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1.
Europace ; 22(5): 787-796, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294163

RESUMO

AIMS: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is diagnosed by a complex set of clinical tests as per 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC). Avoiding misdiagnosis is crucial to prevent sudden cardiac death as well as unnecessary implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations. This study aims to validate the overall performance of the TFC in a real-world cohort of patients referred for ARVC evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included patients consecutively referred to our centres for ARVC evaluation. Patients were diagnosed by consensus of three independent clinical experts. Using this as a reference standard, diagnostic performance was measured for each individual criterion as well as the overall TFC classification. Of 407 evaluated patients (age 38 ± 17 years, 51% male), the expert panel diagnosed 66 (16%) with ARVC. The clinically observed TFC was false negative in 7/66 (11%) patients and false positive in 10/69 (14%) patients. Idiopathic outflow tract ventricular tachycardia was the most common alternative diagnosis. While the TFC performed well overall (sensitivity and specificity 92%), signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG, P = 0.43), and several family history criteria (P ≥ 0.17) failed to discriminate. Eliminating these criteria reduced false positives without increasing false negatives (net reclassification improvement 4.3%, P = 0.019). Furthermore, all ARVC patients met at least one electrocardiogram (ECG) or arrhythmia criterion (sensitivity 100%). CONCLUSION: The TFC perform well but are complex and can lead to misdiagnosis. Simplification by eliminating SAECG and several family history criteria improves diagnostic accuracy. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy can be ruled out using ECG and arrhythmia criteria alone, hence these tests may serve as a first-line screening strategy among at-risk individuals.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323383

RESUMO

Catheter ablation has become an important element in the management of atrial fibrillation. Several technical advances allowed for better safety profiles and lower recurrence rates, leading to an increasing number of ablations worldwide. Despite that, major complications are still reported, and esophageal thermal injury remains a significant concern as atrioesophageal fistula (AEF) is often fatal. Recognition of the mechanisms involved in the process of esophageal lesion formation and the identification of the main determinants of risk have set the grounds for the development and improvement of different esophageal protective strategies. More sensitive esophageal temperature monitoring, safer ablation parameters and catheters, and different energy sources appear to collectively reduce the risk of esophageal thermal injury. Adjunctive measures such as the prophylactic use of proton-pump inhibitors, as well as esophageal cooling or deviation devices, have emerged as complementary methods with variable but promising results. Nevertheless, as a multifactorial problem, no single esophageal protective measure has proven to be sufficiently effective to eliminate the risk, and further investigation is still warranted. Early screening in the patients at risk and prompt intervention in the cases of AEF are important risk modifiers and yield better outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The VICTORY AF Study was designed to evaluate the risk of the procedure and/or device-related strokes in patients with PersAF on warfarin undergoing ablation with a phased radiofrequency (RF) system. METHODS: The VICTORY AF trial was a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, investigational study. PersAF patients on vitamin K antagonism without major structural heart disease or history of stroke/transient ischemic attack undergoing phased RF ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of the procedure and/or device-related stroke within 30 days of the ablation by a board-certified neurologist's assessment. The secondary outcomes were an acute procedural success, 6 months effectiveness (defined as the reduction in AF/atrial flutter episodes lasting ≥10 minutes by 48-hour Holter 6 months postablation) and the number of patients with pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis. RESULTS: A total of 129 (108 PersAF, 21 long-standing PersAF) patients were treated (mean age: 60.6 ± 7.7; 79.8% male, 54.3% CHA2Ds2-VASc score ≥ 2). Two nondisabling strokes were reported (1.6%); one before discharge and the second diagnosed at the 30-day visit. Due to slow enrollment, the study was terminated before reaching the 95% one-sided upper confidence boundary for stroke incidence. Acute procedural success was 93.8%, and at 6 months, 72.8% of patients demonstrated ≥90% reduction in AF burden, 78.9% were off all antiarrhythmic drugs. There were no patients with PV stenosis of greater than 70%. CONCLUSIONS: VICTORY AF demonstrated a 1.6% incidence of stroke in PersAF undergoing ablation with a phased RF system which did not meet statistical confidence due to poor enrollment. The secondary outcomes suggest comparable efficacy to phased RF in the tailored treatment of permanent AF trial. Rigorous clinical evaluation of the stroke risk of new AF ablation technologies as well as restriction to Vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation appears to be unachievable goals in a clinical multicenter IDE trial of AF ablation in the current era.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e015016, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242475

RESUMO

Background Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited condition associated with ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial dysfunction; however, limited data exist on identifying patients at highest risk. The purpose of the study was to determine whether measures of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction on echocardiogram including RV strain were predictive of structural disease progression in ARVC. Methods and Results A retrospective analysis of serial echocardiograms from 40 patients fulfilling 2010 task force criteria for ARVC was performed to assess structural progression defined by an increase in proximal RV outflow tract dimensions (parasternal short or long axis) or decrease in RV fractional area change. Echocardiograms were analyzed for RV free-wall peak longitudinal systolic strain using 2-dimensional speckle tracking. Risk of structural progression and 5-year change in RV outflow tract measurements were compared with baseline RV strain. Of the 40 ARVC patients, 61% had structural progression with an increase in the mean parasternal short-axis RV outflow tract dimension from 36.2 to 38.5 mm (P=0.022) and 68% by increase in parasternal long-axis RV outflow tract dimension from 36.1 to 39.2 mm (P=0.001). RV fractional area change remained stable over time. Baseline RV strain was significantly associated with the risk of structural progression and 5-year rate of change. Patients with an RV strain more positive than -20% had a higher risk (odds ratio: 18.4; 95% CI, 2.7-125.8; P=0.003) of structural progression. Conclusions RV free wall strain is associated with the rate of structural progression in patients with ARVC. It may be a useful marker in determining which patients require closer follow-up and treatment.

5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246823

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a life-threatening cardiac disease caused by mutations in predominantly desmosomal genes that lead to instability and dysfunction of the intercalated disc. ACM is characterized by progressive replacement of cardiomyocytes by fibrofatty tissue, ultimately resulting in ventricular dilatation, cardiac dysfunction and heart failure but mostly dominated by the occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). As SCD appears mostly in apparently healthy young individuals, there is a demand for better risk stratification of suspected ACM mutation carriers. Moreover, disease severity, progression and outcome are highly variable in patients with ACM. In this review we discuss the etiology of ACM with a focus on pro-arrhythmic disease mechanisms in the early concealed phase of the disease. We summarize potential new biomarkers which might be useful for risk stratification and prediction of disease course. Lastly, we explore novel therapeutic strategies to prevent arrhythmias and SCD in the early stages of ACM.

6.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222376

RESUMO

Although diagnostic criteria have been developed characterizing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), no single set of criteria is universally accepted. Furthermore, there are gaps in the present criteria used to identify individuals who have this condition. The reproducibility of the physiological findings, the relationship of symptoms to physiological findings, the presence of symptoms alone without any physiological findings and the response to various interventions confuse rather than clarify this condition. As many disease entities can be confused with POTS, it becomes critical to identify what this syndrome is. What appears to be POTS may be an underlying condition that requires specific therapy. POTS is not simply orthostatic intolerance and symptoms or intermittent orthostatic tachycardia but the syndrome needs to be characterized over time and with reproducibility. Here we address critical issues regarding the pathophysiology and diagnosis of POTS in an attempt to arrive at a rational approach to categorize the syndrome with the hope that it may help both better identify individuals and better understand approaches to therapy.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(14): 1393-1400, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191298

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a heritable cardiomyopathy characterized by frequent ventricular arrhythmias and progressive ventricular dysfunction. Risk of sudden cardiac death is elevated in ACM patients and can be the presenting symptom particularly in younger individuals and athletes. This review describes current understanding of the genetic architecture of ACM and molecular mechanisms of ACM pathogenesis. We consider an emerging threshold model for ACM inheritance in which multiple factors including pathogenic variants in known ACM genes, genetic modifiers, and environmental exposures, particularly exercise, are required to reach a threshold for disease expression. We also review best practices for integrating genetics-including recent discoveries-in caring for ACM families and emphasize the utility of genotype for both management of affected individuals and predictive testing in family members.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e013695, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009524

RESUMO

Background Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is characterized by high arrhythmic burden and progressive heart failure, which can prompt referral for heart transplantation. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has an established role in risk stratification for advanced heart failure therapies, but has not been described in ARVC/D. This study sought to determine the safety and prognostic utility of CPET in patients with ARVC/D. Methods and Results Using the Johns Hopkins ARVC/D Registry, we examined patients with ARVC/D undergoing CPET. Baseline characteristics and transplant-free survival were compared on the basis of peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) (≤14 or >14 mL/kg per minute) and ventilatory efficiency (Ve/VCO2 slope ≤34 or >34). Thirty-eight patients underwent 50 CPETs. There were no sustained arrhythmic events. Twenty-nine patients achieved a maximal test. Patients with pVO2 ≤14 mL/kg per minute were more often men (P=0.042) compared with patients with pVO2 >14 mL/kg per minute. Patients with Ve/VCO2 slope >34 tended to have more moderate/severe right ventricular dilation (7/9 [78%] versus 10/26 [38%]; P=0.060) and clinical heart failure (8/9 [89%] versus 13/26 [50%]; P=0.056) compared with patients with Ve/VCO2 slope ≤34. Patients who underwent heart transplantation were more likely to have clinical heart failure (10/10 [100%] versus 13/28 [46%]; P=0.003). Patients with Ve/VCO2 slope >34 had worse transplant-free survival compared with patients with Ve/VCO2 slope ≤34 (n=35; hazard ratio, 6.57 [95% CI, 1.28-33.72]; log-rank P=0.010), whereas transplant-free survival was similar on the basis of pVO2 groups (n=29; hazard ratio, 3.38 [95% CI, 0.75-15.19]; log-rank P=0.092). Conclusions CPET is safe to perform in patients with ARVC/D. Ve/VCO2 slope may be used for risk stratification and guide referral for heart transplantation in ARVC/D.

9.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(3): e007676, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablation is a widely used therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, arrhythmia recurrence and repeat procedures are common. Studies examining surrogate markers of genetic susceptibility to AF, such as family history and individual AF susceptibility alleles, suggest these may be associated with recurrence outcomes. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the association between AF genetic susceptibility and recurrence after ablation using a comprehensive polygenic risk score for AF. METHODS: Ten centers from the AF Genetics Consortium identified patients who had undergone de novo AF ablation. AF genetic susceptibility was measured using a previously described polygenic risk score (N=929 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and tested for an association with clinical characteristics and time-to-recurrence with a 3 month blanking period. Recurrence was defined as >30 seconds of AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index, persistent AF, hypertension, coronary disease, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, and year of ablation. RESULTS: Four thousand two hundred seventy-six patients were eligible for analysis of baseline characteristics and 3259 for recurrence outcomes. The overall arrhythmia recurrence rate between 3 and 12 months was 44% (1443/3259). Patients with higher AF genetic susceptibility were younger (P<0.001) and had fewer clinical risk factors for AF (P=0.001). Persistent AF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39 [95% CI, 1.22-1.58]; P<0.001), left atrial size (per cm: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.19-1.46]; P<0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (per 10%: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.80-0.97]; P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of recurrence. In univariate analysis, higher AF genetic susceptibility trended towards a higher risk of recurrence (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.99-1.18]; P=0.07), which became less significant in multivariable analysis (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.15]; P=0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Higher AF genetic susceptibility was associated with younger age and fewer clinical risk factors but not recurrence. Arrhythmia recurrence after AF ablation may represent a genetically different phenotype compared to AF susceptibility.

10.
11.
J Med Genet ; 57(4): 254-257, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a heart muscle disease that affects predominantly the right ventricle and is part of the spectrum of arrythmogenic cardiomyopathies (ACMs). ARVC is a genetic condition; however, a pathogenic gene variant is found in only half of patients. OBJECTIVE: Filamin C gene truncations (FLNCtv) have recently been identified in dilated cardiomyopathy with ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, a phenotype partially overlapping with ARVC and part of the ACM spectrum. We hypothesised that FLNCtv could be a novel gene associated with ARVC. METHODS: One hundred fifty-six patients meeting 2010 ARVC Task Force Criteria and lacking variants in known ARVC genes were evaluated for FLNC variants. Available family members were tested for cosegregation. RESULTS: We identified two unique FLNCtv variants in two families (c.6565 G>T, p.Glu2189Ter and c.8107delG, p.Asp2703ThrfsTer69), with phenotypes of dominant RV disease fulfilling 'definite' diagnosis of ARVC according to the 2010 Task Force Criteria. Variants in other cardiomyopathy genes were excluded in both kindreds, and segregation analysis revealed that p.Asp2703ThrfsTer69 was a de novo variant. In both families, the disease phenotype was characterised by prominent ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The identification of FLNCtv as a novel cause of ARVC in two unrelated families expands the spectrum of ARVC non-desmosome disease genes for this disorder. Our findings should prompt inclusion of FLNC genetic testing in ARVC to improve diagnostic yield and testing of at-risk relatives in ARVC.

13.
Circulation ; 141(6): 482-492, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744331

RESUMO

Catheter ablation has brought major advances in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). As evidenced by multiple randomized trials, AF catheter ablation can reduce the risk of recurrent AF and improve quality of life. In some studies, AF ablation significantly reduced cardiovascular hospitalizations. Despite the existing data on AF catheter ablation, numerous knowledge gaps remain concerning this intervention. This report is based on a recent virtual workshop convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to identify key research opportunities in AF ablation. We outline knowledge gaps related to emerging technologies, the relationship between cardiac structure and function and the success of AF ablation in patient subgroups in whom clinical benefit from ablation varies, and potential platforms to advance clinical research in this area. This report also considers the potential value and challenges of a sham ablation randomized trial. Prioritized research opportunities are identified and highlighted to empower relevant stakeholders to collaborate in designing and conducting effective, cost-efficient, and transformative research to optimize the use and outcomes of AF ablation.

14.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 43(1): 2-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pacemaker battery depletion triggers alert for replacement notification and results in automatic reprogramming, which has been shown to be associated with relevant cardiorespiratory symptoms and adverse clinical events. OBJECTIVE: Determine if electrocardiogram (ECG) pacing features may be predictive of pacemaker battery depletion and clinical risk. METHODS: This is an ECG substudy of a cohort analysis of 298 subjects referred for pacemaker generator replacement from 2006 to 2017. Electronic medical record review was performed; clinical, ECG, and pacemaker characteristics were abstracted. We applied two ECG prediction rules for pacemaker battery depletion that are relevant to all major pacemaker manufacturers except Boston Scientific and MicroPort: (1) atrial pacing not at a multiple of 10 and (2) nonsynchronous ventricular pacing not at a multiple of 10, to determine diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and risk in applicable ECG subjects. RESULTS: We excluded 32 subjects not at replacement notification or duplicate surgeries. Overall, 176 of 266 subjects (66.2%) demonstrated atrial pacing or nonsynchronous ventricular pacing on preoperative ECG. When utilizing both rules, 139 of 176 preoperative ECGs and 12 of 163 postoperative ECGs met criteria for battery depletion yielding reasonable sensitivity (79.0%), high specificity (92.6%), and a positive likelihood ratio of 11.6:1. These rules were associated with significant increase in cardiorespiratory symptoms (P < .001) and adverse clinical events (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: The "Rules of Ten" provided reasonable sensitivity and specificity for detecting replacement notification in pacemaker subjects with an applicable ECG. This ECG tool may help clinicians identify most patients with pacemaker battery depletion at significant clinical risk.

15.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(3): 291-297, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of antiarrhythmic drugs for atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AF/AFL) after catheter ablation is not well established. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that changing the myocardial substrate by ablation may alter the responsiveness to dronedarone. METHODS: We assessed the efficacy and safety of dronedarone in the treatment of paroxysmal/persistent atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AF/AFL) post-ablation, based on a post hoc analysis of the ATHENA study. A total of 196 patients (dronedarone 90, placebo 106) had an ablation for AF/AFL before study entry. In these patients, the effect of treatment on the first hospitalization because of cardiovascular (CV) events/all-cause death was assessed, as was AF/AFL recurrence in individuals with sinus rhythm at baseline. The safety of dronedarone vs placebo was also determined. RESULTS: In patients with prior ablation, dronedarone reduced the risk of AF/AFL recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.65 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42, 1.00]; P < .05) as well as the median time to first AF/AFL recurrence (561 vs 180 days) compared with placebo. The HR for first CV hospitalization/all-cause death with dronedarone vs placebo was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.53; P = .91). Rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were 83.1% vs 75.5% and rates of serious TEAEs were 27.0% vs 18.9% in the dronedarone and placebo groups, respectively. One death occurred with dronedarone (not treatment-emergent) and five occurred with placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with prior ablation for AF/AFL, dronedarone reduced the risk of AF/AFL recurrence compared with placebo, but not the risk of first CV hospitalization/all-cause death. Safety outcomes were consistent with those of the overall ATHENA study.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typical atrial flutter (AFL) often occurs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Decision-making tools for application of prophylactic cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation at the time of AF ablation may improve outcomes. In this study, we sought to define the right atrial (RA) functional characteristics of AF patients with documented typical AFL. METHODS: Consecutive patients that underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) prior to initial AF ablation in the Johns Hopkins Hospital were enrolled. The AF database was reviewed to identify prevalent and incident documented typical AFL. Feature tracking CMR analysis during sinus rhythm was utilized to quantify RA longitudinal strain and strain rate, as well as RA passive and active emptying fractions derived from phasic RA volumes. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients were analyzed (mean age 59.1 ± 11.4 years, 78.3% male, 74.8% paroxysmal AF). Of all patients, 30 (26.1%) had typical AFL. Clinical characteristics and AF type did not differ among groups defined by the absence or presence of typical AFL. In contrast, RA longitudinal strain (41.6 ± 16.8% vs. 55.8 ± 17.1%, p ≤ 0.001), systolic strain rate (1.71 ± 0.85 s-1 vs. 2.33 ± 0.93 s-1, p = 0.002), and late diastolic strain rate (1.78 ± 1.02 s-1 vs. 2.50 ± 0.91 s-1p ≤ 0.001) were significantly lower in patients with typical AFL. Although RA passive emptying fraction was similar among groups (18.9 ± 8.1 vs. 19.5 ± 8.0, p = 0.75), RA active emptying fraction was lower in patients with typical AFL (34.8 ± 12.3 vs. 40.8 ± 12.1, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The reservoir and pump function of the RA is significantly reduced in patients with typical AFL. Prophylactic CTI ablation warrants further study as adjunctive therapy to AF catheter ablation in selected patients with RA dysfunction.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 40(47): 3812-3813, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837143
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is limited data on the specific incidence of serious adverse events, such as atrioesophageal fistula (AEF), associated with either contact force (CF) or non-CF ablation catheters. Since the actual number of procedures performed with each type of catheter is unknown, making direct comparisons is difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of AEF associated with the use of CF and non-CF catheters. Additionally, we aimed to understand the workflow present in confirmed AEF cases voluntarily provided by physicians. METHODS: The number of AEFs for 2014-2017 associated with each type of catheter was extracted from an ablation device manufacturer's complaint database. Proprietary device sales data, a proxy for the total number of procedures, were used as the denominator to calculate the incidence rates. Additional survey and workflow data were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: Both CF and non-CF ablation catheters have comparably low incidence of AEF (0.006 ± 0.003% and 0.005 ± 0.003%, respectively, p = 0.69). CF catheters are the catheter of choice for left atrium (LA) procedures which pose the greatest risk for AEF injury. Retrospective analysis of seven AEF cases demonstrated that high power and force and long RF duration were delivered on the posterior wall of the left atrium in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: CF and non-CF ablation catheters were found to have similar AEF incidence, despite CF catheters being the catheter of choice for LA procedures. More investigation is needed to understand the range of parameters which may create risk for AEF.

20.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(12): 2818-2822, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670430

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ablation of atrial vagal ganglia has been associated with improved pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) outcomes. Disruption of vagal reflexes results in heart rate (HR) increase. We investigated the association between HR change after PVI and freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) at 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who underwent PVI for paroxysmal AF were identified from the Johns Hopkins Hospital AF registry. Electrocardiograms taken pre-PVI and post-PVI were used to determine the change in HR. Patients followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. Of 257 patients (66% male, age 59+/-11 years), 134 (52%) remained free from AF at 1 year. The average HR increased from 60.6 ± 11.3 beats per minute (bpm) pre-PVI to 70.7 ± 12.0 bpm post-PVI. Patients with recurrence of AF had lower post-PVI HR than those who remained free from AF (67.8 ± 0.2 vs 73.3 ± 13.0 bpm; P <.001). The probability of AF recurrence at 1-year decreased as the change in HR increased (estimated odds ratio [OR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI, 0.74-0.93]; P = .002). HR increase more than 15 bpm was associated with the lowest odds of AF recurrence (estimated OR, 0.39; 95% [0.17-0.85]; P = .018) compared to HR decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Resting HR was found to increase after PVI. Increase in HR more than 15 bpm has a positive association with remaining free from atrial fibrillation at 1 year.

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