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1.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440565

RESUMO

Air pollution is one of the main global environmental problems, where bryophytes, due to their high capacity to retain metals and other pollutants, have been widely used in active air quality monitoring studies in temperate and tropical zones. Thus, in this study, we analyzed for the first time the concentrations of eight metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, aluminum, iron, manganese, lead and zinc) in three species of transplanted mosses (Rhacocarpus purpurascens (Brid.) Paris, Sphagnum sp. and Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Schimp.) from Ecuador. Significant differences were found for the three species in the concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe and Zn between urban and control areas, pointing to the Central zone as the main source of contamination with the highest concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and Zn, related to vehicular traffic. Lead did not differ between zones for Rhacocarpus purpurascens and Sphagnum sp.; however, Thuidium delicatulum accumulated different concentrations between urban areas and the control areas. The three species of mosses provided valuable information on the contamination of Al, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the urban area of the city of Loja, and therefore can be used in future air quality monitoring programs over time in tropical cities.

2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361759

RESUMO

Croton ferrugineus Kunth is an endemic species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine both for wound healing and as an antiseptic. In this study, fresh Croton ferrugineus leaves were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against three Gram-positive bacteria, one Gram-negative bacterium and one dermatophyte fungus. The radical scavenging properties of the essential oil was evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify thirty-five compounds representing more than 99.95% of the total composition. Aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-caryophyllene was the main constituent with 20.47 ± 1.25%. Other main compounds were myrcene (11.47 ± 1.56%), ß-phellandrene (10.55 ± 0.02%), germacrene D (7.60 ± 0.60%), and α-humulene (5.49 ± 0.38%). The essential oil from Croton ferrugineus presented moderate activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) with an MIC of 1000 µg/mL, a scavenging capacity SC50 of 901 ± 20 µg/mL with the ABTS method, and very strong antiglucosidase activity with an IC50 of 146 ± 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Croton/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
3.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207496

RESUMO

The essential oil (EO) of Salvia leucantha Cav. was isolated by steam distillation of the aerial parts collected in the South of Ecuador. Its physical properties were evaluated and the chemical composition of the oil was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses using two chromatographic columns, DB-5ms and HP-INNOWax. Six major compounds were identified, namely, the sesquiterpenes 6.9-guaiadiene (19.14%), (E)-caryophyllene (16.80%), germacrene D (10.22%), (E)-ß-farnesene (10.00%), and bicyclogermacrene (7.52%), and the monoterpenoid bornyl acetate (14.74%). Furthermore, four pairs of enantiomers were determined by enantioselective GC-MS of the essential oil. (-)-germacrene D and (+)-α-pinene showed the highest enantiomeric excess (ee%). In an in vitro assay, the essential oil demonstrated an interesting inhibitory activity of the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), with an IC50 = 32.60 µg/mL, which is the highest determined for a Salvia species. In contrast, the oil was weakly active against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with an IC50 > 250 µg/mL.

4.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063513

RESUMO

Chemical compositions of plants are affected by the initial nutrient contents in the soil and climatic conditions; thus, we analyzed for the first time the effects of soil and leaf nutrients on the compositions of the essential oils (EOs) of Siparuna muricata in four different localities in Ecuador. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Enantiomeric distribution by GC/MS was determined, modifying the enantiomeric separation of ß-pinene, limonene, δ-elemene, ß-bourbonene, cis-cadina-1 (6), 4-diene and atractylone. A total of 44 compounds were identified. The most representative for L1 were guaiol, atractylone and 4-diene; for L2, cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene and myrcene; for L3, atractylone, myrcene and germacrene B; and finally, L4 germacrene B, myrcene and cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene. Correlations between soil- leaf chemical elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, N and Si in the different localities were significant with chemical composition of the essential oil of Siparuna muricata; however, correlations between soil and leaf K, P, and Na were not significant. Cluster and NMDS analysis showed high dissimilarity values of secondary metabolites between four localities related with changes in soil- leaf nutrients. Thus, the SIMPER routine revealed that not all secondary metabolites contribute equally to establishing the differences in the four localities, and the largest contributions are due to differences in guaiol, cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene, atractylone and germacrene. Our investigation showed for the first time the influences of altitude and soil- leaf chemical elements in the chemical composition of the EOs of S. muricata.


Assuntos
Laurales/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Solo/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Equador , Ionização de Chama , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/análise
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071744

RESUMO

This work aimed to study the chemical composition, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, and enantiomeric analysis of the essential oil from the aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of the plant Lepechinia paniculata (Kunth) Epling from Ecuador. The essential oil (EO) was obtained through steam distillation. The chemical composition of the oil was evaluated by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The analyses led to the identification of 69 compounds in total, of which 40 were found in the leaves and 29 were found in the flowers of the plant. The major components found in the oil were 1,8-Cineole, ß-Pinene, δ-3-Carene, α-Pinene, (E)-Caryophyllene, Guaiol, and ß-Phellandrene. Flower essential oil showed interesting selective inhibitory activity against both enzymes AChE (28.2 ± 1.8 2 µg/mL) and BuChE (28.8 ± 1.5 µg/mL). By contrast, the EO of the leaves showed moderate mean inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), with IC50 values of 38.2 ± 2.9 µg/mL and 47.4 ± 2.3 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Eucaliptol/química , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/química , Estereoisomerismo
6.
Vet World ; 14(3): 569-577, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935399

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Senecio rhizomatus Rusby (SrR) is a medicinal plant of the Asteraceae family and traditionally consumed as infusion in the Andean region from Peru for inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to determine the histopathological changes afforded by SrR in 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer (BC) in rats. Materials and Methods: An ethanolic extract of SrR aerial parts was prepared by maceration with 96% ethanol, and the chemical components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry; the antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picril-hidrazil (DPPH) assay; and the acute toxicity was assessed according to the OCED 423 guidelines. In a pharmacological study, 30 female Holztman rats were distributed randomly into five groups, as follows. Group I: Negative control (physiological serum, 2 mL/kg); Group II. DMBA (80 mg/Kg body weight); and Groups III, IV, and V: DMBA + ethanol extract of SrR at doses of 10, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The antioxidant activity of the SrR extract against DPPH was 92.50% at 200 mg/mL. The oral administration of SrR at doses of 50, 300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg did not show any clinical evidence of toxicity or occurrence of death. The groups that received SrR presented a lower frequency of tumors and acumulative tumor volume compared with the DMBA group (p<0.05); the DMBA group exhibited a higher incidence of necrosis and moderate mitosis, up to 66.67% and 100.00%, respectively. Finally, infiltrating carcinoma with extensive tumor necrosis was evidenced. Conclusion: In experimental conditions, the ethanolic extract of SrR had a protective effect in DMBA-induced BC in female rats. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of its main phytochemicals could be responsible for the effect observed, and SrR seems to be a safe extract in the preclinical phase.

7.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578706

RESUMO

Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav. is an aromatic shrub native to Ecuador, the leaves of which are used to prepare the traditional beverage Guaviduca. Different health benefits are attributed to the guaviduca beverage, which is consumed as a traditional and folk medicine. In this study, fresh P. carpunya leaves were collected in the winter and summer and subjected to hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oil. The guaviduca beverage was prepared by infusion in water and the volatile compounds were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction. Chemical composition and enantioselective analyses were performed by gas chromatography. The antibacterial activity was assayed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The scavenging radical properties of the essential oil was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydryl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured using the spectrophotometric method. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify more than 98% of the compounds in all samples. The main constituent of the essential oil was 1,8-cineole (25.20 ± 1.31%) in P. carpunya collected in winter and (17.45 ± 2.33%) in P. carpunya collected in summer, while in the beverage, there was 14 mg/L. Safrole was identified in the essential oil (PCW 21.91 ± 2.79%; PCS 13.18 ± 1.72%) as well as in the beverage (2.43 ± 0.12 mg/L). Enantioselective analysis was used to investigate the enantiomeric ratio and excess of four chiral components. The essential oil presented a strong activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae with a MIC of 500 µg/mL and a very strong anticholinesterase activity with an IC50 of 36.42 ± 1.15 µg/mL.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752086

RESUMO

Water contamination is a major environmental problem in many cities of the world. Most water contamination results from industry and human activities that generate toxic substances (e.g., metals). Rheophilic and aquatic mosses are found in lotic ecosystems, and their morphological and physiological traits are responsive to ecological and pollution gradients. Here we hypothesized that the native rheophilic moss Platyhypnidium aquaticum (A. Jaeger) M. Fleisch exposed to polluted waters can bioaccumulate greater amounts of metals, and a metalloid, than P. aquaticum exposed to pollution-free water. To this aim, we tested the bioindicator capacity of the aquatic P. aquaticum for 15 metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, K, Ca, Na, Mn, V, Co, Ba, Cr, Al, Sr, and Mg) and one metalloid (As), in twelve river samples coming from three urban and one control zone along the Zamora river in the city of Loja. When compared to the control, our results showed that P. aquaticum in the Southern, Central, and Northern zones of the city bioaccumulated higher concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Zn, and the metalloid As. On the other hand, concentrations of Al, Ca, Cr, Pb, and V in P. aquaticum tended to be lower in the control zone, but these differences were not significant. We suggest that the presence of these contaminants may be related to water pollution (e.g., residual discharges and a lack of treatment systems) along urban zones of the river. We report for the first time the utility of P. aquaticum as a model species for development of long-term biomonitoring programs of water contamination in South America. Passive biomonitoring with P. aquaticum can be a simple and low-cost method to obtain reliable data of the current state of water contamination with metals and metalloids in tropical regions.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 263: 113162, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736051

RESUMO

ETHNOBOTANICAL AND ETHNOMEDICINAL RELEVANCE: In southern Ecuador, horchata lojana is a popular aromatic and refreshing beverage that is prepared from an aqueous infusion of different mixtures of local medicinal and aromatic plants. The drink is considered a traditional anti-inflammatory agent and brain tonic; due these properties, it has been drunk since Colonial Times. Several pharmacological studies have evaluated the effects of horchata aqueous infusion. However, the aromatic profile and the contribution of the volatile components to the biological activity of the drink have not been investigated so far. For these reasons, we have determined the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) distilled from five mixtures of aromatic plants commonly used for the preparation of this traditional drink. Moreover, to support the curative properties of the aromatic plants, the anticholinesterase activity of the EOs was examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Different bunches of fresh mixed medicinal and aromatic plants, called tongos, are sold at local markets in the province of Loja for the preparation of different types of horchata. In this research we have purchased plant bunches sold at five popular markets of Loja province. Subsequently, aromatic plants in each bunch were separated from medicinal plants and were then hydrodistilled to give the corresponding EOs. Subsequently, the chemical composition of each EO was determined by GC-MS/GC-FID techniques, whereas the cholinesterase inhibitory activity in vitro was determined against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes. AIMS OF THE STUDY: i) to contribute to the chemical and pharmacological study of the aroma components of the traditional Ecuadorian drink horchata lojana; ii) to identify botanically the mixtures of aromatic plants used to make the drink; iii) to establish, on the basis of the chemical composition of the EOs, the compounds mainly responsible for the characteristic beverage flavor; iv) to establish the possible existence of an aromatic pattern characteristic of each horchata preparation; v) to test the anticholinesterase activity of the EOs against AChE and BuChE in order to support the traditional consume of the drink as an effective brain tonic. RESULTS: A total of 23 botanical families and 32 species of plants used for the preparation of five different variants of the traditional horchata lojana beverage, have been identified. Fourteen aromatic species were determined to be responsible for the characteristic flavor of the drink. All the analyzed EOs belong to the monoterpene type. A total of 88 compounds have been identified in the different EOs, twenty-four of which are common components of the oils. CONCLUSIONS: According to the main components of the EOs distilled from the five groups of horchata lojana plants, four aromatic profiles have been defined: (i) neral + geranial + carvone, (ii) neral + geranial + myrcene; (iii) geranial + methyl eugenol + isomenthone + neral + citronellol; (iv) (E)-anethole + geranial + pulegone. Moreover, according to the literature, several aromatic plants and individual EOs components exhibit a wide range of biological activities. This finding as well as the significant BuChE inhibitory activity exhibited in vitro by the EOs give scientific support to the use of identified aromatic plants in the traditional preparation of horchata, that is considered a natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedy, and an effective brain tonic.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Plantas Medicinais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Equador , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
10.
Molecules ; 25(14)2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698395

RESUMO

C. citratus essential oil and carvacrol have shown an antitumor effect on breast tumor cell lines; the main objective of this research was to evaluate the antitumor effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (EOCc) and carvacrol on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in female rats. Cancer was induced by a single administration of DMBA at dose of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW). A total of 54 female Holtzman rats were randomly assigned into 9 groups (n = 6). Group I: PS (Physiological saline); Group II: DMBA; Groups III, IV, and V: DMBA + EOCc at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day BW, respectively; Groups VI, VII, and VIII: DMBA + carvacrol at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day BW, respectively; and group IX: DMBA + EOCc + carvacrol at doses of 100 mg/kg/day BW. The treatment lasted 14 weeks. As results, EOCc showed a reduction in tumors as well as necrosis and mitosis. Animals treated with carvacrol did not show necrosis, mitosis, or infiltration. Carvacrol at dose of 100 mg/kg/day BW revealed a significant decrease in the cumulative tumor volume down to 0.11 ± 0.05 cm3 compared to 0.38 ± 0.04 cm3 of the DMBA group (p < 0.01). It is concluded that EOCc and carvacrol had an antitumor effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in female rats.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon/química , Cimenos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , 9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Picratos/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565864

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of the ethanolic extract of Cordia lutea flowers (EECL) on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea- (MNU), cyproterone-, and testosterone-induced prostate cancer in rats. 40 Holtzman male rats were used and assigned to 5 groups (n = 8). In Group I, rats received normal saline (10 mL/Kg); Group II: rats were induced for prostate cancer with cyproterone, testosterone, and NMU; Groups III, IV, and V: rats received EECL daily, at doses of 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. After the period of treatment, animals were sacrificed by an overdose of pentobarbital and blood samples were collected for determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The prostate was dissected and weighed accurately. The ventral lobe of the prostate was processed for histopathology analysis. The somatic prostate index decreased with EECL at dependent dose, from 0.34 ± 0.04 to 0.23 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The PSA levels also decreased significantly at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Histopathological analysis showed a decrease in the number of prostatic layers with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) and low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (LG-PIN) at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The ethanolic extract of Cordia lutea flowers had a chemopreventive effect on induced prostate cancer in rats.

12.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 29(6): 749-754, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057852

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This paper describes the chemical composition and the enantiomer content of the volatile oil hydrodistilled from Clinopodium brownei (Sw.) Kuntze, Lamiaceae. The plant was collected in the South of Ecuador. Thirty one components were identified by GC-MS, which accounted for the 96.15% of the volatile oil. The major components were pulegone (48.44%), menthone (34.55%) and β-acorenol (3.41%). Oxygenated monoterpenes (86.06%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (5.36%) constituted the most abundant fractions. The enantiomeric compositions of β-pinene, sabinene, 3-octanol, menthone, pulegone and menthyl acetate were determined by enantioselective GC-MS. (-)-Menthone showed the highest enantiomeric excess (ee = 83.4%). In in vitro tests, the volatile oil showed high selective inhibitory activity for butyrylcholinesterase with an IC50, 13.4 ± 1.8 µg/ml. In contrast, it was weakly active against acetylcholinesterase with an IC50 >250 µg/ml.

13.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 10(4)2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088082

RESUMO

This study investigated the chemical composition, physical proprieties, biological activity, and enantiomeric analysis of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Niphogeton dissecta (culantrillo del cerro) from Ecuador, obtained by steam distillation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil was realized by gas chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS and GC-FID). Acorenone B was identified by GC-MS and NMR experiments. The enantiomeric distribution of some constituents has been assessed by enantio-GC through the use of a chiral cyclodextrin-based capillary column. We identified 41 components that accounted for 96.46% of the total analyzed, the major components were acorenone B (41.01%) and (E)-ß-ocimene (29.64%). The enantiomeric ratio of (+)/(-)-ß-pinene was 86.9:13.1, while the one of (+)/(-)-sabinene was 80.9:19.1. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity, expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC 10 mg/mL) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 5 mg/mL). Furthermore, it inhibited butyrylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 11.5 µg/mL. Pure acorenone B showed inhibitory activity against both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of 40.8 µg/mL and 10.9 µg/mL, respectively.

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