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1.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric subspecialty fellows are required to complete a scholarly product during training; however, many do not bring the work to publication. To amplify our fellows' publication success, our pediatric emergency medicine fellowship program implemented a comprehensive research curriculum and established a milestone-based research timeline for each component of a project. Our objective was to assess whether these interventions increased the publication rate and enhanced the graduated fellows' perceived ability to perform independent research. METHODS: Our study was conducted at a tertiary children's hospital affiliated with an academic university, enrolling 3 fellows each year in its pediatric emergency medicine program. A comprehensive research curriculum and a milestone-based research timeline were implemented in 2011. We analyzed the publication rate of our graduating fellows before (2004-2011) and after (2012-2016) our intervention. In addition, in 2017 we surveyed our previous fellows who graduated from 2004 to 2016 and analyzed factors favoring manuscript publication and confidence with various research skills. RESULTS: During the study period, 38 trainees completed the fellowship program. Publication rate increased from 26% ± 17% to 87% ± 30 % (P < 0.05). When scoring the importance of various factors, fellows most valued mentorship (5 ± 0 vs 4.3 ± 1.0, P < 0.05, postintervention vs preintervention) for the completion of the fellowship study and manuscript. Fellows after the intervention reported greater confidence in performing an analysis of variance (89% vs 36%, odds ratio, 6.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-150.1). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a comprehensive research curriculum and a milestone-based research timeline was associated with an increase in the publication rate within 3 years of graduation of our pediatric emergency medicine fellows. After implementation, fellows reported an increased importance of mentorship and greater confidence in performing an analysis of variance. We provide a comprehensive curriculum and a research timeline that may serve as a model for other fellowship programs.

3.
Resuscitation ; 174: 93-101, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest who have severe neurological or functional disability at discharge require high-intensity long-term support. However, few data describe the long-term survival and health-care utilization for these patients. METHODS: We identified a cohort of cardiac arrest survivors ≥ 18 years of age, treated at a single center in Western Pennsylvania from January 2010 to December 2019, with a modified Rankin scale (mRS) of 5 at hospital discharge. We recorded demographics, cardiac arrest characteristics, and neurological exam at hospital discharge. We characterized long term survival and mortality through December 31, 2020 through National Death Index query. We described survival time overall and in subgroups using Kaplan-Meier curves and compared using log-rank tests.We linked cases with administrative data to determine 30, 90 day, and one-year hospital readmission rate. For subjects unable to follow commands at discharge, we reviewed records from index hospitalization to the present to describe improvement in neurological status and return home. RESULTS: We screened 2,687 patients of which 975 survived to discharge. We identified 190 subjects with mRS of 5 at hospital discharge who were sent to non-hospice settings. Of these, 43 (23%) did not follow commands at discharge. One-year mortality was 38% (n = 71) with a median survival time of 4.2 years (IQR 0.3-10.9). Duration of survival was shorter in older subjects but did not differ based on, sex, or ability to follow commands at hospital discharge. Within the first year of discharge, 58% (n = 111) of subjects had at least one hospitalization with a median length of stay of 8 days [IQR 3-19]. Of subjects who did not follow commands at hospital discharge, 5/43 (11%) followed commands and 9 (21%) were reportedly living at home on subsequent encounters. CONCLUSIONS: Of survivors treated over a decade at our institution, 20% (n = 190) were discharged from the hospital with severe functional disability. One-year mortality was 38%, and hospital readmissions were frequent. Few patients discharged unable to follow commands regained the ability over the period of observation, but many did return to living at home. These data can help inform decision maker expectations for patient trajectory and life expectancy.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Idoso , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Ann Emerg Med ; 79(2): 118-131, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538500

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: While often prioritized in the resuscitation of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the optimal timing of advanced airway insertion is unknown. We evaluated the association between the timing of advanced airway (laryngeal tube and endotracheal intubation) insertion attempt and survival to hospital discharge in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial (PART), a clinical trial comparing the effects of laryngeal tube and endotracheal intubation on outcomes after adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We stratified the cohort by randomized airway strategy (laryngeal tube or endotracheal intubation). Within each subset, we defined a time-dependent propensity score using patients, arrest, and emergency medical services systems characteristics. Using the propensity score, we matched each patient receiving an initial attempt of laryngeal tube or endotracheal intubation with a patient at risk of receiving laryngeal tube or endotracheal intubation attempt within the same minute. RESULTS: Of 2,146 eligible patients, 1,091 (50.8%) and 1,055 (49.2%) were assigned to initial laryngeal tube and endotracheal intubation strategies, respectively. In the propensity score-matched cohort, timing of laryngeal tube insertion attempt was not associated with survival to hospital discharge: 0 to lesser than 5 minutes (risk ratio [RR]=1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53 to 3.44); 5 to lesser than10 minutes (RR=1.07, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.73); 10 to lesser than 15 minutes (RR=1.17, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.31); or 15 to lesser than 20 minutes (RR=2.09, 95% CI 0.35 to 12.47) after advanced life support arrival. Timing of endotracheal intubation attempt was also not associated with survival: 0 to lesser than 5 minutes (RR=0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 4.87); 5 to lesser than10 minutes (RR=1.20, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.81); 10 to lesser than15 minutes (RR=1.03, 95% CI 0.49 to 2.14); 15 to lesser than 20 minutes (RR=0.85, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.42); or more than/equal to 20 minutes (RR=0.71, 95% CI 0.07 to 7.14). CONCLUSION: In the PART, timing of advanced airway insertion attempt was not associated with survival to hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 618-624, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are often transported to the closest emergency department (ED) or cardiac center for initial stabilization and may be transferred for further care. We investigated the effects of delay to transfer on in hospital mortality at a receiving facility. METHODS: We included OHCA patients transported from the ED by a single critical care transport service to a quaternary care facility between 2010 and 2018. We calculated dwell time as time from arrest to critical care transport team contact. We abstracted demographics, arrest characteristics, and interventions started prior to transport arrival. For the primary analysis, we used logistic regression to determine the association of dwell time and in-hospital mortality. As secondary outcomes we investigated for associations of dwell time and mortality within 24 h of arrival, proximate cause of death among decedents, arterial pH and lactate on arrival, sum of worst SOFA subscales within 24 h of arrival, and rearrest during interfacility transport. RESULTS: We included 572 OHCA patients transported from an outside ED to our facility. Median dwell time was 113 (IQR = 85-159) minutes. Measured in 30 min epochs, increasing dwell time was not associated with in-hospital mortality, 24-h mortality, cause of death and initial pH, but was associated with lower 24-h SOFA score (p = 0.01) and lower initial lactate (p = 0.03). Rearrest during transport was rare (n = 29, 5%). Dwell time was associated with lower probability of rearrest during transport (OR = 0.847, (95% CI 0.68-1.01), p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Dwell time was not associated with in-hospital mortality. Rapid transport may be associated with risk of rearrest. Prospective data are needed to clarify optimal patient stabilization and transport strategies.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Transferência de Pacientes , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transporte de Pacientes
7.
Resusc Plus ; 7: 100151, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is commonly used after cardiac arrest. Burst suppression with identical bursts (BSIB) has been reported as a perfectly specific predictor of poor outcome but published case series are small. We describe two patients with BSIB who awakened from coma after cardiac arrest. METHODS: We identified two out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with coma and BSIB. We determined the etiology of arrest, presenting neurological examination, potential confounders to neurological assessment, neurodiagnostics and time to awakening. We reviewed and interpreted EEGs using 2021 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society guidelines. We quantified identicality of bursts by calculating pairwise correlation coefficients between the first 500 ms of each aligned burst. RESULTS: In case one we present a 62-year-old man with OHCA secondary to septic shock. EEG showed burst suppression pattern, with bursts consisted of high amplitude generalized spike waves in lock-step with myoclonus (inter-burst correlation = 0.86). He followed commands 3 days after arrest, when repeat EEG showed a continuous, variable and reactive background without epileptiform activity. Case two was a 49-year-old woman with OHCA secondary to polysubstance overdose. Initial EEG revealed burst suppression with high amplitude generalized polyspike-wave bursts with associated myoclonus. She followed commands on post-arrest day 4, when repeat EEG showed a continuous, variable and reactive background with frequent runs of bifrontal predominant sharply contoured rhythmic delta activity. CONCLUSION: These cases highlight the perils of prognosticating with a single modality in comatose cardiac arrest patients.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 385(21): 1951-1960, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early administration of convalescent plasma obtained from blood donors who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may prevent disease progression in acutely ill, high-risk patients with Covid-19. METHODS: In this randomized, multicenter, single-blind trial, we assigned patients who were being treated in an emergency department for Covid-19 symptoms to receive either one unit of convalescent plasma with a high titer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or placebo. All the patients were either 50 years of age or older or had one or more risk factors for disease progression. In addition, all the patients presented to the emergency department within 7 days after symptom onset and were in stable condition for outpatient management. The primary outcome was disease progression within 15 days after randomization, which was a composite of hospital admission for any reason, seeking emergency or urgent care, or death without hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included the worst severity of illness on an 8-category ordinal scale, hospital-free days within 30 days after randomization, and death from any cause. RESULTS: A total of 511 patients were enrolled in the trial (257 in the convalescent-plasma group and 254 in the placebo group). The median age of the patients was 54 years; the median symptom duration was 4 days. In the donor plasma samples, the median titer of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies was 1:641. Disease progression occurred in 77 patients (30.0%) in the convalescent-plasma group and in 81 patients (31.9%) in the placebo group (risk difference, 1.9 percentage points; 95% credible interval, -6.0 to 9.8; posterior probability of superiority of convalescent plasma, 0.68). Five patients in the plasma group and 1 patient in the placebo group died. Outcomes regarding worst illness severity and hospital-free days were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of Covid-19 convalescent plasma to high-risk outpatients within 1 week after the onset of symptoms of Covid-19 did not prevent disease progression. (SIREN-C3PO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04355767.).


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Progressão da Doença , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rehabil Psychol ; 66(4): 600-610, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398631

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The role of perceived social support from specific sources (e.g., families, friends, and significant others) on the development of postinjury posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated psychological symptoms (e.g., depression and anxiety) remains relatively unexplored. We examined the predictive role of social support from specific sources on psychological symptoms among emergency department (ED) patients following motor vehicle crash (MVC). Research Methods/Design: Sixty-three injured patients (63.5% female; 37 years old on average) with moderately painful complaints were recruited in the EDs of two Level-1 trauma centers within 24 hr post-MVC. In the ED, participants completed surveys of baseline psychological symptoms and perceived social support; follow-up surveys were completed at 90 days postinjury. RESULTS: Most of the sample (84.1%) was discharged home from the ED with predominantly mild injuries and did not require hospitalization. After adjusting for race, sex, age, and baseline symptoms, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that lower perceived social support in the ED predicted higher PTSD symptoms and depressive symptoms (but not anxiety) at 90 days. This effect seemed to be specific to significant others and friends but not family. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: MVC-related injuries are robust contributors to psychological sequelae. These findings extend prior work by highlighting that perceived social support, particularly from significant others and friends, provides unique information regarding the development of psychological symptoms following predominantly mild MVC-related injuries. This data may serve to inform recovery expectations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Traumatologia
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e021679, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459235

RESUMO

Background The timing of advanced airway management (AAM) on patient outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has not been fully investigated. We evaluated the association between the timing of prehospital AAM and 1-month survival. Methods and Results We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective, nationwide, population-based out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry in Japan. We included emergency medical services-treated adult (≥18 years) out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from 2014 through 2017, stratified into initial shockable or nonshockable rhythms. Patients who received AAM at any minute after emergency medical services-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation underwent risk-set matching with patients who were at risk of receiving AAM within the same minute using time-dependent propensity scores. Eleven thousand three hundred six patients with AAM in shockable and 163 796 with AAM in nonshockable cohorts, respectively, underwent risk-set matching. For shockable rhythms, the risk ratios (95% CIs) of AAM on 1-month survival were 1.01 (0.89-1.15) between 0 and 5 minutes, 1.06 (0.98-1.15) between 5 and 10 minutes, 0.99 (0.87-1.12) between 10 and 15 minutes, 0.74 (0.59-0.92) between 15 and 20 minutes, 0.61 (0.37-1.00) between 20 and 25 minutes, and 0.73 (0.26-2.07) between 25 and 30 minutes after emergency medical services-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For nonshockable rhythms, the risk ratios of AAM were 1.12 (1.00-1.27) between 0 and 5 minutes, 1.34 (1.25-1.44) between 5 and 10 minutes, 1.39 (1.26-1.54) between 10 and 15 minutes, 1.20 (0.99-1.45) between 15 and 20 minutes, 1.18 (0.80-1.73) between 20 and 25 minutes, 0.63 (0.29-1.38) between 25 and 30 minutes, and 0.44 (0.11-1.69) after 30 minutes. Conclusions In this observational study, the timing of AAM was not statistically associated with improved 1-month survival for shockable rhythms, but AAM within 15 minutes after emergency medical services-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation was associated with improved 1-month survival for nonshockable rhythms.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Adulto , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
12.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1269-1278, 2021 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454687

RESUMO

As more people are surviving cardiac arrest, focus needs to shift towards improving neurological outcomes and quality of life in survivors. Brain injury after resuscitation, a common sequela following cardiac arrest, ranges in severity from mild impairment to devastating brain injury and brainstem death. Effective strategies to minimise brain injury after resuscitation include early intervention with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, restoration of normal physiology, and targeted temperature management. It is important to identify people who might have a poor outcome, to enable informed choices about continuation or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. Multimodal prediction guidelines seek to avoid premature withdrawal in those who might survive with a good neurological outcome, or prolonging treatment that might result in survival with severe disability. Approximately one in three admitted to intensive care will survive, many of whom will need intensive, tailored rehabilitation after discharge to have the best outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Sobreviventes , Fatores de Tempo
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120176, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374770

RESUMO

Importance: Administration of epinephrine has been found to be associated with an increased chance of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but the optimal timing of administration has not been fully investigated. Objective: To ascertain whether there is an association between timing of epinephrine administration and patient outcomes after OHCA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included adults 18 years or older with OHCA treated by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel from April 1, 2011, to June 30, 2015. Initial cardiac rhythm was stratified as either initially shockable (ventricular defibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia) or nonshockable (pulseless electrical activity or asystole). Eligible individuals were identified from among publicly available, deidentified patient-level data from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Cardiac Epidemiologic Registry, a prospective registry of adults with EMS-treated, nontraumatic OHCA with 10 sites in North America. Data analysis was conducted from May 2019 to April 2021. Exposures: Interval between advanced life support (ALS)-trained EMS personnel arrival at the scene and the first prehospital intravenous or intraosseous administration of epinephrine. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. In each cohort of initial cardiac rhythms, patients who received epinephrine at any period (minutes) after EMS arrival at the scene were matched with patients who were at risk of receiving epinephrine within the same period using time-dependent propensity scores calculated from patient demographic characteristics, arrest characteristics, and EMS interventions. Results: Of 41 079 eligible individuals (median [interquartile range] age, 67 [55-79] years), 26 579 (64.7%) were men. A total of 10 088 individuals (24.6%) initially had shockable cardiac rhythms, and 30 991 (75.4%) had nonshockable rhythms. Those who received epinephrine included 8223 patients (81.5%) with shockable cardiac rhythms and 27 901 (90.0%) with nonshockable rhythms. In the shockable cardiac rhythm cohort, the risk ratio (RR) for receipt of epinephrine with survival to hospital discharge was highest between 0 and 5 minutes after EMS arrival (1.12; 95% CI, 0.99-1.26) across the categorized timing of the administration of epinephrine by 5-minute intervals after EMS arrival; however, that finding was not statistically significant. Treating the timing of epinephrine administration as a continuous variable, the RR for survival to hospital discharge decreased 5.5% (95% CI, 3.4%-7.5%; P < .001 for the interaction between epinephrine administration and time to matching) per minute after EMS arrival. In the nonshockable cardiac rhythm cohort, the RR for the association of receipt of epinephrine with survival to hospital discharge was the highest between 0 and 5 minutes (1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.72), although not statistically significant, and decreased 4.4% (95% CI, 0.8%-7.9%; P for interaction = .02) per minute after EMS arrival. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with OHCA, survival to hospital discharge differed across the timing of epinephrine administration and decreased with delayed administration for both shockable and nonshockable rhythms.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Pontuação de Propensão , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Resuscitation ; 167: 372-379, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Survival and recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) varies between hospitals, with better outcomes associated with high-volume and specialty care. We evaluated if there is a similar relationship with organ donation after OHCA. METHODS: We studied a cohort of adults resuscitated from OHCA from 2010 to 2018, treated at one of 112 hospitals served by a regional organ procurement organization (OPO). We obtained hospital-level characteristics from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and Health Resources and Services Administration and obtained patients' clinical information from the OPO health record. We excluded patients with no potential to donate on initial referral. Our primary exposure was treatment at a high-volume hospital (defined > 500 eligible cases during the study period) and our primary outcomes were suitability to donate after full medical evaluation, successful organ procurement and organ transplantation. We used mixed effects models to quantify between-hospital variability in the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 9792 patients were included and 796 (8%) were organ donors. We identified significant between-hospital variation in odds of donation (median odds ratio 1.64 [95% CI 1.42-2.02]). Hospital volume explained the greatest proportion of variability. High volume centers had a higher proportion of referrals with potential to donate (16.9 vs 12.2%), actual donation (10.3 vs 6.2%), and successful transplantation (9.4 vs 5.7%). Overall, 2032/7763 (26%) of recovered transplantable organs in this region were procured from OHCA patients. CONCLUSION: High volume centers are more likely to refer and procure transplantable organs from patients with non-survivable OHCA.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Transplante de Órgãos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Adulto , Idoso , Hospitais , Humanos , Medicare , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Resuscitation ; 168: 160-166, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384820

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Emergency research is challenging to do well as it involves time sensitive interventions in unstable patients. There is limited time to obtain informed consent from the patient or their legally authorized representative (LAR). Such research is permitted under exception from informed consent (EFIC) if specific criteria are met, including notification after enrollment. Some question whether the risks of EFIC outweighs its benefits. To date, there is limited empiric information about time to notification (TTN) and rates of withdrawal in such trials. OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in TTN and rates of withdrawal among that patients enrolled in EFIC trials over a twelve-year period. DESIGN: We performed post hoc descriptive analyses of data from five trials conducted under EFIC. SETTING: Emergency medical services and receiving hospitals participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium in the United States and Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or life-threatening traumatic injury. EXPOSURES: Notification strategies were specified at each site before initiation of enrollment by a local institutional review board. We monitored TTN within each site centrally throughout each study's enrollment period. OUTCOMES: TTN was defined as time from randomization to first-reported notification of patient or LAR of enrollment. Withdrawal was defined as patient or LAR opt out of ongoing participation at the time of notification. RESULTS: Of 35,442 patients enrolled in five trials, 33,805 had cardiac arrest; and 1636 had traumatic injury. TTN varied overall and by patient outcome. Among those with cardiac arrest, TTN ranged from median (5%ile, 95%ile) of 6 (1,27) days to 28 (2, 53) days across sites. 0.3% of notified patients with cardiac arrest withdrew. Among those with traumatic injury, TTN ranged from 0 (0, 5) days to 36 (5, 68) days across sites. 7.7% of notified patients with traumatic injury withdrew. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There is large variation in TTN in trials conducted under EFIC for emergency research. This may be due to several factors. It may or may not be modifiable. Overall rates of withdrawal are low, which suggests current practices related to EFIC are acceptable to those who have participated in emergency research.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Emergências , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Ressuscitação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Resuscitation ; 167: 307-316, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271122

RESUMO

AIM: We hypothesized that serum biomarkers of inflammation including chemokine, cytokine, pituitary hormones, and growth factors following cardiac arrest in children would independently associate with 6-month neurologic outcome. METHODS: In this prospective observational single center study of children with in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest surviving to intensive care unit admission, serum was obtained twice per 24 h period between 0 h and 96 h and once at approximately 196 h post-cardiac arrest. Inflammatory mediators, hormones, and growth factors were analyzed by Luminex Multiplex Bead Immunoassay. We recorded demographics, resuscitation characteristics, and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) at 6 months. We analyzed the association and area under the curve (AUC) of biomarker levels with favorable (PCPC 1-3) or unfavorable (PCPC 4-6, or >1 increase from baseline) outcome. RESULTS: Forty-two children (50% female; median age of 2.5 [IQR: 0.4-10.2]) were enrolled and 18 (42%) died prior to 6-month follow up. Receiver operator curves for initial levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, p < 0.001) and interleukin (IL-17, AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.97, p < 0.001) best classified favorable versus unfavorable 6-month outcome. In multivariable analysis, initial levels of CNTF and IL-17 remained associated with 6-month PCPC. Peak levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), CNTF, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were also independently associated with outcome. CONCLUSION: Increased serum concentrations of CNTF and IL-17 associated with unfavorable 6-month neurologic outcome of children surviving cardiac arrest. Further investigation of the prognostic utility and roles of CNTF and IL-17 in the pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest syndrome are warranted. This project is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00797680) as "Duration of Hypothermia for Neuroprotection after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized, Controlled Trial".


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Síndrome Pós-Parada Cardíaca , Biomarcadores , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Resuscitation ; 164: 79-83, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothermia improves outcomes following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Shivering is common and can be mediated by agents such as dexmedetomidine. The combination of dexmedetomidine and hypothermia results in bradycardia. We hypothesized that glycopyrrolate would prevent bradycardia during dexmedetomidine-mediated hypothermia. METHODS: We randomly assigned eight healthy subjects to premedication with a single 0.4 mg glycopyrrolate intravenous (IV) bolus, titrated glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg IV every 3 min as needed for heart rate <50), or no glycopyrrolate during three separate sessions of 3 h cooling. Following 1 mg/kg IV dexmedetomidine bolus, subjects received 20 ml/kg IV 4 °C saline and surface cooling (EM COOLS, Weinerdorf, Austria). We titrated dexmedetomidine infusion to suppress shivering but permit arousal to verbal stimuli. After 3 h of cooling, we allowed subjects to passively rewarm. We compared heart rate, core temperature, mean arterial blood pressure, perceived comfort and thermal sensation between groups using Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA. RESULTS: Mean age was 27 (SD 6) years and most (N = 6, 75%) were male. Neither heart rate nor core temperature differed between the groups during maintenance of hypothermia (p > 0.05). Mean arterial blood pressure was higher in the glycopyrrolate bolus condition (p < 0.048). Thermal sensation was higher in the control condition than the glycopyrrolate bolus condition (p = 0.01). Bolus glycopyrrolate resulted in less discomfort than titrated glycopyrrolate (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Glycopyrrolate did not prevent the bradycardic response to hypothermia and dexmedetomidine. Mean arterial blood pressure was higher in subjects receiving a bolus of glycopyrrolate before induction of hypothermia. Bolus glycopyrrolate was associated with less intense thermal sensation and less discomfort during cooling.


Assuntos
Bradicardia , Dexmedetomidina , Glicopirrolato , Hipotermia , Adulto , Áustria , Bradicardia/prevenção & controle , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sleep Med Rev ; 59: 101509, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116386

RESUMO

We performed a systematic review of four databases to determine if the evidence supports a short or long duration nap during night shifts to mitigate fatigue, and/or improve health, safety, or performance for emergency services and public safety personnel (PROSPERO CRD42020156780). We focused on experimental research and evaluated the quality of evidence with the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) framework. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool to assess bias and reported findings using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Our search yielded n = 10,345 records and n = 44 were reviewed in full-text. Inter-rater agreement during screening was substantial (Kappa = 0.66). We retained n = 11 publications, reporting on n = 7 experimental studies with a cumulative sample size of n = 140. We identified wide variation in study design, napping interventions (i.e., timing, placement, and duration), and outcomes. We identified mixed findings comparing brief, moderate, and long duration naps on outcomes of interest. All seven studies presented serious risk of bias and the quality of evidence was rated as low. Based on the best available evidence, decisions regarding nap duration during night shift work should be based on time (post-nap) and outcome.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Fadiga , Humanos , Sono , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Resuscitation ; 162: 149-153, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema after cardiac arrest may be a modifiable cause of secondary brain injury. We aimed to identify processes of care associated with recovery in a cohort of patients with mild to moderate edema. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults resuscitated from out-of-hospital arrest (OHCA) at a single center from 2010 to 2018. We included those with cerebral edema ranging from mild to moderate (gray to white matter attenuation ratio (GWR) 1.2 to 1.3 on initial brain computerized tomography (CT). We used Pittsburgh Cardiac Arrest Category (PCAC) to adjust for illness severity and considered the following values in the first 24 h of admission as additional predictors: GWR, lab values affecting serum osmolality (sodium, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)), total osmolality, change in osmolality from 0 to 24 h, cardiac etiology of arrest, targeted temperature to 33 °C (vs 36 °C), time-weighted mean arterial pressure (MAP), partial pressures of arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide and select medications. Our primary outcome was discharge with cerebral performance category 1-3. We used unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression for analysis. RESULTS: We included 214 patients for whom CT was performed median 3.8 [IQR 2.4-5.2] hours after collapse. Median age was 57 [IQR 48-67] years, 82 (38%) were female, and 68 (32%) arrested from ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. In adjusted models, modifiable processes of care were not associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Illness severity, but not modifiable processes of care, were associated with recovery among post-arrest patients with mild-to-moderate cerebral edema.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Substância Branca , Adulto , Encéfalo , Edema Encefálico/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 212, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an emerging body of evidence that links exposure to shift work to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of coronary events, such as myocardial infarction, is greater among night shift workers compared to day workers. There is reason to believe that repeated exposure to shift work, especially night shift work, creates alterations in normal circadian patterns of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) and that these alterations contribute to increased risk of CVD. Recent data suggest that allowing shift workers to nap during night shifts may help to normalize BP and HRV patterns and, over time, reduce the risk of CVD. The risk of CVD related to shift work is elevated for emergency medical services (EMS) shift workers due in part to long-duration shifts, frequent use of night shifts, and a high prevalence of multiple jobs. METHODS: We will use a randomized crossover trial study design with three study conditions. The targeted population is comprised of EMS clinician shift workers, and our goal enrollment is 35 total participants with an estimated 10 of the 35 enrolled not completing the study protocol or classified as lost to attrition. All three conditions will involve continuous monitoring over 72 h and will begin with a 36-h at-home period, followed by 24 total hours in the lab (including a 12-h simulated night shift), ending with 12 h at home. The key difference between the three conditions is the intra-shift nap. Condition 1 will involve a simulated 12-h night shift with total sleep deprivation. Condition 2 will involve a simulated 12-h night shift and a 30-min nap opportunity. Condition 3 will involve a simulated 12-h night shift with a 2-h nap opportunity. Our primary outcomes of interest include blunted BP dipping and reduced HRV as measured by the standard deviation of the inter-beat intervals of normal sinus beats. Non-dipping status will be defined as sleep hours BP dip of less than 10%. DISCUSSION: Our study will address two indicators of cardiovascular health and determine if shorter or longer duration naps during night shifts have a clinically meaningful impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04469803 . Registered on 9 July 2020.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Sono , Pressão Sanguínea , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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