Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 246
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) infections are clinically important as different genotypes have varied sensitivities to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). A high prevalence of mixed GT infections was observed in individuals who inject drugs and had multiple HCV exposures. The prevalence of mixed HCV GT infections in men who have sex with men (MSM) and high-risk behaviors was investigated by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS). METHODS: NS5B fragment was sequenced from viruses of patients with recent HCV infection: there were 50 HIV-positive and 18 HIV-negative patients, including 13 from the ANRS Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) IPERGAY study. UDS data were analysed using Geneious (version 10.3.2). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using FastTree (version 2.1). RESULTS: HCV sequencing showed GT1a (47.1%), GT4d (41.2%), GT3a (8.8%) and GT2k (2.9%). We detected three (4.4%) mixed GT infections: one between predominant GT4d and minority GT1a, one between predominant GT4d and minority GT1b, and one between predominant GT1a and minority GT4d virus. The rates of minority GT viral populations detected in viruses of the three patients with mixed GT infections were 0.32%, 10.7%, and 1.3%, respectively. The first two patients were HIV co-infected and the third was HIV-negative under PrEP. The anti-HCV treatment was successful in all three patients. CONCLUSION: This work showed uncommon mixed HCV GT infections in MSM at high risk of multiple HCV exposures. The impact of these infections on treatment response has not been established but further studies on more patients are necessary. To prevent treatment failure in this population, regular monitoring of treatment response is needed, particularly when pan-genotypic treatment is not used.

2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(1): 105-110, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies reported hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission networks among men having sex with men (MSM) in Europe and the spread of HCV strains from HIV-HCV coinfected toward HCV monoinfected MSM. We aimed to investigate HCV transmission dynamics among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM by ultradeep sequencing (UDS). DESIGN AND METHODS: NS5B fragment (388 bp) was sequenced from virus of 50 HIV-positive and 18 HIV-negative patients diagnosed with recent HCV infection. UDS data were analyzed by Geneious (version 10.3.2). Phylogenetic trees were constructed by FastTree (version 2.1) and submitted to ClusterPicker (version 1.2.3) for transmission chain detection at different thresholds of maximum genetic distance (MGD) (3% for Sanger, 3% and 4.5% for UDS). RESULTS: Ten, 17, and 18 HCV transmission chains were identified by Sanger at 3%, UDS at 3% and at 4.5% of MGD, respectively. Of 68 subjects enrolled, 38 (55.9%), 38 (55.9%), and 43 (65.3%) individuals were involved in transmission networks found by Sanger at 3%, UDS at 3%, and at 4.5% of MGD, respectively. Mixed transmission chains including HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects were detected for 8/10 chains by Sanger at 3%, for 9/17 by UDS at 3%, and for 10/18 by UDS at 4.5% of MGD. Overall, the number of HIV-negative individuals clustering with HIV-positive ones was 9/18 by Sanger, 9/18 by UDS at 3%, and 10/18 by UDS at 4.5% of MGD. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM shared HCV transmission networks, which emphasizes the need for HCV surveillance and prevention measures in these communities regardless of the HIV status.

4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(7): 2019-2023, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To further characterize HIV-1 viruses of patients experiencing unexplained virological failure (VF) on PI-containing regimens, ultradeep sequencing was performed on protease, gag and gp41 genes in patients failing a first-line treatment. METHODS: All naive patients initiating an antiretroviral treatment based on boosted darunavir, atazanavir or lopinavir and experiencing VF without any transmitted drug resistance mutation detected by Sanger sequencing on protease and reverse transcriptase genes were selected. Ultradeep sequencing (IlluminaTM Nextera®) was performed on protease, gag and gp41 genes in plasma before initiation of treatment and at VF to identify emergent mutations. RESULTS: Among the 32 patients included in the study, emergent and previously undescribed mutations in the viral protease gene were identified in five patients at VF: 64M (1 CRF02_AG), 64M/70R with mutation 15V (2 CRF02_AG), 79A (1 CRF06_cpx) and 79A with mutation 15V (1 CRF02_AG). Two patients showed the emergence of R286K in the gag region, outside of cleavage sites (2 CRF02_AG). In the gp41 region, the V321I mutation emerged inside the cytoplasmic tail (1 subtype A and 1 subtype B). All these patients were treated with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen. CONCLUSIONS: In some cases of VF to PIs, we observed the emergence of protease, Gag or Gp41 mutations that had not previously been associated with VF or PI resistance. These mutations should be further studied, in particular the 15V/64M/70R pattern in the protease gene identified among CRF02_AG viruses.

5.
Pharmacotherapy ; 39(4): 514-520, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815916

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The ANRS163-ETRAL study showed that etravirine 200 mg/raltegravir 400 mg twice-daily dual therapy was highly effective in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients older than 45 years, with virologic and therapeutic success rates at week 48 of 99.4% and 94.5%, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between etravirine and raltegravir exists by assessing steady-state total and unbound etravirine, raltegravir, and inactive raltegravir-glucuronide concentrations 12 hours after last intake (C12h ) in blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP). DESIGN: Pharmacokinetic analysis of data from the ANRS163-ETRAL study. PATIENTS: One hundred forty-six HIV-1-infected patients (of the 165 patients included in the ANRS-163 ETRAL study) who were receiving etravirine 200 mg and raltegravir 400 mg twice daily. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Blood was collected from all 146 patients at weeks 2-4, 12, 24, and 48, and semen was collected from 21 patients at week 48. The extent of BP and SP protein binding was determined by using ultrafiltration assay. Total and unbound etravirine, raltegravir, and raltegravir-glucuronide C12h were determined by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and interpreted by using the in vitro calculated protein-bound 95% inhibitory concentration (PBIC95 ) for wild-type (WT) HIV: etravirine (116 ng/ml) and raltegravir (15 ng/ml). Median (interquartile range [IQR]) total BP etravirine C12h (536 ng/ml [376-719]) and raltegravir (278 ng/ml [97-690]) were adequate in 99% and 96% of patients, respectively. Median (IQR) SP:BP C12h ratio and BP unbound fraction were etravirine 0.3 (0.2-0.5) and < 1%, respectively, raltegravir 1.8 (1.3-3.3) and 12%, respectively, and raltegravir-glucuronide 12.0 (6.5-17.7) and > 99%, respectively. The BP raltegravir metabolic ratio (raltegravir glucuronide:raltegravir ratio) was 1.7, suggesting only weak induction of raltegravir glucuronidation by etravirine. Only three patients had etravirine and raltegravir C12h < PBIC95 simultaneously. CONCLUSION: No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between etravirine and raltegravir was detected. Total etravirine and raltegravir BP concentrations were adequate in most patients, favoring virologic efficacy and confirming good treatment adherence (> 95%), despite twice-daily administration. The long half-life of etravirine and higher unbound fraction SP of raltegravir (57%) ensured adequate concentrations of dual therapy in genital compartments. Our results indicate that etravirine and raltegravir have good, complementary pharmacokinetic profiles, suggesting that they could be used in a dual-treatment strategy.

6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(5): 1417-1424, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We estimated the prevalence of transmitted-drug-resistance-associated mutations (TDRAMs) in antiretroviral-naive chronically HIV-1-infected patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: TDRAMs were sought in samples from 660 diagnosed HIV-1-infected individuals in 2015/2016 in 33 HIV clinical centres. Weighted analyses, considering the number of patients followed in each centre, were used to derive representative estimates of the percentage of individuals with TDRAMs. Results were compared with those of the 2010/2011 survey (n = 661) using the same methodology. RESULTS: At inclusion, median CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA were 394 and 350/mm3 (P = 0.056) and 4.6 and 4.6 log10 copies/mL (P = 0.360) in the 2010/2011 survey and the 2015/2016 survey, respectively. The frequency of non-B subtypes increased from 42.9% in 2010/2011 to 54.8% in 2015/2016 (P < 0.001), including 23.4% and 30.6% of CRF02_AG (P = 0.004). The prevalence of virus with protease or reverse-transcriptase TDRAMs was 9.0% (95% CI = 6.8-11.2) in 2010/2011 and 10.8% (95% CI = 8.4-13.2) in 2015/2016 (P = 0.269). No significant increase was observed in integrase inhibitor TDRAMs (6.7% versus 9.2%, P = 0.146). Multivariable analysis showed that men infected with the B subtype were the group with the highest risk of being infected with a resistant virus compared with others (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). CONCLUSIONS: In France in 2015/2016, the overall prevalence of TDRAMs was 10.8% and stable compared with 9.0% in the 2010/2011 survey. Non-B subtypes dramatically increased after 2010. Men infected with B subtype were the group with the highest risk of being infected with a resistant virus, highlighting the need to re-emphasize safe sex messages.

7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(5): 1368-1375, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance profiles and factors associated with resistance in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients failing an INSTI-based regimen in clinical practice. METHODS: Data were collected from patients failing an INSTI-containing regimen in a multicentre French study between 2014 and 2017. Failure was defined as two consecutive plasma viral loads (VL) >50 copies/mL. Reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase coding regions were sequenced at baseline and failure. INSTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) included in the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA genotypic algorithm were investigated. RESULTS: Among the 674 patients, 359 were failing on raltegravir, 154 on elvitegravir and 161 on dolutegravir therapy. Overall, 90% were experienced patients and 389 (58%) patients showed no INSTI RAMs at failure. The strongest factors associated with emergence of at least one INSTI mutation were high VL at failure (OR = 1.2 per 1 log10 copies/mL increase) and low genotypic sensitivity score (GSS) (OR = 0.08 for GSS ≥3 versus GSS = 0-0.5). Patients failing dolutegravir also had significantly fewer INSTI RAMs at failure than patients failing raltegravir (OR = 0.57, P = 0.02) or elvitegravir (OR = 0.45, P = 0.005). Among the 68 patients failing a first-line regimen, 11/41 (27%) patients on raltegravir, 7/18 (39%) on elvitegravir and 0/9 on dolutegravir had viruses with emergent INSTI RAMs at failure. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirmed the robustness of dolutegravir regarding resistance selection in integrase in the case of virological failure in routine clinical care.

8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(6): 1679-1692, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess, at ART initiation, the impact of baseline substitutions in protease, Gag and gp41 regions on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four HIV-infected ART-naive patients initiating a PI-based regimen including darunavir (n = 129) or atazanavir (n = 25) were assessed, including 36 experiencing virological failure (VF). Whole pol, gag and gp41 genes were sequenced at ART baseline by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) using Illumina® technology. Supervised data-mining analyses were performed to identify mutations associated with virological response. Structural analyses were performed to assess the impact of mutations on protease conformation. RESULTS: UDS was successful in 127, 138 and 134 samples for protease, Gag and gp41, respectively (31% subtype B and 38% CRF02_AG). Overall, T4A and S37T mutations in protease were identified as being associated with VF (P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, respectively). Among CRF02_AG sequences, I72M and E21D mutations were associated with VF (P = 0.03 for both). They all induced some conformational changes of some protease side-chain residues located near mutated residues. In Gag, mutations associated with VF were G62D, N315H and Y441S (P = 0.005, P = 0.007 and P = 0.0003, respectively). All were localized outside Gag cleavage sites (G62D, matrix; N315H, capsid; and Y441S, p1). In gp41, the I270T mutation, localized in the cytoplasmic tail, was associated with VF (P = 0.003), and the I4L mutation, in the fusion peptide, was associated with virological success (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, new baseline substitutions in Gag, protease and g41, potentially impacting PI-based regimen outcome, were evidenced. Phenotypic analyses are required to confirm their role in the PI-resistance mechanism.

9.
PLoS Biol ; 17(2): e3000064, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730874

RESUMO

When patterns are set during embryogenesis, it is expected that they are straightly established rather than subsequently modified. The patterning of the three mouse molars is, however, far from straight, likely as a result of mouse evolutionary history. The first-formed tooth signaling centers, called MS and R2, disappear before driving tooth formation and are thought to be vestiges of the premolars found in mouse ancestors. Moreover, the mature signaling center of the first molar (M1) is formed from the fusion of two signaling centers (R2 and early M1). Here, we report that broad activation of Edar expression precedes its spatial restriction to tooth signaling centers. This reveals a hidden two-step patterning process for tooth signaling centers, which was modeled with a single activator-inhibitor pair subject to reaction-diffusion (RD). The study of Edar expression also unveiled successive phases of signaling center formation, erasing, recovering, and fusion. Our model, in which R2 signaling center is not intrinsically defective but erased by the broad activation preceding M1 signaling center formation, predicted the surprising rescue of R2 in Edar mutant mice, where activation is reduced. The importance of this R2-M1 interaction was confirmed by ex vivo cultures showing that R2 is capable of forming a tooth. Finally, by introducing chemotaxis as a secondary process to RD, we recapitulated in silico different conditions in which R2 and M1 centers fuse or not. In conclusion, pattern formation in the mouse molar field relies on basic mechanisms whose dynamics produce embryonic patterns that are plastic objects rather than fixed end points.

10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(5): 1389-1394, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major challenge to HIV cure strategies is the quantification of persistent reactivation-prone virus in people living with HIV. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether anti-gp41 antibody levels correlate with viral suppression and HIV-1 DNA levels in patients on ART. METHODS: Participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA below 50 copies/mL for >12 months were included from three ANRS cohorts (COPANA, MONOI and APROCO). Antibody levels to gp41 were measured by a low-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunoassay. Correlations with patient and virus characteristics, plasma HIV-1 RNA load (standard and ultrasensitive tests) and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA were assessed. RESULTS: Median age was 41 years and 77.5% of the 683 participants were men. Median CD4+ T cell count was 582 cells/mm3 and median viral suppression duration was 6.6 years (IQR 2.0-9.5). The overall median anti-gp41 antibody titre was 1.3 (IQR 0.6-1.9); median HIV-1 DNA level was 2.6 (IQR 2.1-3.0) log10 copies/106 leucocytes; and HIV-1 RNA was undetectable in 56% of samples. A lower titre of anti-gp41 antibodies correlated with male gender, longer viral suppression and lower HIV-1 DNA burden. Sustained undetectable HIV-1 RNA was associated with lower anti-gp41 levels [median 1.1 (IQR 0.5-1.6) versus 1.4 (IQR 0.7-1.9), P = 0.009]. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-gp41 levels decreased with the duration of antiviral suppression on ART. Lower titres were associated with lower HIV-1 DNA levels and longer duration of viral suppression, reflecting minimal antigen stimulation. Anti-gp41 antibody titration may be a useful biomarker reflecting long-term HIV-1 suppression on ART.

11.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 35(2): 145-149, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560678

RESUMO

The rapid diagnostic tests used in most resource-limited countries offer little specificity in the differentiation of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1 + 2. World Health Organization (WHO) does periodically evaluate rapid tests in use in the South Countries. Despite the prequalification from WHO, it is necessary at local level to conduct comparative studies between the available tests. To do this in Mali, we conducted a cross-sectional study at the University Teaching Hospital Gabriel Touré and the Research and Training Center (SEREFO) of Bamako on 172 samples from retrospective and prospective studies. The goal of this project was to compare the following rapid tests: "HIV TRI-DOT" and OnSite HIV1/2 Ab Plus Combo Rapid Test for screening HIV-1 and HIV-2 to "ImmunoComb II BiSpot" (gold standard). The sensibility and specificity of "HIV TRI-DOT" for HIV-1 detection were 100% each [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.13-100 and 95.31-100]. Its performance for HIV-2 detection was 95.24% (95% CI: 84.21-98.68) (sensibility) and 100% (95% CI: 72.25-100) (specificity). The positive and negative predictive values were, respectively, 100% (95% CI: 91.24-100) and 83.33% (95% CI: 55.20-95.30). The sensibility and specificity of OnSite HIV1/2 Ab Plus Combo Rapid Test assay performance were 100% (95% CI: 87.13-100 and 95.31-100). Overall, OnSite HIV ½ Ab Combo Rapid Test proved to be a good test for warm countries and does not require refrigeration in these settings. Blood and its products can be used to perform the test, unlike "ImmunoComb II BiSpot" and "HIV TRI-DOT," which must be kept cold and cannot be done with whole blood.

12.
AIDS ; 33(4): 691-699, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Molecular epidemiology is applied to various aspects of HIV transmission analyses. With ultradeep sequencing (UDS), in-depth characterization of transmission episodes involving minority variants is permitted. We explored HIV-1 epidemiological linkage and evaluated characteristics of transmission dynamics and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) detection through the added value of UDS. DESIGN: HIV pol gene fragments were sequenced by UDS and Sanger sequencing on samples of 70 HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive recently diagnosed MSM. METHODS: Pairwise genetic distances and maximum likelihood phylogenies were computed. Transmission events were identified as clades with branch support at least 70% and intraclade genetic difference less than 4.5%. TDR mutations were recognized from the TDR consensus list. Transmission directionality, directness and inoculum size were inferred from tree topologies. RESULTS: Both datasets concurred in the identification of seven transmission pairs and one cluster of three patients. With UDS, direction of transmission was inferred in four out of eight chains. Evidence for multiple founder viruses was found in two out of eight chains. No transmission of minority-resistant variants was evidenced. TDR mutations prevalence in protease and reverse transcriptase fragments was 4.3% with Sanger sequencing and 18.6% with UDS. CONCLUSION: Although Sanger sequencing and UDS identified the same transmission chains, UDS provided additional information on founder viruses, direction of transmission and levels of TDR. Nevertheless, topology of clusters was not always consistent across gene fragments, calling for a cautious interpretation of the data. Moreover, unobserved intermediary links cannot be excluded. Phylogenetic analysis use as a forensic technique for HIV transmission investigations is risky.

14.
Retrovirology ; 15(1): 80, 2018 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The large and constantly evolving HIV-1 pandemic has led to an increasingly complex diversity. Because of some taxonomic difficulties among the most diverse HIV-1 subtypes, and taking advantage of the large amount of sequence data generated in the recent years, we investigated novel lineage patterns among the main HIV-1 subtypes. RESULTS: All HIV full-length genomes available in public databases were analysed (n = 2017). Maximum likelihood phylogenies and pairwise genetic distance were obtained. Clustering patterns and mean distributions of genetic distances were compared within and across the current groups, subtypes and sub-subtypes of HIV-1 to detect and analyse any divergent lineages within previously defined HIV lineages. The level of genetic similarity observed between most HIV clades was deeply consistent with the current classification. However, both subtypes A and D showed evidence of further intra-subtype diversification not fully described by the nomenclature system at the time and could be divided into several distinct sub-subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: With this work, we propose an updated nomenclature of sub-types A and D better reflecting their current genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns. Allowing a more accurate nomenclature and classification system is a necessary step for easier subtyping of HIV strains and a better detection or follow-up of viral epidemiology shifts.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , HIV-1/classificação , Filogenia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380053

RESUMO

Objectives: The WHO recently recommended the use of a new first-line ART containing dolutegravir. We investigated the efficacy of NRTI backbones (tenofovir or abacavir with a cytosine analogue) in low- and middle-income countries where there is significant prior exposure to antiretrovirals and drug resistance to NRTIs. Methods: Within the treatment-as-prevention study in South Africa, we selected participants with available next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for the HIV-1 pol gene at trial entry; they were either ART initiators (n = 1193) or already established on ART (n = 94). NGS of the HIV-1 pol gene was carried out using MiSeq technology; reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected at 5% (DRM5%) and 20% (DRM20%) for all 1287 participants. Genotypic susceptibility was assessed using the Stanford HIVDB resistance interpretation algorithm. Results: NRTI DRM20% and DRM5% were detected among 5/1193 (0.4%) and 9/1193 (0.8%) of ART initiators, respectively. There was tenofovir exposure in 73/94 (77.7%) of those established on ART, with full susceptibility to abacavir in 57/94 (60.6%) and 56/94 (59.6%) for DRM20% and DRM5%, respectively, while 67/94 (71.3%) and 64/94 (68.1%) were fully susceptible to tenofovir, respectively. The differences between tenofovir and abacavir were not statistically significant at the 20% or 5% variant level (P = 0.16 and 0.29, respectively). NGS detection of variants at the 5% level increased detection of K65R in both naive and treated groups. One of 607 integrase sequences carried a DRM20% (Q148R). Conclusions: Dolutegravir with a cytosine analogue plus tenofovir or abacavir appears to have similar efficacy in South Africans naive to ART. NGS should be considered in HIV drug resistance surveillance.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476106

RESUMO

Background: Doravirine is a novel HIV-1 NNRTI recently shown to be non-inferior to both darunavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in combination therapy with two NRTIs in treatment-naive patients. Doravirine has an in vitro resistance profile that is distinct from other NNRTIs and retains activity against viruses containing the most frequently transmitted NNRTI mutations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of doravirine resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive patients in Europe. Methods: From 2010 to 2016, 9764 treatment-naive patients were tested for NNRTI antiretroviral drug resistance by bulk sequencing in Greece, Italy and France. We studied the prevalence of doravirine resistance-associated mutations previously identified in vitro: V106A/M, V108I, Y188L, V190S, H221Y, F227C/L/V, M230I/L, L234I, P236L, Y318F and K103N/Y181C. Results: Among 9764 sequences, 53.0% and 47.0% of patients had B and non-B subtypes, respectively. Overall, the presence of at least one doravirine resistance-associated mutation (n = 137; 1.4%) or the K103N/Y181C mutations (n = 5; 0.05%) was very rare. The most prevalent mutations were V108I (n = 62; 0.6%), Y188L (n = 18; 0.2%), H221Y (n = 18; 0.2%) and Y318F (n = 23; 0.2%). The frequency of doravirine resistance-associated mutations was similar between B and non-B subtypes. In comparison, the prevalence of rilpivirine, etravirine, nevirapine and efavirenz resistance was higher whatever algorithm was used (ANRS: 8.5%, 8.1%, 8.3% and 3.9%, respectively; Stanford: 9.9%, 10.0%, 7.5% and 9.4%, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of doravirine resistance-associated mutations is very low in antiretroviral-naive patients. These results are very reassuring for doravirine use in naive patients.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321314

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies in HIV-positive individuals on thymidine analogue backbone antiretroviral therapy (ART) with either nevirapine or efavirenz have suggested poorer virological outcomes in the presence of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR). We assessed the impact of PDR on virological suppression (VS) [<50copies/mL] in individuals prescribed primarily tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz in rural KwaZulu-Natal within a Treatment as Prevention trial. Methods: Among 1,557 HIV-positive individuals reporting no prior ART at study entry and provided plasma samples, 1,328 individuals with entry viral load (VL) >1,000 copies/mL had next generation sequencing (NGS) of the HIV pol gene with MiSeq technology. Results were obtained for 1,148 individuals and the presence of PDR assessed at 5% and 20% detection thresholds. Virological outcome was assessed using Cox regression in 837 of 920 ART initiators with at least one follow-up VL after ART initiation. Results: PDR prevalence was 9.5% (109/1,148) and 12.8% (147/1,148) at 20% and 5% thresholds respectively. After a median of 1.36years (IQR 0.91-2.13), mostly on fixed-dose combination (FDC) tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz, presence of both NRTI/NNRTI PDR vs. no PDR was associated with longer time to VS [aHR 0.32, 95%CI=0.12-0.86] while there was no difference between those with only NNRTI PDR vs. no PDR [aHR 1.05, 95%CI=0.82-1.34] at the 5% threshold. Similar differences were observed for mutations detected at the 20% threshold, although without statistical significance. Conclusions: NGS uncovered a high prevalence of PDR amongst participants enrolled in trial clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Dual class PDR to a mainly tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz was associated with poorer VS. However, there was no impact of NNRTI PDR alone.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236959

RESUMO

More data on resistance of HCV genotype (GT) 3 and 4 to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are still needed. Here we investigated the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) pre- and post-treatment and their emergence under DAAs in HCV GT3- and GT4-infected patients failing DAA regimens by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Sanger sequencing and NGS were performed on NS5B and NS5A in plasma samples prior to and post treatment of 13 patients. Positions implicated in resistance to anti-NS5A and anti-NS5B in the literature were analysed. No baseline RASs was detected in NS5B but one GT4r virus developed the mutation S282T at failure. In NS5A, pre-existing RASs or polymorphisms were detected in viruses of 6/10 patients (L28M for a GT4a, M28V for a GT4r, L30R for a GT4a, 2 GT4d and 1 GT4r, and T58P for a GT4d) by Sanger sequencing and in viruses of 7/10 patients by NGS. Additional baseline minority substitutions detected by NGS were Y93H in a GT3a, L28M in a GT4a and GT4d, and L28F in a GT4d virus. At failure, these substitutions were found at a frequency of 100%. Y93H was detected alone at baseline, whilst L28M and L28F were accompanied by polymorphisms L30R or L30R + T58P. Use of NGS in patients failing DAAs and infected by HCV GT3 and GT4 revealed the emergence of specific patterns of substitutions in NS5A and NS5B, in particular substitutions at position 28 in NS5A in GT4 virus, highlighting the need to list these substitutions in guidelines for resistance interpretation.

19.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103267

RESUMO

Mutations at HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) codon 184 such as M184V confer resistance to two nucleos(t)ide RT inhibitors (NRTI), lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC). The prevalence of mutations at HIV-1 RT codon 184 was evaluated using three independent RT sequence databases from treatment-experienced (TE) and treatment-naïve (TN) individuals. Data were collected retrospectively from three centers: one in Italy and two in France between 1997 and 2016. In order to highlight the role of these mutations in conferring drug resistance, structural and thermodynamic analyses were conducted by means of computational approaches. Among 32,440 RT sequences isolated from TE and 12,365 isolated from TN patients, the prevalence of HIV-1 RT codon 184 substitutions in each group was 31.21% and 0.72%, respectively. The mutations M184L and M184T have been observed only in TE patients. In all cases but four, M184L and M184T mutations were present during NRTI treatment. Molecular recognition studies on M184L and M184T structures showed both FTC and 3TC thermodynamic profiles unfavorable in comparison with the wild-type sequence, corroborated by molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). In this study, we highlighted two new resistance mutations in vivo for NRTI resistance. The low frequency of this pathway can be related to high impairment of replicative capacity mediated by these mutations.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052811

RESUMO

Background: Contemporary antiretroviral therapies (ART) and management strategies have diminished both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment failure and the acquired resistance to drugs in resource-rich regions, but transmission of drug-resistant viruses has not similarly decreased. In low- and middle-income regions, ART roll-out has improved outcomes, but has resulted in increasing acquired and transmitted resistances. Our objective was to review resistance to ART drugs and methods to detect it, and to provide updated recommendations for testing and monitoring for drug resistance in HIV-infected individuals. Methods: A volunteer panel of experts appointed by the International Antiviral (formerly AIDS) Society-USA reviewed relevant peer-reviewed data that were published or presented at scientific conferences. Recommendations were rated according to the strength of the recommendation and quality of the evidence, and reached by full panel consensus. Results: Resistance testing remains a cornerstone of ART. It is recommended in newly-diagnosed individuals and in patients in whom ART has failed. Testing for transmitted integrase strand-transfer inhibitor resistance is currently not recommended, but this may change as more resistance emerges with widespread use. Sanger-based and next-generation sequencing approaches are each suited for genotypic testing. Testing for minority variants harboring drug resistance may only be considered if treatments depend on a first-generation nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Different HIV-1 subtypes do not need special considerations regarding resistance testing. Conclusions: Testing for HIV drug resistance in drug-naive individuals and in patients in whom antiretroviral drugs are failing, and the appreciation of the role of testing, are crucial to the prevention and management of failure of ART.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA