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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 11-21, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4539

RESUMO

This study aimed to address how multiple risk factors that were previously related and derived from ecological levels, when taken together, could explain child-to-mother and child-to-father violence. A total of 298 Spanish adolescents (140 girls) who had committed CPV, with a mean age of 15.91 (SDage = 1.89), offender residents of specialized closed institutions for adolescents who had aggressed their parents (49.5%) and educational centres (50.6%) completed all measures. Both models obtained adequate fit indexes and explained about 50% of the variance in the two types of violence. At contextual (exosystem) level, peer deviance was indirectly related to both types of CPV. At family level (microsystem), the strongest direct predictor in both models was parental ineffectiveness in applying discipline. An additional direct path to child-to-mother violence was the use of corporal punishment. At individual level (ontogenic), the two strongest direct predictors in both models were adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse. The models highlight the complexity of the variables involved in the development of CPV. Regarding intervention implications, the models show the importance of paying attention to family variables, such as parents' mode of implementation of disciplinary measures, and individual factors, such as adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse


Este estudio tuvo como fin abordar de qué modo podría explicar la violencia filio-parental (VFP) hacia la madre y hacia el padre los múltiples factores de riesgo relacionados previamente y derivados de niveles ecológicos en su conjunto. Un total de 298 adolescentes españoles (140 chicas) que presentaban índices elevados de VFP, con una edad media de 15.91 (DT = 1.89) y pertenecientes a centros psicoterapéuticos cerrados especializados en el trabajo de la VFP (49.5%) y a centros educativos (50.6%) cumplimentaron todas las medidas. Ambos modelos obtuvieron índices de ajuste adecuados y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza de los dos tipos de VPF. En el nivel contextual (exosistema), la influencia de compañeros conflictivos se relacionó indirectamente con ambos tipos de VFP. A nivel familiar (microsistema), el mayor predictor directo en ambos modelos fue la ineficacia parental en la aplicación de la disciplina. Una relación directa adicional en el caso de la VFP hacia la madre fue el uso del castigo físico. Al nivel individual (ontogénico), los dos mejores predictores directos en ambos modelos fueron la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias por parte de los adolescentes. Los modelos subrayan la complejidad de las variables involucradas en el desarrollo de la VFP. Respecto a las implicaciones para la intervención, los modelos enfatizan la importancia de prestar atención a las variables familiares, como el modo en el que los progenitores implementan las estrategias disciplinarias, y a factores individuales, como la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias de los adolescentes

2.
Psicothema ; 32(1): 130-137, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mindfulness in Parenting Questionnaire (MIPQ) is a self-report instrument to measure how much parents practice mindful parenting. The main aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the MIPQ. METHOD: A total of 271 parents of adolescents completed the MIPQ along with questionnaires about their mindfulness trait, parenting style, and their children's resilience and symptoms of depression. Their adolescent children completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms, their perception of their parents' parenting style, and their perceived stress. RESULTS: Factor analyses suggested a two-factor structure corresponding to Being in the Moment with the Child and Mindful Discipline. Moreover, the MIPQ showed good internal consistency and was related to parent's dispositional mindfulness and positive parenting as well as to adolescents' resilience and (negatively) to their depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The Spanish version of the MIPQ exhibits good psychometric properties and is an easily applicable test for the assessment of mindful parenting.

3.
J Pers ; 88(1): 31-44, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773638

RESUMO

A more dynamic perspective of threats to the self may contribute to an enhanced understanding of the processes that develop and maintain anxiety and thus, potentially inform psychological interventions. This article presents the looming vulnerability model of anxiety, which stresses the threat or risk prospection and dynamic mental simulation of the course of threat. Individuals do not become anxious simply because they picture distant or static possible threats that represent threats to the self. Rather, their anxiety results from interpreting potential threats as dynamic, growing, and approaching. Following a review of a wide range of literature from clinical, personality, and social psychology, we present the looming vulnerability model and its underpinnings in evolution and examine its applications to cognitive vulnerability to anxiety and its therapeutic alleviation [Correction added on 6 August 2019, after first online publication: Abstract text has been corrected to 'looming vulnerability model' in two places.]. We also address the associations of the model to other self-related concepts that are involved in anxiety.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730643

RESUMO

The incremental theory of personality interventions (ITPI) teaches adolescents that people can change. Researchers have found that these interventions can reduce the perpetration of bullying and cyberbullying. Moreover, there is reciprocity between perpetrating bullying behaviors and being a victim of them. The objective of this study was to examine whether the ITPI reduces the reciprocity between victimization and perpetration of bullying and cyberbullying. A sample of 858 high school students (52% boys) aged 12 to 17 at pretest (M = 14.56, SD = 0.97) participated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial (452 participants were assigned to the experimental condition and 406 to the control condition). Measures of bullying and cyberbullying were taken at baseline, six-month, and 12-month follow-ups. The results indicated that victimization was a strong predictor of perpetration for bullying and cyberbullying over time. Perpetration was not a predictor of victimization. Consistently, for both forms of aggressive behavior, the intervention reduced the intensity of the association between victimization and perpetration. This effect was not moderated by the age or sex of the participants. Finally, the effectiveness of the ITPI was moderated by age. Specifically, among the youngest (< 14.48 years), those who received the ITPI showed a slight tendency to reduce aggressive behavior that contrasted with the growing trend in the control group. Among the oldest participants (> 14.48), the trajectories were similar in the two groups. Our findings show that influencing adolescents' reactions to peer aggression victimization is one of the mechanisms that could explain the beneficial effects of the ITPI and other preventive interventions.

5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631232

RESUMO

Adolescence is often accompanied by an increase in stress and depression. Although there is considerable consensus about the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions to reduce these problems, the results for the role of dispositional mindfulness facets have been mixed. Recent studies have contributed to clarifying this role by identifying subtypes of individuals according to their profiles in mindfulness facets and examining the functioning of these profiles in relation to several self-reported indicators of wellbeing and health. The current study extends previous research by exploring mindfulness profiles in adolescents and by providing several sources of indicators (self-reports, parent-reports, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones) to examine the adaptive role of these profiles. A sample of 571 adolescents (50.61% girls; 12-17 years old) completed measures of mindfulness, depression, maladaptive schemas, and temperament (neuroticism, extraversion, and effortful control), and provided salivary samples for cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. In addition, 331 adolescents' parents completed measures of their children' temperaments. The results of latent profile analyses supported a three-profile solution: (1) moderate mindfulness (65.5%), (2) judgmental observing (24.2%), and (3) nonjudgmentally aware (10.3%). The judgmental observing profile was associated with a worse adjustment, indicated by higher depressive symptoms, maladaptive schemas, perceived stress, stress-associated hormones, and neuroticism, as well as lower scores on extroversion and effortful control. This profile was more frequent among the oldest adolescents. In contrast, the nonjudgmentally aware group presented a better adjustment and was more frequent among the youngest adolescents. These findings have implications for preventive interventions. Analyzing the specific profile of each adolescent can help improve individual intervention, taking into account the strengths and weaknesses of each adolescent.

6.
J Pers Assess ; : 1-12, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166802

RESUMO

The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) assesses several dimensions of mindfulness. The objective of this study was to develop a short version of the FFMQ for children and adolescents. The main sample consisted of 829 participants (51% boys; 10-18 years old). From this initial sample, 789 participants (49% boys) completed the FFMQ at a 6-month follow-up. A second independent sample (N = 418, 50% boys; 12-16 years old) was used to confirm the factor structure. Confirmatory factor analyses with the full version supported a structure composed of 5 correlated factors (1 per facet) plus 2 correlated method factors representing the method effect (positive and negative) of the items. From this model, the FFMQ-A-SF was derived, consisting of 25 items (5 per facet). The measure displayed adequate internal consistency, and invariance was confirmed over time and across different age groups. The analysis of the relationship between mindfulness facets and temperament and psychological problems provided additional evidence for the construct validity of the questionnaire. It is concluded that the FFMQ-A-SF presents acceptable validity and reliability in children and adolescents. However, the positive versus negative wording of the items could affect the responses of younger participants.

7.
Qual Life Res ; 28(11): 2969-2978, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The level of support needed for adaptive functioning and behavioral problems of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) can be a source of stress for caregivers. The aim of this study was to explore the moderating role of caregivers' age on the associations between these stressors and quality of life (QoL) of the family caregivers. As these sources of stress in people with ID can coexist, the triple interaction between stressors and age was also examined. METHODS: 208 relatives (mean age = 50.98 years, SD = 12.86) of people with ID participated in the research. Participants answered a questionnaire with sociodemographic variables, measures of stressors (level of support for adaptive functioning of the people with ID and behavioral problems) and measures of QoL (WHOQOL-BREF). RESULTS: The association between the level of support needed for adaptive functioning and lower QoL was only significant among older relatives, whereas the association between behavioral problems and lower QoL was only significant among younger relatives. A three-way interaction between behavioral problems, level of support needed, and age indicated that the association between the level of support for adaptive functioning and QoL in older relatives was greater when there were higher levels of behavioral problems. CONCLUSIONS: The role of caregivers' age in their QoL differs depending on the nature of the stressor, and an accumulation of stressors can have a particularly negative impact on older caregivers. Interventions should be adapted for caregivers of different ages and take into account the particular sources of stress they have to cope with.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual , Comportamento Problema , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214858, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947295

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress suffered by medical residents as the result of being on call for 24 hours, from a multidimensional approach. Two groups of medical residents selected according to their work shift, participated in the study: one group (n = 40) was sleep-deprived after having been actively on-call for 24 hours, and another contrast group (n = 18) had performed a normal work day and were not sleep-deprived. All participants completed pre-post measures during a 24 h cycle. These were administered on both occasions at 8 am. The measures included HRV, cortisol, cognitive performance and transitory mood. The effect of the group x phase interaction was significant for all variables analysed, indicating that doctors in the 24h on-call shift group showed significant deterioration in all physiological, performance and mood indicators in comparison with the participants in the group not on call. These results suggest the need to review medical on-call systems, in order to reduce the stress load, which has a direct effect on working conditions.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Desempenho Psicomotor , Saliva/metabolismo , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/psicologia , Espanha , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico
9.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(9): 1533-1546, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903540

RESUMO

Interest is increasing in developing universal interventions to prevent depression in adolescents that are brief enough to be scaled up. The aim of this study was to test the effects on depressive symptoms, cognitive schemas, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hormones of an intervention focused on teaching an element of an incremental theory of personality, namely, the belief that people can change. We also examined whether grade level moderated the effects of the intervention. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 867 Spanish adolescent participants (51.9% boys, Grades 8-10) randomly assigned to an incremental theory intervention (n = 456) or an educational control intervention (n = 411). The adolescents completed measures of depressive symptoms and negative cognitive schemas at pretest, at 6-month follow-up, and at 12-month follow-up. A subsample of 503 adolescents provided salivary samples for cortisol and DHEA-S testing. In 8th grade, adolescents who received the incremental theory intervention displayed a greater decrease in depressive symptoms and cognitive schemas and a lower increase in DHEA-S. Moreover, in adolescents who received the intervention, the rate of adolescents with high depression scores decreased by almost 18% whereas in the control group, the rate increased by 37%. Surprisingly, the effects of the intervention were in the opposite direction among adolescents in 9th grade. These data indicate that a brief universal intervention could prevent depressive symptoms under some conditions, but developmental characteristics can moderate the effectiveness of this approach.

10.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519831395, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795707

RESUMO

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and child-to-parent aggression (CPA) and to test whether social information processing (SIP) mediates this association. A total of 903 adolescents (50.9% girls) completed measures of EMSs at Time 1, SIP at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later), and CPA at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 (2 years later) to determine whether SIP measured at Time 2 mediated between the EMSs measured at Time 1 and CPA measured at Time 3. The results showed that each schema evaluated in this study had a different effect on SIP components and CPA. The SIP components of anger and aggressive response access in turn predicted CPA, mediating the relationship between two EMSs and CPA. More specifically, the schemas of defectiveness and the justification of violence predicted the response access component of SIP, which in turn predicted CPA. The results also showed bidirectional relationships between SIP components and CPA; whereas SIP components predicted CPA, the latter also predicted a worsening in SIP, perpetuating the problem. Furthermore, several gender differences were found in these paths. The findings indicate that intervention in the social-cognitive mechanisms is important to reduce adolescents' aggression directed toward their parents.

11.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(2): 160-168, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690725

RESUMO

This study explores the psychometric properties of the Cyberbullying Triangulation Questionnaire (CTQ), which measures and triangulates the roles of cybervictimization, cyberaggression, and cyberbystanding. The study sample was composed of 5,036 Spanish students with a mean age of 14.19 years (SD = ±1.7; range = 10-23 years). Confirmatory factor analysis of the three correlated-factor model yielded a high goodness of fit. Reliability as measured by Omega coefficients was adequate (>0.94). The measurement model was invariant for the two age groups (10-14 years and 15-23 years). Cybervictimization and cyberaggression correlated with offline victimization and aggression (r = 0.49; p < 0.001; r = 0.57; p < 0.001, respectively). The results show that the most prevalent cyberbystanding subrole was that of the Defender of the Victim (54.6%), and that cyberaggression and cyberbystanding were more prevalent among male adolescents (p < 0.001). The lack of parental control over children's use of the mobile phone was associated with cyberaggression (p < 0.001).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Violence Against Women ; 25(12): 1433-1449, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600785

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine which variables are associated with the length of stay at a shelter and the likelihood of reentering the shelter after a first stay in a sample of 777 women victims of intimate partner violence. The results showed that the women's health, having been previously abused, and having children with them at the shelter were the best set of correlates for length of shelter stay; lack of social support, having been previously abused, and the abusers' being unemployed increased the risk of repeated use of shelters. The implications for intervention are discussed.

13.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 57(5): 44-51, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508459

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to validate the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), a measure of psychosocial functional impairment, in Spanish-speaking individuals with bipolar disorder. A sample of 120 patients with bipolar disorder and 97 healthy individuals completed the WSAS to analyze its factor structure and reliability. Patients also completed measures of personal recovery and quality of life (QOL). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a one-factor model explained data adequately, with all factor loadings proving to be significant. Cronbach's alphas indicated excellent internal consistency in the sample of individuals with bipolar disorder and the sample of healthy individuals. Significant negative correlations between the WSAS and personal recovery and QOL demonstrated good concurrent validity. Impairment on the WSAS was higher for the patient sample, confirming known-group validity of the scale. Thus, Spanish validation of the WSAS demonstrated it to be a sound self-reported measure of psychosocial functioning impairment in individuals with bipolar disorder. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 57(5), 44-51.].


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/reabilitação , Emprego , Ajustamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
14.
J Res Adolesc ; 29(3): 763-776, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900616

RESUMO

This study's main objective was to explore whether beliefs legitimizing dating violence predict dysfunctional social information processing (SIP) when adolescents deal with ambiguous dating situations, and whether this more proximal cognitive processing acts as a mediator between acceptance of violence beliefs and dating violence perpetration. Participants were 855 high school students who completed self-report measures at three time points, with a 1-year interval between them. SIP did not act as a mediator, but the emergence of anger emotions in dating conflict situations, along with aggression-justifying beliefs, were revealed as essential in explaining dating violence. Previous aggression also explained a subsequent higher anticipation of positive consequences for aggressive acts. We discuss the implications for prevention and treatment strategies with adolescents.

15.
J Interpers Violence ; 34(11): 2313-2332, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436091

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to test a model in which psychopathic traits (callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible) and moral disengagement individually and interactively predict two types of bullying (traditional and cyberbullying) in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 765 adolescents (464 girls and 301 boys) completed measures of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits at Time 1, and measures of bullying and cyberbullying at Time 1 and 1 year later, at Time 2. The results showed that callous-unemotional traits predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, grandiose-manipulative and impulsive-irresponsible traits only predicted traditional bullying, and moral disengagement only predicted cyberbullying. Callous-Unemotional Traits × Moral Disengagement and Grandiose-Manipulative × Moral Disengagement were significantly correlated with the residual change in cyberbullying. Callous-unemotional traits were positively related to cyberbullying at high levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was low. In contrast, grandiose-manipulative traits were positively related to cyberbullying at low levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was high. These findings have implications for both prevention and intervention. Integrative approaches that promote moral growth are needed, including a deeper understanding of why bullying is morally wrong and ways to stimulate personality traits that counteract psychopathic traits.

16.
Psicol. conduct ; 27(1): 21-39, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2256

RESUMO

Este estudio examinó un modelo etiológico de los síntomas de depresión en adolescentes, según el cual la relación predictiva entre las inferencias negativas (causas, consecuencias y self) y los síntomas de depresión estaba moderada por los esquemas disfuncionales tempranos. Este estudio examinó si los esquemas de los dominios de desconexión y rechazo y orientación a los demás acentuarían la vulnerabilidad a los síntomas de depresión tras la realización de inferencias negativas sobre eventos estresantes sociales. Así mismo, se evaluó si los esquemas del dominio de autonomía deteriorada y rendimiento interactuarían con las inferencias negativas sobre eventos estresantes de rendimiento para predecir incrementos en síntomas de depresión. Un total de 1184 participantes (54% chicos) con edades entre 13 y 17 completaron las medidas de esquemas disfuncionales tempranos e inferencias negativas en la línea base y síntomas de depresión en la línea base y en el seguimiento de seis meses. Los análisis de moderación muestran que los dominios de esquemas de naturaleza social aumentaron la relación predictiva entre inferencias negativas sobre eventos estresantes sociales y síntomas de depresión


This study examined an etiological model of depressive symptoms in adolescents, according to which the predictive association between negative inferences and symptoms was moderated by early maladaptive schemas. The study examined if the schemas of disconnection, rejection and other-directedness accentuate the vulnerability to depression after making negative inferences about social stressors. It was further evaluated if the impaired autonomy and performance domain schemas interact with negative inferences about achievement stressors to predict an increase in the symptoms of depression. The participants were 1184 adolescents (54% boys, 13 to 17 years of age), who completed measures of early maladaptive schemas and negative inferences in the baseline, and depressive symptoms in the baseline and at six-month follow-up. Moderation analyses show that the schema domains of social nature increase the predictive association between negative inferences about social stressors and depression

17.
Psicol. conduct ; 27(2): 183-198, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2264

RESUMO

La depresión en adolescentes es un problema clínico y social importante. El presente estudio examina las relaciones bidireccionales que se producen entre los esquemas disfuncionales tempranos, los eventos estresantes y la depresión. Se formaron dos grupos de adolescentes, uno con sintomatología alta en depresión (N= 110, 76 mujeres, edad media de 15,45; DT= 1,69) y otro con sintomatología baja en depresión (N= 115, 76 mujeres, edad media de 15,65; DT= 1,05). Ambos grupos completaron medidas de depresión, eventos estresantes y de tres dominios de esquemas disfuncionales tempranos (desconexión y rechazo, foco en los demás y autonomía dañada) en dos intervalos con una separación de cuatro meses. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los esquemas de desconexión y rechazo en la depresión. Además, los eventos estresantes predijeron un aumento de todos los dominios de esquemas y los síntomas de depresión predijeron un aumento de esquemas de autonomía dañada. Estos resultados son valiosos para comprender los mecanismos a través los cuales el estrés y la depresión funcionan en los adolescentes


The prevalence of depression in adolescents is an important clinical and social problem. The present study examines the bidirectional relationships that occur between the level of cognition of early maladaptive schemas, stressors and depression. Two groups of adolescents were formed, one comprised adolescents with high symptomatology in depression (n= 110, 76 women, Mage= 15.45, SD= 1.69), and the other adolescents with low symptomatology in depression (n= 115, 76 women, Mage= 15.65, SD= 1.05). Both groups completed measures of depression, stressors and three domains of early maladaptive schemas (disconnection and rejection, focus on others and impaired autonomy) at two different points in time spaced four months apart. The results show the importance of the disconnection and rejection schemas in depression. Moreover, the stressors predicted an increase in all the schema domains and depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the impaired autonomy schema domain. These results are very valuable to understand the mechanisms through which stress and depression work in adolescents

18.
Pap. psicol ; 39(3): 218-227, sept.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180297

RESUMO

La violencia en la pareja constituye un problema social de gran relevancia por su elevada prevalencia y por las consecuencias para sus víctimas. En los últimos años, las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación, como Internet y los Smartphones, se han convertido en herramientas frecuentes para ejercer comportamientos de control y agresiones en las parejas jóvenes. En esta línea, la finalidad del presente trabajo es la de realizar una revisión actualizada sobre el abuso online en parejas jóvenes. Para ello, en primer lugar, se analiza en qué consiste este fenómeno y las principales manifestaciones del abuso online en la pareja a través de Internet y los Smartphones. A continuación, se lleva a cabo una revisión de los instrumentos desarrollados para su evaluación y sus propiedades psicométricas. Finalmente, se incluyen varias recomendaciones para el desarrollo de estrategias de prevención derivadas de la evidencia empírica disponible


Partner abuse is an important social problem due to its high prevalence and the consequences it entails for the victims. In recent years, information and communication technologies, such as the Internet and Smartphones, have become frequent tools for exercising controlling behavior and aggression in young couples. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of the research on online abuse in young couples. To this end, firstly, we analyze what this phenomenon consists of and the main manifestations of online abuse in the couple through the Internet and Smartphones. Then, a review is carried out of the instruments developed for the assessment of online abuse and their psychometric properties. Finally, several recommendations are outlined for the development of prevention strategies derived from the available empirical evidence


Assuntos
Humanos , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Smartphone , Bullying , Perseguição/psicologia , Internet , Psicometria/métodos
19.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 21(11): 703-710, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421997

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the protective factors that contribute to reducing long-term involvement in cyberbullying (CB). This study examined whether dispositional mindfulness is associated with the reduced stability over time (i.e., long-term involvement) of CB victimization and perpetration and with the lower reciprocity of both. This was a three-wave longitudinal study spaced 6 months apart. The sample consisted of 985 high school students from the Basque Country (Spain). The participants completed a mindfulness measure at time one and measures of CB victimization and perpetration at three time points. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively associated with both CB victimization and CB perpetration over time. The predictive association between CB victimization and perpetration was reciprocal from time two to time three. Moreover, the interaction between dispositional mindfulness and CB victimization indicated that victimization was less stable over time when mindfulness was higher. The model was invariant across gender or age. The results indicate that CB is a long-term problem and that dispositional mindfulness can be beneficial because it predicts a lower frequency of CB victimization and perpetration over time.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Atenção Plena , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espanha
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400659

RESUMO

The advance of digital media has created risks that affect the bio-psycho-social well-being of adolescents. Some of these risks are cyberbullying, cyber dating abuse, sexting, online grooming and problematic Internet use. These risks have been studied individually or through associations of some of them but they have not been explored conjointly. The main objective is to determine the comorbidity between the described Internet risks and to identify the profiles of victimized adolescents. An analytical and cross-sectional study with 3212 participants (46.3% males) from 22 Spanish schools was carried out. Mean age was 13.92 ± 1.44 years (range 11⁻21). Assessment tools with adequate standards of reliability and validity were used. The main results indicate that the most prevalent single risk is cyberbullying victimization (30.27%). The most prevalent two-risk associations are cyberbullying-online grooming (12.61%) and cyberbullying-sexting (5.79%). The three-risk combination of cyberbullying-sexting-grooming (7.12%) is highlighted, while 5.49% of the adolescents present all the risks. In addition, four profiles are distinguished, with the profile Sexualized risk behaviour standing out, with high scores in grooming and sexting and low scores in the rest of the risks. Determining the comorbidity of risks is useful for clinical and educational interventions, as it can provide information about additional risks.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Internet , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
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