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1.
J Nutr Biochem ; 78: 108342, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004927

RESUMO

The activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and a reduction of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation have been described in obesity. We hypothesize that a moderate caloric restriction (CR) might contribute to reducing ER stress and increasing AMPK phosphorylation in peripheral tissues from genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Zucker Lean and Zucker fa/fa rats were fed with chow diet either ad libitum (AL) (C, as controls) or 80% of AL (CR) for 2 weeks, giving rise to four experimental groups: Lean C, Lean CR, fa/fa C and fa/fa CR. CR significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation in the liver, perirenal adipose tissue (PRAT) and PBMCs from fa/fa rats but not in the subcutaneous AT (SCAT), suggesting a reduced response of SCAT to CR. Liver samples of fa/fa rats exhibited an increased mRNA expression of PERK, EIF-2α, XBP-1(s), Chop and caspase 3, which was significantly reduced by CR. PRAT exhibited an overexpression of Edem and PDIA-4 in fa/fa rats, but only PDIA-4 expression was reduced by CR. eIF-2α phosphorylation was significantly increased in all studied tissues from fa/fa rats and reduced by CR. A negative correlation was detected between p-AMPK and p-eIF-2α in the liver, PRAT and PBMCs from fa/fa rats but not in SCAT. This study shows that a moderate CR reduces ER stress and improves AMPK phosphorylation in several peripheral tissues and in circulating PBMCs, suggesting that alterations observed in PBMCs could reflect metabolic alterations associated with obesity.

2.
J Periodontal Res ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Use of self-reported questionnaires in Dentistry may be useful to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis in epidemiological studies. This study aims to assess the accuracy of self-reporting for predicting the prevalence of periodontitis in a Spanish population participating in a diabetes incidence study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 231 patients participating in the Di@bet.es study. Eight questions about periodontal health were included in a health patient-reported questionnaire. The outcomes from self-reporting were validated against a full-mouth periodontal examination. Multivariable logistic regression predictive modeling was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROCC). RESULTS: Self-reported gum health, loose teeth, tooth appearance, and use of dental floss were associated with different definitions of severe periodontitis. Correlations between responses to the questions were weak. The question "Do you think you might have gum disease?" combined with demographic and well-established risk factors resulted in an AUC value of 0.75, sensitivity of 75.2%, and specificity of 60.6% for severe periodontitis. The answer to 4 questions combined with age, educational level, smoking status, and tooth loss was 76.4% sensitive and 63.5% specific, with an AUC of 0.75 in predicting prevalence of ≥25% of teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥6 mm. CONCLUSION: Predictive models, combining self-reporting on oral health status with demographic and risk factors, were useful for estimating the prevalence of severe periodontitis in the Spanish population.

3.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519528

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of adverse events in pregnancy and jeopardizes long-term health of the mother and offspring. There is currently no consensus as to what screening strategies improve the efficiency of GDM diagnosis. Which criteria should be used? Is the one-step or two-step procedure better? There is no agreement as to what the best dietary approach in the treatment of GDM is. In addition, different nutritional interventions have been studied in the prevention of GDM. The Mediterranean diet seems to be effective in preventing GDM and other maternofoetal outcomes. We review herein our experience using the one-step criteria for GDM screening; the treatment and prevention strategies used; and the overall impact of nutrition on maternofoetal health.

4.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546914

RESUMO

An early antenatal dietary intervention could play an important role in the prevention of metabolic diseases postpartum. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether an early, specific dietary intervention reduces women's cardiovascular risk in the "fourth trimester". This prospective cohort study compares 1675 women from the standard-care group (ScG/n = 676), who received standard-care dietary guidelines, with the intervention group (IG/n = 999), who received Mediterranean diet (MedDiet)-based dietary guidelines, supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and nuts. Cardiovascular risk was determined by the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance syndrome (IrS) (HOMA-IR 3.5) at 12-14 weeks postpartum. MetS was less frequent in the IG (11.3 vs. 19.3%, p < 0.05). The intervention was associated with a reduction in the relative risk of having MetS: 0.74 (95% CI, 0.60-0.90), but not in the risk of IrS. When analyzing the presence of having one or more components of the MetS, the IG had significantly higher rates of having 0 components and lower rates of having ≥1 (p-trend = 0.029). An early MedDiet-based nutritional intervention in pregnancy is associated with reductions in postpartum rates of MetS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of one single-session of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in thyroid benign and predominantly solid nodules. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Unicentric retrospective study in usual clinical setting that included patients with solid and benign thyroid nodules treated with one single session of RFA and with folllow-up of at at least 6 months after the procedure. RFA was performed as an alternative to surgery in cases of pressure symptoms or nodular growth evidence. Patients were evaluated basally and at one, 3 and 6 months after RFA and also at 12 months if the follow-up was available. In each evaluation efficacy variables were recorded (percentual change from basal volume, percentage of nodules reaching a volume reduction above 50% from baseline, patients with disappearance of pressure symptoms and the possibility of antithyroid drug withdrawal) and safety variables were also registered including minor complications (pain needing analgesic drugs, hematoma) and major complications (voice changes, braquial plexus injury, nodule rupture and thyroid dysfunction). RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with a follow-up of at least 6 months after RFA were included, 16 of them with more than 12 months of follow-up. Mean nodule volume changed from 25.4±15.5ml basally to 10.7±9.9ml at month 6 (P<.05) and to 9.9±10,4ml at month 12 in 16 nodules. Six months after RFA mean volumetric reduction was 57.5±24% and 65% of the nodules reached a volume reduction above 50% from baseline. Median percentage of reduction at month 6 was 50.4±25.8% for nodules with a basal volume above 20ml (n=13) and 65.3±20.1% for nodules with a lower basal volume (n=11). Pressure symptoms reported in 12 patients disappeared in all cases. Antithyroid drugs could be stopped in 3 of 4 cases treated before RFA. A mild and transient pain responsive to conventional analgesic drugs was recorded in 9 patients during the 24h after the procedure and in 7 a small perithyroid and transient hematoma was observed in the 48 following hours. One major complication was described as a nodule rupture that recovered spontaneously. There were no changes in hormonal values in euthyroid cases. CONCLUSION: A single session of RFA seems to be an effective and safe procedure in patients with solid thyroid nodules with pressure symptoms or relevant growth evidence. As an outpatient and scarless procedure with no need of general anaesthesia it could become an useful alternative to lobectomy when surgery is refused or in patients at high surgical risk.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141972

RESUMO

We reported that a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) and pistachios, reduces GDM incidence and several other adverse outcomes. In order to assess its translational effects in the real world we evaluated the effect of MedDiet from 1st gestational visit in GDM rate compared with control (CG) and intervention (IG) groups from the previously referred trial. As secondary objective we also compared adverse perinatal outcomes between normoglycemic and diabetic women. This trial is a prospective, clinic-based, interventional study with a single group. 1066 eligible normoglycaemic women before 12 gestational weeks were assessed. 932 women (32.4 ± 5.2 years old, pre-gestational BMI 22.5 ± 3.5 kg/m2) received a motivational lifestyle interview with emphasis on daily consumption of EVOO and nuts, were followed-up and analysed. Binary regression analyses were used to examine the risk for each pregnancy outcome, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational weight gain (GWG), caesarean-section, perineal trauma, preterm delivery, small (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA), and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. GDM was diagnosed in 13.9%. This rate was significantly lower than the CG: RR 0.81 (0.73-0.93), p < 0.001 and no different from the IG: RR 0.96 (0.85-1.07), p = 0.468. GWG was lower in diabetic women (10.88 ± 6.46 vs. 12.30 ± 5.42 Kg; p = 0.013). Excessive weight gain (EWG) was also lower in GDM [RR 0.91 (0.86-0.96); p < 0.001] without a significant increase of insufficient weight gain. LGA were also lower (1 (0.8%) vs. 31 (3.9%); p < 0.05)), and SGA were similar (5 (3.8%) vs. 30 (3.7%)). LGA were associated to EWG (RR 1.61 (1.35-1.91), p < 0.001). Differences in other maternal-foetal outcomes were not found. In conclusions an early MedDiet nutritional intervention reduces GDM incidence and maternal-foetal adverse outcomes and should be universally applied as 1st line therapy. GDM might not be consider as a high risk pregnancy any longer.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Entrevista Motivacional , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Insulina/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(5): 273-280, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840583

RESUMO

Objective The activity of brown adipose tissue is sensitive to changes in ambient temperature. A lower exposure to cold could result in an increased risk of developing diabetes at population level, although this factor has not yet been sufficiently studied. Design We studied 5072 subjects, participants in a national, cross-sectional population-based study representative of the Spanish adult population (Di@bet.es study). All subjects underwent a clinical, demographic and lifestyle survey, a physical examination and blood sampling (75 g oral glucose tolerance test). Insulin resistance was estimated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The mean annual temperature (°C) in each individual municipality was collected from the Spanish National Meteorology Agency. Results Linear regression analysis showed a significant positive association between mean annual temperature and fasting plasma glucose (ß: 0.087, P < 0.001), 2 h plasma glucose (ß: 0.049, P = 0.008) and HOMA-IR (ß: 0.046, P = 0.008) in multivariate adjusted models. Logistic regression analyses controlled by multiple socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, adiposity (BMI) and geographical elevation showed increasing odds ratios for prediabetes (WHO 1999), ORs 1, 1.26 (0.95-1.66), 1.08 (0.81-1.44) and 1.37 (1.01-1.85) P for trend = 0.086, diabetes (WHO 1999) ORs 1, 1.05 (0.79-1.39), 1.20 (0.91-1.59) and 1.39 (1.02-1.90) P = 0.037, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥75th percentile of the non-diabetic population): ORs 1, 1.03 (0.82-1.30), 1.22 (0.96-1.55), 1.26 (0.98-1.63) (P for trend = 0.046) as the mean annual temperature (into quartiles) rose. Conclusions Our study reports an association between ambient temperature and the prevalence of dysglycemia and insulin resistance in Spanish adults, consistent with the hypothesis that a lower exposure to cold could be associated with a higher risk of metabolic derangements.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682848

RESUMO

To date it is not clear what the role of dairy products is in metabolic diseases like diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the association between dairy product consumption and those pathologies. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5081 adults included in the di@bet.es study, from 100 health centers around Spain. Food frequency questionnaires were carried out concerning consumption habits, which included dairy product consumption. Logistic regression models were used for the association analyses between the variables controlling confounding variables. Women had a higher consumption of milk, cheese, or yogurt than men (p < 0.0001), but men consumed more sugar dairy products (p < 0.001). People who live in the North of Spain consume more dairy products than those who live in the East. Dairy product consumption was inversely associated with the presence of hypertension regardless of age, sex, geographical region, and body mass index (BMI) (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.743; p = 0.022). The presence of obesity was inversely associated with dairy consumption regardless of age, sex, and geographical region (OR 0.61; p < 0.001). Milk consumption was not associated with diabetes. Our results show that consuming dairy products is associated with a better metabolic profile in the Spanish population.


Assuntos
Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 74(1): 69-79, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554220

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), enhanced with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and nuts, on a composite of adverse maternofoetal outcomes of women with normoglycemia during pregnancy. METHODS: This was a sub-analysis of the St Carlos gestational diabetes mellitus Prevention Study. Only normoglycemic women were analysed (697). They were randomized (at 8-12th gestational weeks) to: standard-care control group (337), where fat consumption was limited to 30% of total caloric intake; or intervention group (360), where a MedDiet, enhanced with EVOO and pistachios (40-42% fats of total caloric intake) was recommended. The primary outcome was a composite of maternofoetal outcomes (CMFOs): at least having 1 event of emergency C-section, perineal trauma, pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, prematurity, large-for-gestational-age and small-for gestational-age. RESULTS: Crude relative risk showed that the intervention was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of CMFOs (0.48 [0.37-0.63]; p = 0.0001), with a number-needed-to-treat = 5. Risk of urinary tract infections, emergency C-sections, perineal trauma, large-for-gestational-age and small-for gestational age new-borns were also significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: A MedDiet, enhanced with EVOO and nuts, was associated with a risk reduction of CMFOs in over 50% in normoglycemic pregnant women. Therefore, it might be a potentially adequate diet for pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier ISRCTN84389045. The study was registered on September 27, 2013. Last edited on September 26, 2018.

10.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 6(1): e000550, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397489

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess whether Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet)-based medical nutrition therapy facilitates near-normoglycemia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMw) and observe the effects on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Research design and methods: This is a secondary analysis of the St Carlos GDM Prevention Study, conducted between January and December 2015 in Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid, Spain). One thousand consecutive women with normoglycemia were included before 12 gestational weeks (GWs), with 874 included in the final analysis. Of these, 177 women were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 697 had normal glucose tolerance. All GDMw received MedDiet-based medical nutrition therapy with a recommended daily extra virgin olive oil intake ≥40 mL and a daily handful of nuts. The primary goal was comparison of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at 36-38 GWs in GDMw and women with normal glucose tolerance (NGTw). Results: GDMw as compared with NGTw had higher HbA1c levels at 24-28 GWs (5.1%±0.3% (32±0.9 mmol/mol) vs 4.9%±0.3% (30±0.9 mmol/mol), p=0.001). At 36-38 GWs values were similar between the groups. Similarly, fasting serum insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resitance (HOMA-IR) were higher in GDMw at 24-28 GWs (p=0.001) but became similar at 36-38 GWs. 26.6% of GDMw required insulin for glycemic control. GDMw compared with NGTw had higher rates of insufficient weight gain (39.5% vs 22.0%, p=0.001), small for gestational age (6.8% vs 2.6%, p=0.009), and neonatal intensive care unit admission (5.6% vs 1.7%, p=0.006). The rates of macrosomia, large for gestational age, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, prematurity and cesarean sections were comparable with NGTw. Conclusions: Using a MedDiet-based medical nutrition therapy as part of GDM management is associated with achievement of near-normoglycemia, subsequently making most pregnancy outcomes similar to those of NGTw.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6571, 2018 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700318

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that iron deficiency (ID) may impair thyroid hormone metabolism, however replication in wide samples of the general adult population has not been performed. We studied 3846 individuals free of thyroid disease, participants in a national, cross sectional, population based study representative of the Spanish adult population. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence (E170, Roche Diagnostics). Serum ferritin was analyzed by immunochemiluminescence (Architect I2000, Abbott Laboratories). As ferritin levels decreased (>100, 30-100, 15-30, <15 µg/L) the adjusted mean concentrations of FT4 (p < 0.001) and FT3 (p < 0.001) descended, whereas TSH levels remained unchanged (p = 0.451). In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, UI, BMI and smoking status, subjects with ferritin levels <30 µg/L were more likely to present hypothyroxinemia (FT4 < 12.0 pmol/L p5): OR 1.5 [1.1-2.2] p = 0.024, and hypotriiodothyroninemia (FT3 < 3.9 pmol/L p5): OR 1.8 [1.3-2.6] p = 0.001 than the reference category with ferritin ≥30 µg/L. There was no significant heterogeneity of the results between men, pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women or according to the iodine nutrition status. Our results confirm an association between ID and hypothyroxinemia and hypotriiodothyroninemia in the general adult population without changes in TSH.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(3): 446-451, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder, and is associated with high-morbimortality rates. The true prevalence of hyponatremia in patients on parenteral nutrition (PN) is unknown, and the relationship between PN composition and development of hyponatremia has yet to be studied. Hypoproteinemia, a common finding in patients receiving PN, induces an overestimation of serum sodium (SNa) levels, when using indirect electrolyte methodology. Thus, SNa should be corrected for serum total protein levels (TP). The objective was to accurately determine the prevalence of hyponatremia (indirect SNa corrected for PT) and evaluate the relationship between the composition of PN and the development of hyponatremia. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Medical records of 222 hospitalized patients receiving total PN during a 7-month period were reviewed. Composition of PN, indirect SNa-mmol/l-, and SNa corrected for TP (SNa-TP)-mmol/l-, both upon initiation and during PN administration, were analyzed. RESULTS: Hyponatremia (SNa < 135 mmol/l) was present in 81% of subjects when SNa was corrected for TP, vs. 43% without correction (p = 0.001). In total 64% of patients that were eunatremic upon initiation of PN developed hyponatremia during PN administration, as detected by SNa-TP, vs. 28% as detected by uncorrected SNa (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in volume, osmolarity, sodium or total osmols administered in PN between patients who developed hyponatremia and those who remained eunatremic. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of patients receiving PN present hyponatremia, when indirect SNa levels are corrected for TP. The development of hyponatremia during PN is not related to the composition of the PN.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Nutrição Parenteral , Sódio/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Parenteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2018 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602688

RESUMO

A prenatal diet affects materno-foetal outcomes. This is a post hoc analysis of the St. Carlos gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) Prevention Study. It aims to evaluate the effect of a late first-trimester (>12 gestational weeks) degree of adherence to a MedDiet pattern-based on six food targets-on a composite of materno-foetal outcomes (CMFCs). The CMFCs were defined as having emergency C-section, perineal trauma, pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, prematurity, large-for-gestational-age, and/or small-for-gestational-age. A total of 874 women were stratified into three groups according to late first-trimester compliance with six food targets: >12 servings/week of vegetables, >12 servings/week of fruits, <2 servings/week of juice, >3 servings/week of nuts, >6 days/week consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), and ≥40 mL/day of EVOO. High adherence was defined as complying with 5⁻6 targets; moderate adherence 2⁻4 targets; low adherence 0⁻1 targets. There was a linear association between high, moderate, and low adherence, and a lower risk of GDM, CMFCs, urinary tract infections (UTI), prematurity, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns (all p < 0.05). The odds ratios (95% CI) for GDM and CMFCs in women with a high adherence were 0.35((0.18⁻0.67), p = 0.002) and 0.23((0.11⁻0.48), p < 0.001), respectively. Late first-trimester high adherence to the predefined six food targets is associated with a reduction in the risk of GDM, CMFCs, UTI, prematurity, and SGA new-borns.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Obes Surg ; 27(12): 3341-3343, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034446

RESUMO

We aimed to corroborate glycemic control after bariatric surgery (BS) using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and analyze if data could predict long-term outcome. We evaluated 24 of our patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent BS (12 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, RYGB, and 12 single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy, SADI-S) and who were in remission after 18-24 months' follow-up. At this time, a CGM device was placed for 7 days. Patients were reevaluated thereafter for at least 5 years. Glucose variability (GV) was lower in patients after SADI-S and in the 18 patients who were still in remission after 5 years, and provided more information on long-term status than classical diabetes-related characteristics.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/reabilitação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185873, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence is increasing and becoming a major public health concern. Whether a Mediterranean diet can help prevent GDM in unselected pregnant women has yet to be studied. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of GDM with two different dietary models. All consecutive normoglycemic (<92 mg/dL) pregnant women at 8-12 gestational weeks (GW) were assigned to Intervention Group (IG, n = 500): MedDiet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and pistachios; or Control Group (CG, n = 500): standard diet with limited fat intake. Primary outcome was to assess the effect of the intervention on GDM incidence at 24-28 GW. Gestational weight gain (GWG), pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean section (CS), preterm delivery, perineal trauma, small and large for gestational age (SGA and LGA) and admissions to neonatal intensive care unit were also assessed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: A total of 874 women completed the study (440/434, CG/IG). According to nutritional questionnaires and biomarker analysis, women in the IG had a good adherence to the intervention. 177/874 women were diagnosed with GDM, 103/440 (23.4%) in CG and 74/434(17.1%) in IG, p = 0.012. The crude relative risk (RR) for GDM was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56-0.95; p = 0.020) IG vs CG and persisted after adjusted multivariable analysis, 0.75(95% CI: 0.57-0.98; p = 0.039). IG had also significantly reduced rates of insulin-treated GDM, prematurity, GWG at 24-28 and 36-38 GW, emergency CS, perineal trauma, and SGA and LGA newborns (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An early nutritional intervention with a supplemented MedDiet reduces the incidence of GDM and improves several maternal and neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Pistacia , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 71(1-2): 1-7, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28618404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia (HN) and its associated morbimortality in hospitalized patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: A retrospective study including 222 patients receiving total PN (parenteral nutrition group [PNG]) over a 7-month period in a tertiary hospital and 176 matched to 179 control subjects without PN (control subjects group [CSG]). Demographic data, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), date of HN detection-(serum sodium or SNa <135 mmol/L)-intrahospital mortality, and hospital length-of-stay (LOS) were registered. In the PNG, body mass index (BMI) and SNa before, during, and after PN were recorded. RESULTS: HN was more prevalent in the PNG: 52.8 vs. 35.8% (p = 0.001), and independent of age, gender, or CCI (OR 1.8 [95% CI 1.1-2.8], p = 0.006). In patients on PN, sustained HN (75% of all intraindividual SNa <135 mmol/L) was associated with a higher mortality rate independent of age, gender, CCI, or BMI (OR 7.38 [95% CI 1.07-50.8], p = 0.042). The absence of HN in PN patients was associated with a shorter hospital LOS (<30 days) and was independent of other comorbidities (OR 3.89 [95% CI 2.11-7.18], p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HN is more prevalent in patients on PN. Sustained HN is associated with a higher intrahospital mortality rate. Absence of HN is associated with a shorter hospital LOS.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Nutrição Parenteral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tamanho da Amostra , Sódio/sangue
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(4): 788-793, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in different BMI categories and its impact on the classification of hypothyroidism. METHODS: The study included 3,928 individuals free of thyroid disease (without previous thyroid disease, no interfering medications, TSH <10 µUI/mL and thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO Abs] <50 IU/mL) who participated in a national, cross-sectional, population-based study and were representative of the adult population of Spain. Data gathered included clinical and demographic characteristics, physical examination, and blood and urine sampling. TSH, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and TPO Ab were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence (E170, Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). RESULTS: The reference range (p2.5-97.5) for TSH was estimated as 0.6 to 4.8 µUI/mL in the underweight category (BMI<20 kg/m2 ), 0.6 to 5.5 µUI/mL in the normal-weight category (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m2 ), 0.6 to 5.5 µUI/mL in the overweight category (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2 ), 0.5 to 5.9 µUI/mL in the obesity category (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m2 ), and 0.7 to 7.5 µUI/mL in the morbid obesity category (BMI ≥40). By using the reference criteria for the normal-weight population, the prevalence of high TSH levels increased threefold in the morbid obesity category (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Persons with morbid obesity might be inappropriately classified if the standard ranges of normality of TSH for the normal-weight population are applied to them.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Tireotropina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Magreza/sangue , Magreza/complicações , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Thyroid ; 27(2): 156-166, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Spain and its association with various clinical, environmental, and demographic variables. METHODS: The study included 4554 subjects (42.4% men) with a mean age of 50 years (range 18-93 years), who were participants in a national, cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 2009-2010. Data gathered included clinical and demographic characteristics, physical examination, and blood sampling. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) concentrations were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence. Urinary iodine (UI) levels were measured in an isolated urine sample. RESULTS: The prevalence of treated hypothyroidism, untreated subclinical hypothyroidism, and untreated clinical hypothyroidism was 4.2% [confidence interval (CI) 3.6-4.9%], 4.6% [CI 4.0-5.2%], and 0.3% [CI 0.1-0.5%], respectively. The prevalence of total hypothyroidism (including all fractions) was 9.1% [CI 8.2-10.0%]. The prevalence of total hyperthyroidism was 0.8% [CI 0.6-1.1]. A total of 7.5% [CI 6.7-8.3%] of the population tested positive for TPOAbs (≥50 IU/mL). In multivariate logistic regression models, TPOAbs were strongly associated with both hypothyroidism (p < 0.001) and hyperthyroidism (p = 0.005), whereas high UI levels (>200 µg/g creatinine) were associated with hypothyroidism (p < 0.001). The positive association between UI and hypothyroidism remained for both treated (p < 0.001) and untreated (p < 0.05) hypothyroidism, whereas it was especially significant for non-autoimmune (TPOAbs negative) forms (p < 0.001). At UI levels ≥200 µg/g, there was a positive correlation between UI and thyrotropin levels (ß = 0.152, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between UI and free triiodothyronine levels (ß = -0.134, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: According to the data, a large proportion (10%) of the Spanish population has some evidence of thyroid dysfunction. High TPOAb concentrations were associated with both hypo- and hyperthyroidism, whereas high UI concentrations were associated with hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/imunologia , Hipertireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Iodo/urina , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/imunologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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