications.

12.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1930-1936, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437401

RESUMO

We present a wafer-scale array of resonant coaxial nanoapertures as a practical platform for surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRA). Coaxial nanoapertures with sub-10 nm gaps are fabricated via photolithography, atomic layer deposition of a sacrificial Al2O3 layer to define the nanogaps, and planarization via glancing-angle ion milling. At the zeroth-order Fabry-Pérot resonance condition, our coaxial apertures act as a "zero-mode resonator (ZMR)", efficiently funneling as much as 34% of incident infrared (IR) light along 10 nm annular gaps. After removing Al2O3 in the gaps and inserting silk protein, we can couple the intense optical fields of the annular nanogap into the vibrational modes of protein molecules. From 7 nm gap ZMR devices coated with a 5 nm thick silk protein film, we observe high-contrast IR absorbance signals drastically suppressing 58% of the transmitted light and infer a strong IR absorption enhancement factor of 104∼105. These single nanometer gap ZMR devices can be mass-produced via batch processing and offer promising routes for broad applications of SEIRA.

13.
Nat Mater ; 17(2): 134-139, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251721

RESUMO

Conventional optical components are limited to size scales much larger than the wavelength of light, as changes to the amplitude, phase and polarization of the electromagnetic fields are accrued gradually along an optical path. However, advances in nanophotonics have produced ultrathin, so-called 'flat' optical components that beget abrupt changes in these properties over distances significantly shorter than the free-space wavelength. Although high optical losses still plague many approaches, phonon polariton (PhP) materials have demonstrated long lifetimes for sub-diffractional modes in comparison to plasmon-polariton-based nanophotonics. We experimentally observe a threefold improvement in polariton lifetime through isotopic enrichment of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). Commensurate increases in the polariton propagation length are demonstrated via direct imaging of polaritonic standing waves by means of infrared nano-optics. Our results provide the foundation for a materials-growth-directed approach aimed at realizing the loss control necessary for the development of PhP-based nanophotonic devices.

14.
ACS Omega ; 2(7): 3640-3646, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457678

RESUMO

We propose a simple way to create tunable plasmonic cavities in the infrared (IR) range using graphene films suspended upon a silicon carbide (SiC) grating and present a numerical investigation, using the finite element method, on the absorption properties and field distributions of such resonant structures. We find at certain frequencies within the SiC reststrahlen band that the structured SiC substrate acts as a perfect reflector, providing a cavity effect by establishing graphene plasmon standing waves. We also provide clear evidence of strong coupling phenomena between the localized surface phonon polariton resonances in the SiC grating with the graphene surface plasmon cavity modes, which is revealed by a Rabi splitting in the absorption spectrum. This paves the way to build simple plasmonic structures, using well-known materials and experimental techniques, that can be used to excite graphene plasmons efficiently, even at normal incidence, as well as explore cavity quantum electrodynamics and potential applications in IR spectroscopy.

15.
Nat Mater ; 16(2): 182-194, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27893724

RESUMO

In recent years, enhanced light-matter interactions through a plethora of dipole-type polaritonic excitations have been observed in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. In graphene, electrically tunable and highly confined plasmon-polaritons were predicted and observed, opening up opportunities for optoelectronics, bio-sensing and other mid-infrared applications. In hexagonal boron nitride, low-loss infrared-active phonon-polaritons exhibit hyperbolic behaviour for some frequencies, allowing for ray-like propagation exhibiting high quality factors and hyperlensing effects. In transition metal dichalcogenides, reduced screening in the 2D limit leads to optically prominent excitons with large binding energy, with these polaritonic modes having been recently observed with scanning near-field optical microscopy. Here, we review recent progress in state-of-the-art experiments, and survey the vast library of polaritonic modes in 2D materials, their optical spectral properties, figures of merit and application space. Taken together, the emerging field of 2D material polaritonics and their hybrids provide enticing avenues for manipulating light-matter interactions across the visible, infrared to terahertz spectral ranges, with new optical control beyond what can be achieved using traditional bulk materials.

16.
Nano Lett ; 16(11): 6954-6959, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27766887

RESUMO

We report on the strong enhancement of mid-infrared second-harmonic generation (SHG) from SiC nanopillars due to the resonant excitation of localized surface phonon polaritons within the Reststrahlen band. A strong dependence of the SHG enhancement upon the optical mode distribution was observed. One such mode, the monopole, exhibits an enhancement that is beyond what is anticipated from field localization and dispersion of the linear and nonlinear SiC optical properties. Comparing the results for the identical nanostructures made of 4H and 6H SiC polytypes, we demonstrate the interplay of localized surface phonon polaritons with zone-folded weak phonon modes of the anisotropic crystal. Tuning the monopole mode in and out of the region where the zone-folded phonon is excited in 6H-SiC, we observe a further prominent increase of the already enhanced SHG output when the two modes are coupled. Envisioning this interplay as one of the showcase features of mid-infrared nonlinear nanophononics, we discuss its prospects for the effective engineering of nonlinear-optical materials with desired properties in the infrared spectral range.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32959, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622525

RESUMO

Polar dielectrics have garnered much attention as an alternative to plasmonic metals in the mid- to long-wave infrared spectral regime due to their low optical losses. As such, nanoscale resonators composed of these materials demonstrate figures of merit beyond those achievable in plasmonic equivalents. However, until now, only low-order, phonon-mediated, localized polariton resonances, known as surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs), have been observed in polar dielectric optical resonators. In the present work, we investigate the excitation of 16 distinct high-order, multipolar, localized surface phonon polariton resonances that are optically excited in rectangular pillars etched into a semi-insulating silicon carbide substrate. By elongating a single pillar axis we are able to significantly modify the far- and near-field properties of localized SPhP resonances, opening the door to realizing narrow-band infrared sources with tailored radiation patterns. Such control of the near-field behavior of resonances can also impact surface enhanced infrared optical sensing, which is mediated by polarization selection rules, as well as the morphology and strength of resonator hot spots. Furthermore, through the careful choice of polar dielectric material, these results can also serve as the guiding principles for the generalized design of optical devices that operate from the mid- to far-infrared.

18.
Nat Mater ; 15(11): 1166-1171, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571451

RESUMO

The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials 'beyond graphene' offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (∼5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides 'beyond hBN' and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

19.
Nano Lett ; 16(6): 3858-65, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159255

RESUMO

We use scanning near-field optical microscopy to study the response of hexagonal boron nitride nanocones at infrared frequencies, where this material behaves as a hyperbolic medium. The obtained images are dominated by a series of "hot" rings that occur on the sloped sidewalls of the nanocones. The ring positions depend on the incident laser frequency and the nanocone shape. Both dependences are consistent with directional propagation of hyperbolic phonon-polariton rays that are launched at the edges and zigzag through the interior of the nanocones, sustaining multiple internal reflections off the sidewalls. Additionally, we observe a strong overall enhancement of the near-field signal at discrete resonance frequencies. These resonances attest to low dielectric losses that permit coherent standing waves of the subdiffractional polaritons to form. We comment on potential applications of such shape-dependent resonances and the field concentration at the hot rings.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 11(1): 9-15, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26740039

RESUMO

The field of nanophotonics focuses on the ability to confine light to nanoscale dimensions, typically much smaller than the wavelength of light. The goal is to develop light-based technologies that are impossible with traditional optics. Subdiffractional confinement can be achieved using either surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) or surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs). SPPs can provide a gate-tunable, broad-bandwidth response, but suffer from high optical losses; whereas SPhPs offer a relatively low-loss, crystal-dependent optical response, but only over a narrow spectral range, with limited opportunities for active tunability. Here, motivated by the recent results from monolayer graphene and multilayer hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures, we discuss the potential of electromagnetic hybrids--materials incorporating mixtures of SPPs and SPhPs--for overcoming the limitations of the individual polaritons. Furthermore, we also propose a new type of atomic-scale hybrid--the crystalline hybrid--where mixtures of two or more atomic-scale (∼3 nm or less) polar dielectric materials lead to the creation of a new material resulting from hybridized optic phonon behaviour of the constituents, potentially allowing direct control over the dielectric function. These atomic-scale hybrids expand the toolkit of materials for mid-infrared to terahertz nanophotonics and could enable the creation of novel actively tunable, yet low-loss optics at the nanoscale.

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