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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most classical aniridia is caused by PAX6 haploinsufficiency. PAX6 missense variants can be hypomorphic or mimic haploinsufficiency. We hypothesized that missense variants also cause previously undescribed disease by altering the affinity and/or specificity of PAX6 genomic interactions. METHODS: We screened PAX6 in 372 individuals with bilateral microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC) from the Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit eye malformation cohort (HGUeye) and reviewed data from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. We performed cluster analysis on PAX6-associated ocular phenotypes by variant type and molecular modeling of the structural impact of 86 different PAX6 causative missense variants. RESULTS: Eight different PAX6 missense variants were identified in 17 individuals (15 families) with MAC, accounting for 4% (15/372) of our cohort. Seven altered the paired domain (p.[Arg26Gln]x1, p.[Gly36Val]x1, p.[Arg38Trp]x2, p.[Arg38Gln]x1, p.[Gly51Arg]x2, p.[Ser54Arg]x2, p.[Asn124Lys]x5) and one the homeodomain (p.[Asn260Tyr]x1). p.Ser54Arg and p.Asn124Lys were exclusively associated with severe bilateral microphthalmia. MAC-associated variants were predicted to alter but not ablate DNA interaction, consistent with the electrophoretic mobility shifts observed using mutant paired domains with well-characterized PAX6-binding sites. We found no strong evidence for novel PAX6-associated extraocular disease. CONCLUSION: Altering the affinity and specificity of PAX6-binding genome-wide provides a plausible mechanism for the worse-than-null effects of MAC-associated missense variants.

2.
J Neurol ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612321

RESUMO

ATP8A2-related disorders are autosomal recessive conditions that associate encephalopathy with or without hypotonia, psychomotor delay, abnormal movements, chorea, tremor, optic atrophy and cerebellar atrophy (CARMQ4). Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified six point mutations (one splice site and five missense mutations) involving ATP8A2 in six individuals from five families. Two patients from one family with the homozygous p.Gly585Val mutation had a milder presentation without encephalopathy. Expression and functional studies of the missense mutations demonstrated that protein levels of four of the five missense variants were very low and lacked phosphatidylserine-activated ATPase activity. One variant p.Ile215Leu, however, expressed at normal levels and displayed phospholipid-activated ATPase activity similar to the non-mutated protein. We therefore expand for the first time the phenotype related to ATP8A2 mutations to less severe forms characterized by cerebellar ataxia without encephalopathy and suggest that ATP8A2 should be analyzed for all cases of syndromic or non-syndromic recessive or sporadic ataxia.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 640-657, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402090

RESUMO

The identification of genetic variants implicated in human developmental disorders has been revolutionized by second-generation sequencing combined with international pooling of cases. Here, we describe seven individuals who have diverse yet overlapping developmental anomalies, and who all have de novo missense FBXW11 variants identified by whole exome or whole genome sequencing and not reported in the gnomAD database. Their phenotypes include striking neurodevelopmental, digital, jaw, and eye anomalies, and in one individual, features resembling Noonan syndrome, a condition caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. FBXW11 encodes an F-box protein, part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus fundamental to many protein regulatory processes. FBXW11 targets include ß-catenin and GLI transcription factors, key mediators of Wnt and Hh signaling, respectively, critical to digital, neurological, and eye development. Structural analyses indicate affected residues cluster at the surface of the loops of the substrate-binding domain of FBXW11, and the variants are predicted to destabilize the protein and/or its interactions. In situ hybridization studies on human and zebrafish embryonic tissues demonstrate FBXW11 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, mandibular processes, and limb buds or pectoral fins. Knockdown of the zebrafish FBXW11 orthologs fbxw11a and fbxw11b resulted in embryos with smaller, misshapen, and underdeveloped eyes and abnormal jaw and pectoral fin development. Our findings support the role of FBXW11 in multiple developmental processes, including those involving the brain, eye, digits, and jaw.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1713-1730, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). This disease is characterized by progressive ataxia, telangiectasia, immune deficiency, predisposition to malignancies, and radiosensitivity. However, hypomorphic variants may be discovered associated with very atypical phenotypes, raising the importance of evaluating their pathogenic effects. In this study, multiple functional analyses were performed on lymphoblastoid cell lines from 36 patients, comprising 49 ATM variants, 24 being of uncertain significance. Thirteen patients with atypical phenotype and presumably hypomorphic variants were of particular interest to test strength of functional analyses and to highlight discrepancies with typical patients. Western-blot combined with transcript analyses allowed the identification of one missing variant, confirmed suspected splice defects and revealed unsuspected minor transcripts. Subcellular localization analyses confirmed the low level and abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM for most A-T cell lines. Interestingly, atypical patients had lower kinase defect and less altered cell-cycle distribution after genotoxic stress than typical patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the pathogenic effects of the 49 variants, highlighted the strength of KAP1 phosphorylation test for pathogenicity assessment and allowed the establishment of the Ataxia-TeLangiectasia Atypical Score to predict atypical phenotype. Altogether, we propose strategies for ATM variant detection and classification.

9.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974297

RESUMO

Two distinct syndromes arise from pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene BCOR (BCL-6 corepressor): oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome, which affects females, and a severe microphthalmia ('Lenz'-type) syndrome affecting males. OFCD is an X-linked dominant syndrome caused by a variety of BCOR null mutations. As it manifests only in females, it is presumed to be lethal in males. The severe male X-linked recessive microphthalmia syndrome ('Lenz') usually includes developmental delay in addition to the eye findings and is caused by hypomorphic BCOR variants, mainly by a specific missense variant c.254C > T, p.(Pro85Leu). Here, we detail 16 new cases (11 females with 4 additional, genetically confirmed, affected female relatives; 5 male cases each with unaffected carrier mothers). We describe new variants and broaden the phenotypic description for OFCD to include neuropathy, muscle hypotonia, pituitary underdevelopment, brain atrophy, lipoma and the first description of childhood lymphoma in an OFCD case. Our male X-linked recessive cases show significant new phenotypes: developmental delay (without eye anomalies) in two affected half-brothers with a novel BCOR variant, and one male with high myopia, megalophthalmos, posterior embryotoxon, developmental delay, and heart and bony anomalies with a previously undescribed BCOR splice site variant. Our female OFCD cases and their affected female relatives showed variable features, but consistently had early onset cataracts. We show that a mosaic carrier mother manifested early cataract and dental anomalies. All female carriers of the male X-linked recessive cases for whom genetic confirmation was available showed skewed X-inactivation and were unaffected. In view of the extended phenotype, we suggest a new term of X-linked BCOR-related syndrome.

10.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 39(3): 314-320, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital cataract displays large phenotypic (syndromic and isolated cataracts) and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in several transcription factors involved in eye development, like PITX3, have been associated with congenital cataracts and anterior segment mesenchymal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targeted sequencing of 187 genes involved in ocular development was performed in 96 patients with mainly anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Additionally, Sanger sequencing analysis of PITX3 was performed on a second cohort of 32 index cases with congenital cataract and Peters anomaly and/or sclereocornea. RESULTS: We described five families with four different PITX3 mutations, two of which were novel. In Family 1, the heterozygous recurrent c.640_656dup (p.Gly220Profs*95) mutation cosegregated with eye anomalies ranging from congenital cataract to Peters anomaly. In Family 2, the novel c.669del [p.(Leu225Trpfs*84)] mutation cosegregated with dominantly inherited eye anomalies ranging from posterior embryotoxon to congenital cataract in heterozygous carriers and congenital sclereocornea and cataract in a patient homozygous for this mutation. In Family 3, we identified the recurrent heterozygous c.640_656dup (p.Gly220Profs*95) mutation segregating with congenital cataract. In Family 4, the de novo c.582del [p.(Ile194Metfs*115)] mutation was identified in a patient with congenital cataract, microphthalmia, developmental delay and autism. In Family 5, the c.38G>A (p.Ser13Asn) mutation segregated dominantly in a family with Peters anomaly, which is a novel phenotype associated with the c.38G>A variant compared with the previously reported isolated congenital cataract. CONCLUSIONS: Our study unveils different phenotypes associated with known and novel mutations in PITX3, which will improve the genetic counselling of patients and their families.

11.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464339

RESUMO

GJA8 encodes connexin 50 (Cx50), a transmembrane protein involved in the formation of lens gap junctions. GJA8 mutations have been linked to early onset cataracts in humans and animal models. In mice, missense mutations and homozygous Gja8 deletions lead to smaller lenses and microphthalmia in addition to cataract, suggesting that Gja8 may play a role in both lens development and ocular growth. Following screening of GJA8 in a cohort of 426 individuals with severe congenital eye anomalies, primarily anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma, we identified four known [p.(Thr39Arg), p.(Trp45Leu), p.(Asp51Asn), and p.(Gly94Arg)] and two novel [p.(Phe70Leu) and p.(Val97Gly)] likely pathogenic variants in seven families. Five of these co-segregated with cataracts and microphthalmia, whereas the variant p.(Gly94Arg) was identified in an individual with congenital aphakia, sclerocornea, microphthalmia and coloboma. Four missense variants of unknown or unlikely clinical significance were also identified. Furthermore, the screening of GJA8 structural variants in a subgroup of 188 individuals identified heterozygous 1q21 microdeletions in five families with coloboma and other ocular and/or extraocular findings. However, the exact genotype-phenotype correlation of these structural variants remains to be established. Our data expand the spectrum of GJA8 variants and associated phenotypes, confirming the importance of this gene in early eye development.

12.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(5): 591-599, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482223

RESUMO

Importance: Molecular diagnosis is difficult to achieve in disease groups with a highly heterogeneous genetic background, such as cerebellar ataxia (CA). In many patients, candidate gene sequencing or focused resequencing arrays do not allow investigators to reach a genetic conclusion. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of exome-targeted capture sequencing to detect mutations in genes broadly linked to CA in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients and to investigate their prevalence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three hundred nineteen index patients with CA and without a history of dominant transmission were included in the this cohort study by the Spastic Paraplegia and Ataxia Network. Centralized storage was in the DNA and cell bank of the Brain and Spine Institute, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France. Patients were classified into 6 clinical groups, with the largest being those with spastic ataxia (ie, CA with pyramidal signs [n = 100]). Sequencing was performed from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2016. Detected variants were classified as very probably or definitely causative, possibly causative, or of unknown significance based on genetic evidence and genotype-phenotype considerations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Identification of variants in genes broadly linked to CA, classified in pathogenicity groups. Results: The 319 included patients had equal sex distribution (160 female [50.2%] and 159 male patients [49.8%]; mean [SD] age at onset, 27.9 [18.6] years). The age at onset was younger than 25 years for 131 of 298 patients (44.0%) with complete clinical information. Consanguinity was present in 101 of 298 (33.9%). Very probable or definite diagnoses were achieved for 72 patients (22.6%), with an additional 19 (6.0%) harboring possibly pathogenic variants. The most frequently mutated genes were SPG7 (n = 14), SACS (n = 8), SETX (n = 7), SYNE1 (n = 6), and CACNA1A (n = 6). The highest diagnostic rate was obtained for patients with an autosomal recessive CA with oculomotor apraxia-like phenotype (6 of 17 [35.3%]) or spastic ataxia (35 of 100 [35.0%]) and patients with onset before 25 years of age (41 of 131 [31.3%]). Peculiar phenotypes were reported for patients carrying KCND3 or ERCC5 variants. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome capture followed by targeted analysis allows the molecular diagnosis in patients with highly heterogeneous mendelian disorders, such as CA, without prior assumption of the inheritance mode or causative gene. Being commonly available without specific design need, this procedure allows testing of a broader range of genes, consequently describing less classic phenotype-genotype correlations, and post hoc reanalysis of data as new genes are implicated in the disease.

13.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 3, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defects (GPIBDs) cause a group of phenotypically overlapping recessive syndromes with intellectual disability, for which pathogenic mutations have been described in 16 genes of the corresponding molecular pathway. An elevated serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP), a GPI-linked enzyme, has been used to assign GPIBDs to the phenotypic series of hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS) and to distinguish them from another subset of GPIBDs, termed multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizures syndrome (MCAHS). However, the increasing number of individuals with a GPIBD shows that hyperphosphatasia is a variable feature that is not ideal for a clinical classification. METHODS: We studied the discriminatory power of multiple GPI-linked substrates that were assessed by flow cytometry in blood cells and fibroblasts of 39 and 14 individuals with a GPIBD, respectively. On the phenotypic level, we evaluated the frequency of occurrence of clinical symptoms and analyzed the performance of computer-assisted image analysis of the facial gestalt in 91 individuals. RESULTS: We found that certain malformations such as Morbus Hirschsprung and diaphragmatic defects are more likely to be associated with particular gene defects (PIGV, PGAP3, PIGN). However, especially at the severe end of the clinical spectrum of HPMRS, there is a high phenotypic overlap with MCAHS. Elevation of AP has also been documented in some of the individuals with MCAHS, namely those with PIGA mutations. Although the impairment of GPI-linked substrates is supposed to play the key role in the pathophysiology of GPIBDs, we could not observe gene-specific profiles for flow cytometric markers or a correlation between their cell surface levels and the severity of the phenotype. In contrast, it was facial recognition software that achieved the highest accuracy in predicting the disease-causing gene in a GPIBD. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the overlapping clinical spectrum of both HPMRS and MCAHS in the majority of affected individuals, the elevation of AP and the reduced surface levels of GPI-linked markers in both groups, a common classification as GPIBDs is recommended. The effectiveness of computer-assisted gestalt analysis for the correct gene inference in a GPIBD and probably beyond is remarkable and illustrates how the information contained in human faces is pivotal in the delineation of genetic entities.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/biossíntese , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Fósforo/metabolismo , Síndrome
14.
J Nephrol ; 30(2): 211-218, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26946416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While reproductive technologies are increasingly used worldwide, epidemiologic, clinical and genetic data regarding infertile men with combined genital tract and renal abnormalities remain scarce, preventing adequate genetic counseling. METHODS: In a cohort-based study, we assessed the prevalence (1995-2014) and the clinical characteristics of renal disorders in infertile males with genital tract malformation. In a subset of 34 patients, we performed a detailed phenotype analysis of renal and genital tract disorders. RESULTS: Among the 180 patients with congenital uni- or bilateral absence of vas deferens (CU/BAVD), 45 (25 %) had a renal malformation. We also identified 14 infertile men with combined seminal vesicle (SV) and renal malformation but no CU/BAVD. Among the 34 patients with detailed clinical description, renal disease was unknown before the assessment of the infertility in 27 (79.4 %), and 7 (20.6 %) had chronic renal failure. Four main renal phenotypes were observed: solitary kidney (47 %); autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, 0.6 %); uni- or bilateral hypoplastic kidneys (20.6 %); and a complex renal phenotype associated with a mutation of the HNF1B gene (5.8 %). Absence of SV and azoospermia were significantly associated with the presence of a solitary kidney, while dilatation of SV and necroasthenozoospermia were suggestive of ADPKD. CONCLUSION: A dominantly inherited renal disease (ADPKD or HNF1B-related nephropathy) is frequent in males with infertility and combined renal and genital tract abnormalities (26 %). A systematic renal screening should be proposed in infertile males with CU/BAVD or SV disorders.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Infertilidade Masculina , Rim/anormalidades , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/genética , Mutação , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/genética , Ducto Deferente/anormalidades , Adulto , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/epidemiologia , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/fisiopatologia , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/terapia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Prevalência , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ducto Deferente/fisiopatologia
15.
J Pediatr Genet ; 5(4): 184-188, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895970

RESUMO

Congenital ocular anomalies such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia (AM) are severe craniofacial malformations in human. The etiologies of these ocular globe anomalies are diverse but the genetic origin appears to be a predominant cause. Until recently, genetic diagnosis capability was rather limited in AM patients and only a few genes were available for routine genetic testing. While some issues remain poorly understood, knowledge regarding the molecular basis of AM dramatically improved over the last years with the development of new molecular screening technologies. Thus, the genetic cause is now identifiable in more than 50% of patients with a severe bilateral eye phenotype and in around 30% of all AM patients taken together. Such advances in the knowledge of these genetic bases are important as they improve the quality of care, in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counseling delivered to the patients and their families.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(1): 43-51, 2016 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804958

RESUMO

Verheij syndrome, also called 8q24.3 microdeletion syndrome, is a rare condition characterized by ante- and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, vertebral anomalies, joint laxity/dislocation, developmental delay (DD), cardiac and renal defects and dysmorphic features. Recently, PUF60 (Poly-U Binding Splicing Factor 60 kDa), which encodes a component of the spliceosome, has been discussed as the best candidate gene for the Verheij syndrome phenotype, regarding the cardiac and short stature phenotype. To date, only one patient has been reported with a de novo variant in PUF60 that probably affects function (c.505C>T leading to p.(His169Tyr)) associated with DD, microcephaly, craniofacial and cardiac defects. Additional patients were required to confirm the pathogenesis of this association and further delineate the clinical spectrum. Here we report five patients with de novo heterozygous variants in PUF60 identified using whole exome sequencing. Variants included a splice-site variant (c.24+1G>C), a frameshift variant (p.(Ile136Thrfs*31)), two nonsense variants (p.(Arg448*) and p.(Lys301*)) and a missense change (p.(Val483Ala)). All six patients with a PUF60 variant (the five patients of the present study and the unique reported patient) have the same core facial gestalt as 8q24.3 microdeletions patients, associated with DD. Other findings include feeding difficulties (3/6), cardiac defects (5/6), short stature (5/6), joint laxity and/or dislocation (5/6), vertebral anomalies (3/6), bilateral microphthalmia and irido-retinal coloboma (1/6), bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (2/6), renal anomalies (2/6) and branchial arch defects (2/6). These results confirm that PUF60 is a major driver for the developmental, craniofacial, skeletal and cardiac phenotypes associated with the 8q24.3 microdeletion.


Assuntos
Nanismo/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Nanismo/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Processamento de RNA/genética
17.
Hum Mutat ; 37(12): 1340-1353, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27528516

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has an established diagnostic value for inherited ataxia. However, the need of a rigorous process of analysis and validation remains challenging. Moreover, copy number variations (CNV) or dynamic expansions of repeated sequence are classically considered not adequately detected by exome sequencing technique. We applied a strategy of mini-exome coupled to read-depth based CNV analysis to a series of 33 patients with probable inherited ataxia and onset <50 years. The mini-exome consisted of the capture of 4,813 genes having associated clinical phenotypes. Pathogenic variants were found in 42% and variants of uncertain significance in 24% of the patients. These results are comparable to those from whole exome sequencing and better than previous targeted NGS studies. CNV and dynamic expansions of repeated CAG sequence were identified in three patients. We identified both atypical presentation of known ataxia genes (ATM, NPC1) and mutations in genes very rarely associated with ataxia (ERCC4, HSD17B4). We show that mini-exome bioinformatics data analysis allows the identification of CNV and dynamic expansions of repeated sequence. Our study confirms the diagnostic value of the proposed genetic analysis strategy. We also provide an algorithm for the multidisciplinary process of analysis, interpretation, and validation of NGS data.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteína Multifuncional do Peroxissomo-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neurol ; 263(7): 1314-22, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142713

RESUMO

Establishing a molecular diagnosis of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) is challenging due to phenotype and genotype heterogeneity. We report the validation of a previously published clinical practice-based algorithm to diagnose ARCA. Two assessors performed a blind analysis to determine the most probable mutated gene based on comprehensive clinical and paraclinical data, without knowing the molecular diagnosis of 23 patients diagnosed by targeted capture of 57 ataxia genes and high-throughput sequencing coming from a 145 patients series. The correct gene was predicted in 61 and 78 % of the cases by the two assessors, respectively. There was a high inter-rater agreement [K = 0.85 (0.55-0.98) p < 0.001] confirming the algorithm's reproducibility. Phenotyping patients with proper clinical examination, imaging, biochemical investigations and nerve conduction studies remain crucial for the guidance of molecular analysis and to interpret next generation sequencing results. The proposed algorithm should be helpful for diagnosing ARCA in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 971-980, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108797

RESUMO

Gillespie syndrome (GS) is a rare variant form of aniridia characterized by non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and iris hypoplasia. Unlike the more common dominant and sporadic forms of aniridia, there has been no significant association with PAX6 mutations in individuals with GS and the mode of inheritance of the disease had long been regarded as uncertain. Using a combination of trio-based whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five simplex GS-affected families, we found homozygous or compound heterozygous truncating mutations (c.4672C>T [p.Gln1558(∗)], c.2182C>T [p.Arg728(∗)], c.6366+3A>T [p.Gly2102Valfs5(∗)], and c.6664+5G>T [p.Ala2221Valfs23(∗)]) and de novo heterozygous mutations (c.7687_7689del [p.Lys2563del] and c.7659T>G [p.Phe2553Leu]) in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 gene (ITPR1). ITPR1 encodes one of the three members of the IP3-receptors family that form Ca(2+) release channels localized predominantly in membranes of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. The truncation mutants, which encompass the IP3-binding domain and varying lengths of the modulatory domain, did not form functional channels when produced in a heterologous cell system. Furthermore, ITPR1 p.Lys2563del mutant did not form IP3-induced Ca(2+) channels but exerted a negative effect when co-produced with wild-type ITPR1 channel activity. In total, these results demonstrate biallelic and monoallelic ITPR1 mutations as the underlying genetic defects for Gillespie syndrome, further extending the spectrum of ITPR1-related diseases.


Assuntos
Aniridia/etiologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/etiologia , Genes Dominantes/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Aniridia/patologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(7): 1895-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103084

RESUMO

Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are the most severe malformations of the eye, referring to a congenital absence, and a reduced size of the eyeball respectively. More than 20 genes have been shown to be mutated in patients with syndromic and non-syndromic forms of anophthalmia-microphthalmia. In a recent study combining autozygome and exome analysis, a homozygous loss of function mutation in TENM3 (previously named ODZ3) was reported in two siblings with isolated bilateral colobomatous microphthalmia from a consanguineous Saudi family. Herein, we report a third patient (not related to the previously reported family) with bilateral colobomatous microphthalmia and developmental delay in whom genetic studies identified a homozygous TENM3 splicing mutation c.2968-2A>T (p.Val990Cysfs*13). This report supports the association of TENM3 mutations with colobomatous microphthalmia and expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in this gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/genética , Coloboma/genética , Opacidade da Córnea/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Criança , Coloboma/fisiopatologia , Opacidade da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Microftalmia/fisiopatologia , Mutação
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