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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 10%. It typically presents as a late-stage incurable cancer and chemotherapy provides modest benefit. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and potency of a novel human natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy to treat PC. METHODS: The expression of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was evaluated in primary PC at mRNA and protein levels. The processes of retroviral transduction, expansion, activation, and cryopreservation of primary human NK cells obtained from umbilical cord blood were optimized, allowing us to develop frozen, off-the-shelf, allogeneic PSCA chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) NK cells. The safety and efficacy of PSCA CAR NK cells also expressing soluble (s)IL-15 (PSCA CAR_s15 NK cells) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: PSCA was elevated in primary human PC compared to the adjacent or other normal tissues. PSCA CAR_s15 NK cells displayed significant tumor-suppressive effects against PSCA(+) PC in vitro before and after one cycle of freeze-thaw. The viability of frozen PSCA CAR_s15 NK cells persisted more than 90 days in vivo following their last infusion and significantly prolonged the survival of mice engrafted with human PC. CONCLUSIONS: PSCA CAR_s15 NK cells showed therapeutic efficacy in human metastatic PC models without signs of systematic toxicity, providing a strong rationale to support clinical development.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(3)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027451

RESUMO

The axis of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFRß) plays prominent roles in cell growth and motility. In addition, PDGF-D enhances human natural killer (NK) cell effector functions when binding to the NKp44 receptor. Here, we report an additional but previously unknown role of PDGF-D, whereby it mediates interleukin-15 (IL-15)-induced human NK cell survival but not effector functions via its binding to PDGFRß but independent of its binding to NKp44. Resting NK cells express no PDGFRß and only a low level of PDGF-D, but both are significantly up-regulated by IL-15, via the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway, to promote cell survival in an autocrine manner. Both ectopic and IL-15-induced expression of PDGFRß improves NK cell survival in response to treatment with PDGF-D. Our results suggest that the PDGF-D-PDGFRß signaling pathway is a mechanism by which IL-15 selectively regulates the survival of human NK cells without modulating their effector functions.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5908, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625564

RESUMO

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 is capable of lysing tumor cells while alerting the immune system. CD47, in collaboration with SIRPα, represents an important immune checkpoint to inhibit phagocytosis by innate immune cells. Here we show locoregional control of glioblastoma by an oncolytic herpes virus expressing a full-length anti(α)-human CD47 IgG1 or IgG4 antibody. The antibodies secreted by the virus-infected glioblastoma cells block the CD47 'don't eat me' signal irrespective of the subclass; however, αCD47-IgG1 has a stronger tumor killing effect than αCD47-IgG4 due to additional antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis by macrophages and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by NK cells. Intracranially injected αCD47-IgG1-producing virus continuously releases the respective antibody in the tumor microenvironment but not into systemic circulation; additionally, αCD47-IgG1-producing virus also improves the survival of tumor-bearing mice better than control oncolytic herpes virus combined with topical αCD47-IgG1. Results from immunocompetent mouse tumor models further confirm that macrophages, and to a lesser extent NK cells, mediate the anti-tumor cytotoxicity of antibody-producing oncolytic herpesviruses. Collectively, oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 encoding full-length antibodies could improve immune-virotherapy for glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Imunidade Inata , Vírus Oncolíticos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Antígeno CD47 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Fagocitose , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: mAbs blocking immune checkpoints have emerged as important cancer therapeutics, as exemplified by systemic administration of the IgG1 anti-CD47 mAb that blocks the "don't eat me" pathway. However, this strategy is associated with severe toxicity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxicities for ovarian cancer, we engineered an oncolytic herpesvirus (oHSV) to express a full-length, soluble anti-CD47 mAb with a human IgG1 scaffold (OV-αCD47-G1) or IgG4 scaffold (OV-αCD47-G4). RESULTS: Both IgG1 and IgG4 anti-CD47 mAbs secreted by oHSV-infected tumor cells blocked the CD47-SIRPα signal pathway, enhancing macrophage phagocytosis against ovarian tumor cells. OV-αCD47-G1, but not OV-αCD47-G4, activated human NK-cell cytotoxicity and macrophage phagocytosis by binding to the Fc receptors of these cells. In vivo, these multifaceted functions of OV-αCD47-G1 improved mouse survival in xenograft and immunocompetent mouse models of ovarian cancer when compared with OV-αCD47-G4 and a parental oHSV. The murine counterpart of OV-αCD47-G1, OV-αmCD47-G2b, also enhanced mouse NK-cell cytotoxicity and macrophage phagocytosis and prolonged survival of mice bearing ovarian tumors compared with OV-αmCD47-G3. OV-αmCD47-G2b was also superior to αmCD47-G2b and showed a significantly better effect when combined with an antibody against PD-L1 that was upregulated by oHSV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that an oHSV encoding a full-length human IgG1 anti-CD47 mAb, when used as a single agent or combined with another agent, is a promising approach for improving ovarian cancer treatment via enhancing innate immunity, as well as performing its known oncolytic function and modulation of immune cells.

5.
J Virol ; : JVI0096421, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668775

RESUMO

A comprehensive analysis and characterization of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection model that mimics non-severe and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans is warranted for understating the virus and developing preventive and therapeutic agents. Here, we characterized the K18-hACE2 mouse model expressing human (h)ACE2 in mice, controlled by the human keratin 18 (K18) promoter, in the epithelia, including airway epithelial cells where SARS-CoV-2 infections typically start. We found that intranasal inoculation with higher viral doses (2×103 and 2×104 PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 caused lethality of all mice and severe damage of various organs, including lung, liver, and kidney, while lower doses (2×101 and 2×102 PFU) led to less severe tissue damage and some mice recovered from the infection. In this hACE2 mouse model, SARS-CoV-2 infection damaged multiple tissues, with a dose-dependent effect in most tissues. Similar damage was observed in post-mortem samples from COVID-19 patients. Finally, the mice that recovered from infection with a low dose of virus survived rechallenge with a high dose of virus. Compared to other existing models, the K18-hACE2 model seems to be the most sensitive COVID-19 model reported to date. Our work expands the information available about this model to include analysis of multiple infectious doses and various tissues with comparison to human post-mortem samples from COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, the K18-hACE2 mouse model recapitulates both severe and non-severe COVID-19 in humans being dose-dependent and can provide insight into disease progression and the efficacy of therapeutics for preventing or treating COVID-19. Importance The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached nearly 240 million cases and caused nearly 5 million deaths worldwide as of October 2021, has raised an urgent need for the development of novel drugs and therapeutics to prevent the spread and pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To achieve this goal, an animal model that recapitulates the features of human COVID-19 disease progress and pathogenesis is greatly needed. In this study, we have comprehensively characterized a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection using K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. We infected the mice with low and high doses of SARS-CoV-2 to study the pathogenesis and survival in response to different infection patterns. Moreover, we compared the pathogenesis of the K18-hACE2 transgenic mice with that of the COVID-19 patients to show that this model could be a useful tool for the development of anti-viral drugs and therapeutics.

6.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 122, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During acute myeloid leukemia (AML) growth, the bone marrow (BM) niche acquires significant vascular changes that can be offset by therapeutic blast cytoreduction. The molecular mechanisms of this vascular plasticity remain to be fully elucidated. Herein, we report on the changes that occur in the vascular compartment of the FLT3-ITD+ AML BM niche pre and post treatment and their impact on leukemic stem cells (LSCs). METHODS: BM vasculature was evaluated in FLT3-ITD+ AML models (MllPTD/WT/Flt3ITD/ITD mouse and patient-derived xenograft) by 3D confocal imaging of long bones, calvarium vascular permeability assays, and flow cytometry analysis. Cytokine levels were measured by Luminex assay and miR-126 levels evaluated by Q-RT-PCR and miRNA staining. Wild-type (wt) and MllPTD/WT/Flt3ITD/ITD mice with endothelial cell (EC) miR-126 knockout or overexpression served as controls. The impact of treatment-induced BM vascular changes on LSC activity was evaluated by secondary transplantation of BM cells after administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to MllPTD/WT/Flt3ITD/ITD mice with/without either EC miR-126 KO or co-treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) or anti-miR-126 miRisten. RESULTS: In the normal BM niche, CD31+Sca-1high ECs lining arterioles have miR-126 levels higher than CD31+Sca-1low ECs lining sinusoids. We noted that during FLT3-ITD+ AML growth, the BM niche lost arterioles and gained sinusoids. These changes were mediated by TNFα, a cytokine produced by AML blasts, which induced EC miR-126 downregulation and caused depletion of CD31+Sca-1high ECs and gain in CD31+Sca-1low ECs. Loss of miR-126high ECs led to a decreased EC miR-126 supply to LSCs, which then entered the cell cycle and promoted leukemia growth. Accordingly, antileukemic treatment with TKI decreased the BM blast-produced TNFα and increased miR-126high ECs and the EC miR-126 supply to LSCs. High miR-126 levels safeguarded LSCs, as shown by more severe disease in secondary transplanted mice. Conversely, EC miR-126 deprivation via genetic or pharmacological EC miR-126 knock-down prevented treatment-induced BM miR-126high EC expansion and in turn LSC protection. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment-induced CD31+Sca-1high EC re-vascularization of the leukemic BM niche may represent a LSC extrinsic mechanism of treatment resistance that can be overcome with therapeutic EC miR-126 deprivation.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Animais , Medula Óssea/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regulação para Cima , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 695859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394087

RESUMO

The environment of an organism can convey a powerful influence over its biology. Environmental enrichment (EE), as a eustress model, has been used extensively in neuroscience to study neurogenesis and brain plasticity. EE has also been used as an intervention for the treatment and prevention of neurological and psychiatric disorders with limited clinical application. By contrast, the effects of EE on the immune system are relatively less investigated. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that EE can robustly impact immune function. In this review, we summarize the major components of EE, the impact of EE on natural killer (NK) cells, EE's immunoprotective roles in cancer, and the underlying mechanisms of EE-induced NK cell regulation. Moreover, we discuss opportunities for translational application based on insights from animal research of EE-induced NK cell regulation.

9.
J Immunol ; 207(6): 1672-1682, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417259

RESUMO

NK cells are known to be developmentally blocked and functionally inhibited in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), resulting in poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we demonstrate that whereas NK cells are inhibited, closely related type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) are enriched in the bone marrow of leukemic mice and in patients with AML. Because NK cells and ILC1s share a common precursor (ILCP), we asked if AML acts on the ILCP to alter developmental potential. A combination of ex vivo and in vivo studies revealed that AML skewing of the ILCP toward ILC1s and away from NK cells represented a major mechanism of ILC1 generation. This process was driven by AML-mediated activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a key transcription factor in ILCs, as inhibition of AHR led to decreased numbers of ILC1s and increased NK cells in the presence of AML. These results demonstrate a mechanism of ILC developmental skewing in AML and support further preclinical study of AHR inhibition in restoring normal NK cell development and function in the setting of AML.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/agonistas , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 9(10): 1229-1241, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326137

RESUMO

Trogocytosis is a fast, cell-cell contact-dependent uptake of membrane patches and associated molecules by one cell from another. Here, we report our investigation of trogocytosis of TYRO3, a cell membrane protein, from tumor target cells to natural killer (NK) cells and the associated functional consequences for NK cells. We found that although NK cells did not express endogenous TYRO3 on the cell surface, activated NK cells rapidly acquired TYRO3 from tumor cells via trogocytosis in vitro and in vivo. NK cells that acquired TYRO3, which we termed TYRO3+ NK cells, had significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and IFNγ production as well as higher expression of some activated surface markers compared with TYRO3- NK cells. Furthermore, the activation status of NK cells and TYRO3 expression levels on donor cells, either endogenous or ectopic, positively correlated with trogocytosis levels. When the antigen-presenting cell (APC) K562 leukemia cell line, a feeder cell line to expand NK cells, overexpressed TYRO3, TYRO3 was transferred to NK cells via trogocytosis, which improved NK-cell proliferation ex vivo. This provides a strategy to manufacture NK cells or their engineered counterparts, such as chimeric antigen receptor NK cells, for the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases.

11.
Blood ; 138(16): 1465-1480, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077953

RESUMO

B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B/T-ALL) may be refractory or recur after therapy by suppressing host anticancer immune surveillance mediated specifically by natural killer (NK) cells. We delineated the phenotypic and functional defects in NK cells from high-risk patients with B/T-ALL using mass cytometry, flow cytometry, and in silico cytometry, with the goal of further elucidating the role of NK cells in sustaining acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) regression. We found that, compared with their normal counterparts, NK cells from patients with B/T-ALL are less cytotoxic but exhibit an activated signature that is characterized by high CD56, high CD69, production of activated NK cell-origin cytokines, and calcium (Ca2+) signaling. We demonstrated that defective maturation of NK cells into cytotoxic effectors prevents NK cells from ALL from lysing NK cell-sensitive targets as efficiently as do normal NK cells. Additionally, we showed that NK cells in ALL are exhausted, which is likely caused by their chronic activation. We found that increased frequencies of activated cytokine-producing NK cells are associated with increased disease severity and independently predict poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL. Our studies highlight the benefits of developing NK cell profiling as a diagnostic tool to predict clinical outcome in patients with ALL and underscore the clinical potential of allogeneic NK cell infusions to prevent ALL recurrence.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073261

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus that infects over 90% of the world's population and is linked to development of cancer. In immune-competent individuals, EBV infection is mitigated by a highly efficient virus-specific memory T-cell response. Risk of EBV-driven cancers increases with immune suppression (IS). EBV-seronegative recipients of solid organ transplants are at high risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) due to iatrogenic IS. While reducing the level of IS may improve EBV-specific immunity and regression of PTLD, patients are at high risk for allograft rejection and need for immune-chemotherapy. Strategies to prevent PTLD in this vulnerable patient population represents an unmet need. We have previously shown that BZLF1-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) expansion following reduced IS correlated with immune-mediated PTLD regression and improved patient survival. We have developed a vaccine to bolster EBV-specific immunity to the BZLF1 protein and show that co-culture of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with a αDEC205-BZLF1 fusion protein with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) leads to expansion and increased cytotoxic activity of central-effector memory CTLs against EBV-transformed B-cells. Human-murine chimeric Hu-PBL-SCID mice were vaccinated with DCs loaded with αDEC205-BZLF1 or control to assess prevention of fatal human EBV lymphoproliferative disease. Despite a profoundly immunosuppressive environment, vaccination with αDEC205-BZLF1 stimulated clonal expansion of antigen-specific T-cells that produced abundant IFNγ and significantly prolonged survival. These results support preclinical and clinical development of vaccine approaches using BZLF1 as an immunogen to harness adaptive cellular responses and prevent PTLD in vulnerable patient populations.

14.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127969

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human natural defense mechanisms against SARS-CoV-2 are largely unknown. Serine proteases (SPs) including furin and TMPRSS2 cleave SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, facilitating viral entry. Here, we show that FXa, a SP for blood coagulation, is upregulated in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 donors and exerts anti-viral activity. Mechanistically, FXa cleaves the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which prevents its binding to ACE2, and thus blocks viral entry. Furthermore, the variant B.1.1.7 with several mutations is dramatically resistant to the anti-viral effect of FXa compared to wild-type SARA-CoV-2 in vivo and in vitro . The anti-coagulant rivaroxaban directly inhibits FXa and facilitates viral entry, whereas the indirect inhibitor fondaparinux does not. In a lethal humanized hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2, FXa prolonged survival while combination with rivaroxaban but not fondaparinux abrogated this protection. These preclinical results identify a previously unknown SP function and associated anti-viral host defense mechanism and suggest caution in considering direct inhibitors for prevention or treatment of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients.

15.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127971

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Cancer patients are usually immunocompromised and thus are particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection resulting in COVID-19. Although many vaccines against COVID-19 are being preclinically or clinically tested or approved, none have yet been specifically developed for cancer patients or reported as having potential dual functions to prevent COVID-19 and treat cancer. Here, we confirmed that COVID-19 patients with cancer have low levels of antibodies against the spike (S) protein, a viral surface protein mediating the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells, compared with COVID-19 patients without cancer. We developed an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 vector-based vaccine named oncolytic virus (OV)-spike. OV-spike induced abundant anti-S protein neutralization antibodies in both tumor-free and tumor-bearing mice, which inhibit infection of VSV-SARS-CoV-2 and wild-type (WT) live SARS-CoV-2 as well as the B.1.1.7 variant in vitro. In the tumor-bearing mice, OV-spike also inhibited tumor growth, leading to better survival in multiple preclinical tumor models than the untreated control. Furthermore, OV-spike induced anti-tumor immune response and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response without causing serious adverse events. Thus, OV-spike is a promising vaccine candidate for both preventing COVID-19 and enhancing the anti-tumor response. One Sentence Summary: A herpes oncolytic viral vector-based vaccine is a promising vaccine with dual roles in preventing COVID-19 and treating tumor progression.

16.
J Exp Med ; 218(8)2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160549

RESUMO

N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent posttranscriptional modification on RNA. NK cells are the predominant innate lymphoid cells that mediate antiviral and antitumor immunity. However, whether and how m6A modifications affect NK cell immunity remain unknown. Here, we discover that YTHDF2, a well-known m6A reader, is upregulated in NK cells upon activation by cytokines, tumors, and cytomegalovirus infection. Ythdf2 deficiency in NK cells impairs NK cell antitumor and antiviral activity in vivo. YTHDF2 maintains NK cell homeostasis and terminal maturation, correlating with modulating NK cell trafficking and regulating Eomes, respectively. YTHDF2 promotes NK cell effector function and is required for IL-15-mediated NK cell survival and proliferation by forming a STAT5-YTHDF2 positive feedback loop. Transcriptome-wide screening identifies Tardbp to be involved in cell proliferation or survival as a YTHDF2-binding target in NK cells. Collectively, we elucidate the biological roles of m6A modifications in NK cells and highlight a new direction to harness NK cell antitumor immunity.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/imunologia , Imunidade , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , RNA/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Homeostase , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
Brain Behav Immun ; 95: 477-488, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989745

RESUMO

Physical and social environments influence immune homeostasis within adipose tissue, yet the mechanisms remain poorly defined. We report that an enriched environment (EE) housing modulates the immune cell population in white adipose tissue of mice including an increase in the abundance of natural killer (NK) cells. EE upregulates the expression of IL-15 and its receptor IL-15Rα specifically within mature adipocytes. Mechanistically, we show that hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) upregulates IL-15 production in adipocytes via sympathetic ß-adrenergic signaling. Overexpressing BDNF mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector in the hypothalamus expands adipose NK cells. Conversely, inhibition of hypothalamic BDNF signaling via gene transfer of a dominant negative TrkB receptor suppresses adipose NK cells. In white adipose tissue, overexpression of IL-15 using an adipocyte-specific rAAV vector stimulates adipose NK cells and inhibits the progression of subcutaneous melanoma, whereas local IL-15 knockdown blocks the EE effect. These results suggest that bio-behavioral factors regulate adipose NK cells via a hypothalamic BDNF-sympathoneural-adipocyte IL-15 axis. Targeting this pathway may have therapeutic significance for cancer.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Interleucina-15 , Células Matadoras Naturais , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Cancer Res ; 81(13): 3635-3648, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006525

RESUMO

IL15 is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple roles that improve immune responses to tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses (OV) specifically lyse tumors and activate immune responses. Systemic administration of IL15 or its complex with the IL15Rα and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) natural killer (NK) cells are currently being tested in the clinic. Here, we generated a herpes simplex 1-based OV-expressing human IL15/IL15Rα sushi domain fusion protein (named OV-IL15C), as well as off-the-shelf EGFR-CAR NK cells, and studied their monotherapy and combination efficacy in vitro and in multiple glioblastoma (GBM) mouse models. In vitro, soluble IL15/IL15Rα complex was secreted from OV-IL15C-infected GBM cells, which promoted GBM cytotoxicity and improved survival of NK and CD8+ T cells. Frozen, readily available off-the-shelf EGFR-CAR NK cells showed enhanced killing of tumor cells compared with empty vector-transduced NK cells. In vivo, OV-IL15C significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of GBM-bearing mice in the presence of CD8+ T cells compared with parental OV. OV-IL15C plus EGFR-CAR NK cells synergistically suppressed tumor growth and significantly improved survival compared with either monotherapy, correlating with increased intracranial infiltration and activation of NK and CD8+ T cells and elevated persistence of CAR NK cells in an immunocompetent model. Collectively, OV-IL15C and off-the-shelf EGFR-CAR NK cells represent promising therapeutic strategies for GBM treatment to improve the clinical management of this devastating disease. SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of an oncolytic virus expressing the IL15/IL15Rα complex and frozen, ready-to-use EGFR-CAR NK cells elicits strong antitumor responses in glioblastoma.

20.
J Immunol ; 206(4): 677-685, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419766

RESUMO

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b has been characterized as an intracellular checkpoint in T cells; however, the function of Cbl-b in primary human NK cells, an innate immune anti-tumor effector cell, is not well defined. In this study, we show that the expression of Cbl-b is significantly upregulated in primary human NK cells activated by IL-15, IL-2, and the human NK cell-sensitive tumor cell line K562 that lacks MHC class I expression. Pretreatment with JAK or AKT inhibitors prior to IL-15 stimulation reversed Cbl-b upregulation. Downregulation of Cbl-b resulted in significant increases in granzyme B and perforin expression, IFN-γ production, and cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Collectively, we demonstrate upregulation of Cbl-b and its inhibitory effects in IL-15/IL-2/K562-activated human NK cells, suggesting that Cbl-b plays a negative feedback role in human NK cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Granzimas/genética , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/genética , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Células K562 , Ativação Linfocitária , Perforina/genética , Perforina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
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