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1.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(8): 892-898, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess signalment, clinical findings, and treatments for New World camelids (NWCs) hospitalized for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders and investigate associations between these factors and death during and after hospitalization. ANIMALS: 267 NWCs ≤ 30 days of age. PROCEDURES: Medical records of a veterinary teaching hospital were retrospectively reviewed to identify NWCs admitted for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders between 2000 and 2010. Signalment, physical examination data, diagnostic findings, treatments, and outcomes were recorded. Factors were examined for association with death during hospitalization and the overall hazard of death by use of multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis, respectively. RESULTS: The sample comprised alpacas (n = 255) and llamas (12). Median age at admission was 3 days, and median hospitalization time was 2 days; 208 of the 267 (77.9%) neonatal NWCs survived to hospital discharge. Factors associated with increased odds of death during hospitalization included prematurity or dysmaturity, hypothermia, sepsis, toxic changes in neutrophils, and undergoing surgery. The odds of death during hospitalization also increased as anion gap increased. After discharge, 151 of 176 (85.8%) animals had follow-up information available (median follow-up time, 2,932 days); 126 (83%) were alive and 25 (17%) had died. Prematurity or dysmaturity, congenital defects, sepsis, oxygen administration, and undergoing surgery as a neonate were associated with an increased hazard of death; the hazard of death also increased as serum chloride concentration at the time of hospitalization increased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested the prognosis for survival during and after hospitalization is good for most NWCs hospitalized because of neonatal disorders.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Hospitalização , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(6): 471-478, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate IM injection of oxytetracycline as an experimental model to induce pain and assess the analgesic efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM) in dairy cows. ANIMALS: 15 healthy nonlactating Jersey (n = 10) and Holstein (5) cows. PROCEDURES: In the first of 2 experiments, 5 Jerseys were administered oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg, IM), divided between the right side of the neck and left hind limb. The left side of the neck and right hind limb received sham injections. Cows were also randomly assigned to receive FM (2.2 mg/kg, IV; n = 3) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.044 mL/kg, IV; control; 2) once daily for 5 days. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) was measured before oxytetracycline administration and at predetermined times after each injection of the assigned treatment. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except it involved 5 Jerseys and 5 Holsteins, oxytetracycline was injected only in a hind limb, and the assigned treatment was administered for 10 days. RESULTS: For both experiments, mean MNT for the oxytetracycline injection site was consistently less than that for the sham injection site in the hind limbs, and mean MNT at the hind limb oxytetracycline injection site for FM-treated cows was greater than that for control cows beginning on day 3. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IM injection of oxytetracycline in a hind limb reliably induced signs of pain in dairy cows and, with validation, might be useful as an experimental model for assessing pain mitigation strategies in cattle.


Assuntos
Oxitetraciclina , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Feminino , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Modelos Teóricos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária
4.
Vet Surg ; 49(2): 373-379, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment of goats with urethral obstruction secondary to urolithiasis by combining tube cystostomy and urethrotomy. ANIMALS: Eight male goats. STUDY DESIGN: Short case series. METHODS: Medical records (September 2012-September 2017) of male goats treated for obstruction secondary to urolithiasis with tube cystostomy and urethrotomy were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, history, physical examination findings, diagnostic results, perioperative treatments, operative details, hospitalization duration, intraoperative and postoperative complications, urolith analysis, and time to restoration of urethral patency. Long-term follow-up (>12 months) was obtained by email or telephone interviews of owners or by clinical examination. RESULTS: Seven of eight goats were castrated males of various of breeds. All goats were tachycardic with urethral pulsation at admission. Uroliths were composed of calcium carbonate in four goats and silica in one goat. All goats regained urethral patency during hospitalization, and all were discharged alive from the hospital. Seven goats were alive at long-term follow-up. Postoperative complications included persistent urethral obstruction requiring a second urethrotomy 2 days postoperatively, premature dislodgement of the bladder catheter and jejunal obstruction secondary to adhesions, and recurrence of obstructive urolithiasis within the proximal perineal urethra requiring a second surgery 8 months later (1 each). Long-term outcome was good, with urethral patency beyond 12 months in six of eight goats. CONCLUSION: Combining tube cystostomy and urethrotomy restored urethral patency in goats with urethral obstruction from uroliths. Although none of the complications seemed directly related to the urethrotomy, formation of abdominal adhesions and recurrence of urolithiasis affected long-term outcomes. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Uroliths that do not dissolve in acidic urine may be more frequent in some practices. The combined approach of tube cystostomy and urethrotomy appears to successfully restore urethral patency with promising long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Cistostomia/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/cirurgia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Animais , Cistostomia/métodos , Cabras , Masculino , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Uretra/cirurgia , Obstrução Uretral/patologia , Obstrução Uretral/cirurgia , Cálculos Urinários/complicações , Urolitíase/cirurgia
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 284, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calf stress at weaning and during transition to group pens represents a concern in dairy operations. Favoring natural behaviors, such as grooming, may help on reducing this challenge. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a mechanical grooming brush on behavior and health of recently weaned calves, after transferring from individual to group housing. Two treatment groups (control [CON, n = 81]; automated brush [AB, n = 81]) were compared enrolling Holstein heifers (94 ± 7 d old) that were monitored for 20 days. Four cohorts, considering one CON and one AB group (19-20 calves/pen/cohort) were enrolled sequentially. Each calf was weighed, clinically evaluated, and affixed with a 3-D accelerometer sensor attached to the ear at enrolment. Continuous measurements (min/h) were generated for the following behaviors: Not-active, active, highly active, eating, and ruminating. Cameras for continuous video recording were installed in each pen, and calves were weighted at the last day of the study (d 20). Behavioral data were summarized as daily averages (min/h). Data was examined using repeated measures analysis for nested factors, with day as the time unit. RESULTS: Overall, calves had their first interaction with the brush within 2.5 days with a mean (SE) of 7 (±9.6) h after being transferred to group pens. A significant effect was determined for the interaction day by treatment on the time spent not-active and eating. Average not-active time was greater in CON compared to AB (22.8 ± 0.82 min/h vs. 21.7 ± 0.82 min/h), while eating time was greater in AB compared with CON (7.01 ± 0.40 min/h vs. 6.43 ± 0.40 min/h). Treatment groups had a similar weight gain and time to the first disease. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the use of a mechanical brush influenced behavior, reducing not-active time, while increasing eating time. The consequences of this change in activity require further investigation.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Comportamento Social
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 53, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first month of life possess significant challenges for dairy calves due to high susceptibility to digestive diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation with stabilized rice bran (SRB) in milk on health, immunity, and performance of pre-weaned organic dairy calves. Holstein heifer calves (n = 90) were enrolled at 6 ± 1 days old and monitored for 28 days, from July to August 2017. Calves were randomly assigned to a control (CTR; n = 45) or a treatment group (SRB; n = 45). The CTR group received milk alone and the SRB group received 120 g of SRB per day in milk to achieve a 10% w/w dose of the total calories. Daily health evaluations were conducted to score health status and disease severity (healthy, slightly affected, moderately or severely sick) of calves, through integrated assessment of diarrhea, dehydration, attitude, and milk intake. Body weights and fecal IgA quantification were completed on the first and last day of the study. RESULTS: Overall, weight gain and fecal IgA concentrations were not affected by the dietary addition of SRB. The total number of calf-days classified as healthy or sick were not different between treatment groups. Similarly, the number of calf-days categorized as slightly affected, moderately sick, or severely sick did not differ between treatment groups. Time to event analyses indicated a tendency for a treatment effect in the time to the first moderate case of diarrhea (P = 0.08), as well as in the time to recovery from diarrhea (P = 0.052), favoring control calves. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the dietary addition of SRB in milk did not have an effect in health, immunity or performance of pre-weaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Oryza , Prebióticos , Ração Animal , Animais , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/química , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Ganho de Peso
7.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 34(1): 155-184, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421028

RESUMO

Clostridial abomasitis and enteritis are important alimentary diseases observed in all domestic ruminant species. These diseases most commonly result from overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens types A, B, C, D, and E with the associated release of bacterial exotoxins that result in necrosis of the abomasal or intestinal mucosa. Clostridium difficile may also be associated with enteritis in calves but is much less common than disease caused by C perfringens. This article reviews the causes, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of clostridial gastrointestinal diseases in ruminants. Particular emphasis is given to describing the various forms of disease and treatment of individual cases.


Assuntos
Abomaso/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Abomaso/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/patologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia
8.
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 33(3): 525-537, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807475

RESUMO

Temporary rumenostomy is a useful procedure for the treatment, management, and support of patients with forestomach disease of various types. The rumenostomy provides a mechanism for relief of chronic rumen tympany or distention, removal of rumen contents and lavage of the rumen, removal of some rumen foreign bodies, administration of rumen fluid transfaunation, and administration of enteral nutrition or other medications. When the rumenostomy is no longer necessary, it can be allowed to close by second intention or by surgical resection.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/veterinária , Rúmen/cirurgia , Ruminantes/cirurgia , Gastropatias/veterinária , Animais , Gastropatias/cirurgia
12.
Can Vet J ; 55(8): 765-71, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25082992

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model.


Assuntos
Cólica/veterinária , Eletrólitos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Cólica/prevenção & controle , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Cavalos , Incidência , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Plasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós , Água/metabolismo
13.
Can Vet J ; 55(4): 369-72, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24688138

RESUMO

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection was diagnosed in a 3-year-old yak. The yak had signs of intermittent tremors, dysphagia, oral ulcerative lesions, hemorrhagic enteritis, tachypnea, and thrombocytopenia. Postmortem diagnostics confirmed EHDV (serotype 2) using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gross and histopathological results were consistent with EHDV reported in other species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Masculino , Infecções por Reoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Reoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia
14.
Vet Med Int ; 2014: 537213, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24558633

RESUMO

Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

15.
Vet Med Int ; 2013: 942351, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23956926

RESUMO

An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

16.
Am J Vet Res ; 74(8): 1059-65, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23879842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations measured with a dual-purpose point-of-care (POC) meter designed for use in humans and a laboratory biochemical analyzer (LBA) to determine whether the POC meter would be reliable for on-farm measurement of blood glucose and BHB concentrations in sheep in various environmental conditions and nutritional states. ANIMALS: 36 pregnant mixed-breed ewes involved in a maternal feed restriction study. PROCEDURES: Blood samples were collected from each sheep at multiple points throughout gestation and lactation to allow for tracking of gradually increasing metabolic hardship. Whole blood glucose and BHB concentrations were measured with the POC meter and compared with serum results obtained with an LBA. RESULTS: 464 samples were collected. Whole blood BHB concentrations measured with the POC meter compared well with LBA results, and error grid analysis showed the POC values were acceptable. Whole blood glucose concentrations measured with the POC meter had more variation, compared with LBA values, over the glucose ranges evaluated. Results of error grid analysis of POC-measured glucose concentrations were not acceptable, indicating errors likely to result in needless treatment with glucose or other supplemental energy sources in normoglycemic sheep. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The POC meter was user-friendly and performed well across a wide range of conditions. The meter was adequate for detection of pregnancy toxemia in sheep via whole blood BHB concentration. Results should be interpreted with caution when the POC meter is used to measure blood glucose concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Glicemia/fisiologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Período Pós-Parto , Pré-Eclâmpsia/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico
17.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 20(6): 623-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21166985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and resultant metabolic disturbances following retroperitoneal administration of hyperphosphate enemas in alpaca crias. CASE OR SERIES SUMMARY: Two crias presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital after inadvertent transvaginal retroperitoneal hyperphosphate enema administration. The first cria developed an acute onset of neurologic signs, severe hypernatremia, and died soon after presentation. The second cria developed severe hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and acidemia. The metabolic derangements normalized within 24 hours of intensive treatment with calcium supplementation and IV crystalloid fluid diuresis. The cria was discharged after 1 week in the hospital. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This report provides a description of electrolyte disturbances secondary to inadvertent transvaginal retroperitoneal administration of hyperphosphate enemas in 2 crias and attendant clinical signs of these disturbances. Management of hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia in 1 cria via aggressive fluid therapy with calcium supplementation led to a rapid and sustained normalization of phosphorus, calcium, and acid-base balance.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Catárticos/efeitos adversos , Enema/efeitos adversos , Enema/veterinária , Erros de Medicação/veterinária , Fosfatos/efeitos adversos , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/induzido quimicamente , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/terapia , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/veterinária , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Camelídeos Americanos/sangue , Catárticos/administração & dosagem , Colorado , Enema/métodos , Feminino , Hiperfosfatemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperfosfatemia/terapia , Hiperfosfatemia/veterinária , Hipocalcemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipocalcemia/terapia , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Fosfatos/administração & dosagem , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina
18.
Vet Med Int ; 20102010 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20847948

RESUMO

Infection of dogs with canine influenza virus (CIV) is considered widespread throughout the United States following the first isolation of CIV in 2004. While vaccination against influenza A infection is a common and important practice for disease control, antiviral therapy can serve as a valuable adjunct in controlling the impact of the disease. In this study, we examined the antiviral activity of nitazoxanide (NTZ) and tizoxanide (TIZ) against three CIV isolates in vitro. NTZ and TIZ inhibited virus replication of all CIVs with 50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.17 to 0.21 µM and from 0.60 to 0.76 µM, respectively. These results suggest that NTZ and TIZ are effective against CIV and may be useful for treatment of canine influenza in dogs but further investigation of the in vivo efficacy against CIV as well as the drug's potential for toxicity in dogs is needed.

19.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 235(11): 1336-41, 2009 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19951106

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: 5 Vietnamese potbellied pigs were evaluated for abdominal distress that had not responded to medical treatment (4 pigs) or a draining tract of the cranial abdomen of unknown duration (1 pig). CLINICAL FINDINGS: Clinical signs in the pigs included anorexia, vomiting, and constipation. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in all pigs. Radiography revealed distended loops of small intestine in 2 pigs. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: 3 pigs were treated successfully with wide-margin excision of the abdominal masses, and 2 were euthanized. Primary tumors were diagnosed at necropsy or through histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during surgery. Types of tumor included cholangiocellular carcinoma, transmural gastric carcinoma, small intestinal adenocarcinoma, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and carcinoma. The tumors involved the stomach, small intestine, spiral colon, liver, and gall bladder. All 3 surgically treated pigs survived at least 9 months after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although rare, neoplasia of the alimentary system should be considered among the differential diagnoses for potbellied pigs with signs of abdominal distress. Wide-margin excision of the neoplastic tissue may result in a good outcome in affected pigs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Masculino , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/cirurgia
20.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 234(4): 519-29, 2009 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19222364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-infected alpaca herds in the United States and investigate factors associated with seropositive herd status and, subsequently, determine the proportion of animals within seropositive alpaca herds that are persistently infected (PI) carriers for BVDV, obtain information regarding previous herd exposure to BVDV, determine titers of anti-BVDV antibodies of dams, and ascertain whether individual seropositive crias had received supplemental colostrum at birth. DESIGN: Prevalence study. ANIMALS: 63 alpaca herds with >or= 12 registered female alpacas. PROCEDURES: 250 alpaca breeders were randomly selected from 562 eligible herds listed in the Alpaca Owner and Breeders Association membership directory and mailed a voluntary participation request. Sixty-three alpaca breeders participated in the study. From each herd, blood samples from >or= 4 crias were tested for BVDV, BVDV RNA, and serum neutralizing antibodies against BVDV. A region of the genome of BVDV recovered from PI crias was sequenced to determine genetic homology. RESULTS: Among the 63 herds, 16 (25.4%) had seropositive crias and 4 (6.3%) had PI crias. Infections in 3 of the 4 herds with PI crias were linked as evidence by the genetic homologies of viruses. In addition to PI crias, feeding supplemental colostrum was associated with herd seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results confirmed the importance of BVDV infections in alpacas in the United States and highlighted the importance of determining the BVDV infection status of animals before they are commingled to limit exposure of herds to BVDV infection.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Sequência de Bases , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Bovinos , Colostro/virologia , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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