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1.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554894

RESUMO

IntroductionThe burden of non-motor symptoms is a major determinant of quality of life and outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and has profound negative effect also on caregivers.Areas coveredNon-motor symptoms in ALS include cognitive impairment, neurobehavioral symptoms, depression and anxiety, suicidal ideation, pain, disordered sleep, fatigue, weight loss and reduced appetite, and autonomic dysfunctions. This review summarize the measures used for the assessment of non-motor symptoms and their properties and recaps the frequency and progression of these symptoms along the course of ALS.Expert opinionNon-motor symptoms in ALS represent a major component of the disease and span over several domains. These symptoms require a high level of medical attention and should be checked at each visit using ad hoc questionnaires and should be proactively treated. Several instruments assessing non-motor symptoms have been used in ALS. Specific screening questionnaires for non-motor symptoms can be used for monitoring patients during telehealth visits and for remote surveillance through sensors and apps installed on smartphones. Novel trials for non-motor symptoms treatment specifically designed for ALS are necessary to increase and refine the therapeutic armamentarium. Finally, scales assessing the most frequent and burdensome non-motor symptoms should be included in clinical trials.

3.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 52, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial, multisystem motor neuron disease for which currently there is no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers to tackle the disease's complexity and help in early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanostructures released by any cell type into body fluids. Their biophysical and biochemical characteristics vary with the parent cell's physiological and pathological state and make them an attractive source of multidimensional data for patient classification and stratification. METHODS: We analyzed plasma-derived EVs of ALS patients (n = 106) and controls (n = 96), and SOD1G93A and TDP-43Q331K mouse models of ALS. We purified plasma EVs by nickel-based isolation, characterized their EV size distribution and morphology respectively by nanotracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy, and analyzed EV markers and protein cargos by Western blot and proteomics. We used machine learning techniques to predict diagnosis and prognosis. RESULTS: Our procedure resulted in high-yield isolation of intact and polydisperse plasma EVs, with minimal lipoprotein contamination. EVs in the plasma of ALS patients and the two mouse models of ALS had a distinctive size distribution and lower HSP90 levels compared to the controls. In terms of disease progression, the levels of cyclophilin A with the EV size distribution distinguished fast and slow disease progressors, a possibly new means for patient stratification. Immuno-electron microscopy also suggested that phosphorylated TDP-43 is not an intravesicular cargo of plasma-derived EVs. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis unmasked features in plasma EVs of ALS patients with potential straightforward clinical application. We conceived an innovative mathematical model based on machine learning which, by integrating EV size distribution data with protein cargoes, gave very high prediction rates for disease diagnosis and prognosis.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348536

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis parameters (blood carbon dioxide, pCO2; oxygen, pO2; carbonate, HCO3-; standard base excess, SBE) in monitoring respiratory function and ventilation compliance after noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) adaptation, predicting survival in ALS patients. Methods: We selected the first ABG performed after NIV start in ALS patients followed from 2000 to 2015 in Turin ALS Center. Correlations between ABG parameters and survival were calculated. Risk for death/tracheostomy was computed at modifying ABG parameters by using Cox regression models, adjusted for the main prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were then performed and compared. Results: A total of 186 post-NIV ABGs were included. HCO3- and SBE showed a significant correlation with survival after NIV (respectively, R = -0.183, p = 0.018 and R = -0.200, p = 0.010). Risk for death/tracheostomy after NIV was significantly higher at increasing HCO3- and SBE blood levels, especially when HCO3- was >29 mmol/L and SBE >4 mmol/L (respectively, HR 1.466, 95% CI 1.068-2.011, p = 0.018 and HR = 1.411, 95% CI 1.030-1.32, p = 0.032). Survival in NIV was higher in patients with HCO3- < 29.0 mmol/L and SBE < 4.0 mmol/L. Conclusions: HCO3- and SBE blood levels are markers of ventilation compliance, tolerance and efficacy, being able to predict survival after NIV start in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Gasometria , Carbonatos , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
5.
J Neurosci ; 41(38): 7924-7941, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353897

RESUMO

Cannabinoids, the bioactive constituents of cannabis, exert a wide array of effects on the brain by engaging Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). Accruing evidence supports that cannabinoid action relies on context-dependent factors, such as the biological characteristics of the target cell, suggesting that cell population-intrinsic molecular cues modulate CB1R-dependent signaling. Here, by using a yeast two-hybrid-based high-throughput screening, we identified BiP as a potential CB1R-interacting protein. We next found that CB1R and BiP interact specifically in vitro, and mapped the interaction site within the CB1R C-terminal (intracellular) domain and the BiP C-terminal (substrate-binding) domain-α. BiP selectively shaped agonist-evoked CB1R signaling by blocking an "alternative" Gq/11 protein-dependent signaling module while leaving the "classical" Gi/o protein-dependent inhibition of the cAMP pathway unaffected. In situ proximity ligation assays conducted on brain samples from various genetic mouse models of conditional loss or gain of CB1R expression allowed to map CB1R-BiP complexes selectively on terminals of GABAergic neurons. Behavioral studies using cannabinoid-treated male BiP+/- mice supported that CB1R-BiP complexes modulate cannabinoid-evoked anxiety, one of the most frequent undesired effects of cannabis. Together, by identifying BiP as a CB1R-interacting protein that controls receptor function in a signaling pathway- and neuron population-selective manner, our findings may help to understand the striking context-dependent actions of cannabis in the brain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cannabis use is increasing worldwide, so innovative studies aimed to understand its complex mechanism of neurobiological action are warranted. Here, we found that cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), the primary molecular target of the bioactive constituents of cannabis, interacts specifically with an intracellular protein called BiP. The interaction between CB1R and BiP occurs selectively on terminals of GABAergic (inhibitory) neurons, and induces a remarkable shift in the CB1R-associated signaling profile. Behavioral studies conducted in mice support that CB1R-BiP complexes act as fine-tuners of anxiety, one of the most frequent undesired effects of cannabis use. Our findings open a new conceptual framework to understand the striking context-dependent pharmacological actions of cannabis in the brain.

6.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355622

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate how Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients' mortality rates change, based on different levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) and disease duration, providing a scheme of mortality rates of a real population of ALS patients to improve the design of future RCTs. Methods: One random spirometry for each ALS patient was selected during four time intervals from disease onset: (1) ≤12 months; (2) ≤18 months; (3) ≤24 months; (4) ≤36 months. Date of spirometry corresponded to date of trial entry, while time interval onset-spirometry to disease duration at enrollment. Mortality rates from inclusion were computed at different time intervals. Based on progression rates, patients were stratified in slow, intermediate and fast progressors. Survival from recruitment was calculated depending on FVC, disease duration and progression rate. Results: We included 659 patients in group 1, 888 in group 2, 1019 in group 3 and 1102 in group 4. Mortality rates were higher in each group at reducing the FVC cutoff used for recruitment (p < 0.001). Median survival decreased when lowering FVC and disease duration cutoffs (p < 0.001); a higher median disease progression rate of included patients led to lower median survival from recruitment. The proportion of recruited fast progressors raised when shortening disease duration and lowering FVC cutoff. Conclusions: This is a simple model for setting eligibility criteria, based on mortality rates of patients depending on FVC and disease duration, to select the best population for RCTs, tailored to trials' primary endpoints and duration.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365891

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the frequency and predictors of plateaus in ALS progression as assessed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Scale. Methods: All patients attending the ALS Center of Turin, with a diagnosis between 2007 and 2014 were considered. At each visit, muscle strength was evaluated in several muscles and assessed using the MRC scale. Concomitant ALSFRSr scores were retrieved. Plateaus were calculated as a stable overall MRC or ALSFRSr score lasting at least 6, 12 or 18 months. Results: According to MRC scale scores, 122 (22.8%), 71 (13.2%) and 59 (11.0%) patients experienced a plateau lasting at least 6, 12 and 18 months. ALSFRSr scores revealed similar estimates [134, (25.0%), 89 (16.6%) and 67 (12.5%), respectively]. Plateaus were more frequent at high scores and appeared a median of 24.6 months (IQR 6.7-47.7) after the diagnosis. Only the predominant upper motor neuron phenotype (OR 4.06, 95% CI 2-06-8.10, p-value <0.001) and diagnostic delay OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-10.5, p-value = 0.005) were significantly correlated with their appearance. Discussion: Plateaus in ALS progression as assessed using either ALSFRSr or MRC scale are not infrequent and should be expected especially in less aggressive phenotypes. Similar results were found both using the MRC scale and the ALSFRSr scores, suggesting a comparable reliability of these scales in grasping the disease progression.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279169

RESUMO

Objective. Up to 50% of patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show behavioral changes within the spectrum of frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Behavioral dysfunctions in ALS patients negatively impact on management, prognosis and survival. It is, thus, crucial to develop ALS-specific psychometric tools for early detecting alterations in behavior. This study aimed at investigating psychometric properties and feasibility of the Beaumont Behavioral Impairment (BBI), a proxy-report questionnaire designed to screen for FTD-like behavioral symptoms in ALS patients.Methods. Ninety ALS patients were compared to 100 healthy participants (HPs) on the BBI. ALS patients underwent clinical, cognitive, mood/anxiety and further behavioral (Frontal System Behavior Scale, FrSBe; Frontal Behavioral Inventory, FBI) evaluation. Validity, reliability, sensitivity and specificity of the BBI were assessed.Results. The BBI was significantly related to FrSBe and FBI scores, whereas not to other measures. A Principal Component Analysis yielded a mono-component structure; Cronbach's α was .93. The BBI proved to be sensitive to changes in behavior as well as to discriminate between different degrees of dysfunction. By addressing the FrSBe as the gold standard, the BBI reached optimal sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (79.7%) at a cutoff of 10.5. Moreover, the BBI proved to be more accurate than the FrSBe and the FBI in clinical classifications.Conclusion. The BBI showed high internal consistency, as well as good construct, convergent and divergent validity. Its clinical usability is encouraged in ALS patients as being able to sensitively and specifically detect FTD-like behavioral changes.

10.
Trials ; 22(1): 486, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are an especially susceptible population to develop post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients can suffer acute severe pain and may have long-term mental, cognitive, and functional health deterioration after discharge. However, few controlled trials are evaluating interventions for the prevention and treatment of PICS. The study hypothesis is that a specific care program based on early therapeutic education and psychological intervention improves the quality of life of patients at risk of developing PICS and chronic pain after COVID-19. The primary objective is to determine whether the program is superior to standard-of-care on health-related quality of life at 6 months after hospital discharge. The secondary objectives are to determine whether the intervention is superior to standard-of-care on health-related quality of life, incidence of chronic pain and degree of functional limitation, incidence of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress syndrome at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge. METHODS: The PAINCOVID trial is a unicentric randomized, controlled, patient-blinded superiority trial with two parallel groups. The primary endpoint is the health-related quality of life at 6 months after hospital discharge, and randomization will be performed with a 1:1 allocation ratio. This paper details the methodology and statistical analysis plan of the trial and was submitted before outcome data were available. The estimated sample size is 84 patients, 42 for each arm. Assuming a lost to follow-up rate of 20%, a sample size of 102 patients is necessary (51 for each arm). DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an early care therapeutic education, and psychological intervention program for the management of PICS and chronic pain after COVID-19. The intervention will serve as proof of the need to implement early care programs at an early stage, having an incalculable impact given the current scenario of the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is being conducted in accordance with the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by the authors' institutional review board Comité Ético de Investigación Clínica del Hospital Clínic de Barcelona (approval number: HCB/2020/0549) and was registered on May 9, 2020, at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04394169 ).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dor Crônica , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/terapia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Intervenção Psicossocial , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151660

RESUMO

Objective: To assess amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) prevalence and to analyze how this estimate vary according to the historical depth of data collection. Methods: Data from the PARALS register have been used. Crude prevalence ratio was estimated on 31 December 2015 for the period 2015-2013 and then repeated extending the time interval by 3 years each time. For each time interval, prevalence ratio was calculated globally and stratified by sex, age at diagnosis, and phenotype. Prevalence was also calculated considering patients who underwent tracheostomy during the same study period. Results: Prevalence ratios increased proportionally to the length of the time period considered, ranging from 6 (95% CI 5.3-6.7) for a 3-year period to 12.1 (95% CI 11.1-13.1) per 100,000 population for a 21-year period. Prevalence ratio increase was inversely proportional to age at diagnosis, being null in the >85 years class and maximal in the 25-35 age class (+1700%). Among phenotypes, predominant UMN showed the highest increase (from 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8, to 2.1, 95% CI 1.7 - 2.6, +320%). Discussion: Because of the variability of ALS survival, prevalence ratio strongly depends on the length of the follow-up period. A 12-year period should be sufficient to get a reliable estimate of ALS prevalence including long-survival patients.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860702

RESUMO

Objective: To assess patients Quality of life (QoL) and the burden of their caregivers during Covid-19 pandemic and specifically the impact of two-month lockdown period. Methods: In April 2020, a total of 60 patients and 59 caregivers were administered by phone scales assessing patients' QoL (McGill QoL Questionnaire), general health status (EQ-5D-5L), and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview). The administration was repeated one month after the end of lockdown measures, with the addition of a qualitative questionnaire (COVID-QoL Questionnaire) exploring family reorganization and personal perception of lock down. Results: QoL and perceived health status did not worsen during lockdown, while caregiver burden increased (p = 0.01). Patient's QoL and caregiver burden were inversely correlated at T1 (ZBI total score mildly correlated with Mc Gill existential subscore, p = 0.02, rho = 0.30 and with Mc Gill total score, p = 0.05, rho = 0.265). No significant correlations were found at T2. According to the COVID-QoL questionnaire, caregivers perceived lower family help compared to patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Restricted measures of lockdown period during COVID-19 pandemic did not result in a significant reduction of QoL in our cohort of ALS patients, while caregiver burden significantly increased. ALS motor impairment may have played a role in the unchanged life conditions of patients. Instead, the restriction of family help for primary caregivers could be responsible of their increased burden, reflecting the importance of a wide social support in the management of this clinical condition.

14.
Audiol Neurootol ; 26(5): 353-360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neuromuscular progressive disorder, characterized by limb and bulbar muscle wasting and weakness. 30% of patients present a bulbar onset, while 70% a spinal outbreak, although most of them develop bulbar impairment later on. Due to the lack of an early biomarker of bulbar involvement, we chose to evaluate the role of stapedial reflex (SR) in order to predict preclinical bulbar impairment in ALS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 36 ALS patients. We assessed revised-ALS functional-rating-scale and SR for a total of 4 visits. We established the presence of SR, acoustic reflex latency test (ARLT), and SRs Decay. Patients who had not develop bulbar signs at fourth visit continued follow-up up to 15 months. Data were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: We observed that SRs Decay at 500 and 1,000 Hz is the first parameter of SR to get altered in all ALS patients before the development of bulbar impairment. Twenty-eight patients developed bulbar impairment during the study. We highlighted a correlation between the progression rate of disease and both time of SRs Decay alteration and time of bulbar impairment from disease onset. Four patients who did not develop bulbar impairment had a progression rate lower than the other ones (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that SR Decay test could be a sensitive measure for detecting pre-symptomatic bulbar involvement in ALS and could represent a simple, noninvasive, and useful biomarker of disease progression.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879000

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the impact of a novel heterozygous FUS mutation in the acceptor splice site of intron 14 (c.1542 - 1 g > t) on protein expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) from a familial ALS patient. Methods: PBMC were isolated for mRNA analysis (cDNA synthesis, sequencing and one-step RT-PCR), Western Immunoblot (WI), and Immunofluorescence (IF). Results: cDNA analysis revealed the skipping of exon 15 and a premature stop codon at c.228. RT-PCR showed reduced FUS mRNA by more than half compared to a healthy control (HC) and an ALS patient without genetic mutations (wtALS). In WI FUS band intensity in the proband was 30-50% compared to HC and wtALS. An antibody expected to detect only the wild-type protein did not reveal any reduction of FUS band intensity compared to the other antibodies. IF showed no difference among HC, wtALS, and the proband. Discussion: The reduction of FUS mRNA and protein in PBMC suggests the absence of the truncated protein, probably due to nonsense-mediated decay, leading to loss of function.

17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 103: 130.e1-130.e7, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637330

RESUMO

We report a case of childhood-onset ALS with a FUS gene mutation presenting cognitive impairment and a rapid clinical progression. The patient, an 11-year-old girl, presented with right distal upper limb weakness and mild intellectual disability at the Griffith Mental Development Scales. The disease rapidly worsened and the patient became tetraplegic and bed-ridden 2 years after symptom onset. A c.1509_1510delAG mutation in exon 14 of the FUS gene was detected, resulting in a predicted truncated protein, p.G504Wfs*12, lacking the nuclear localization signal. The levels of FUS mRNA in the proband were not significantly different compared to controls. Western immunoblot analysis showed that one antibody (500-526) detected in the proband ~50% of the amount of FUS protein compared to controls, while 3 other antibodies (2-27, 400-450 and FUS C-terminal), which recognize both wild type and the mutated FUS, detected 60% to 75% of the amount of the protein. These findings indicate that p.G504Wfs*12 FUS is more prone to undergo post-translational modification respect to wild type FUS.

19.
Nat Genet ; 53(3): 294-303, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589841

RESUMO

The genetic basis of Lewy body dementia (LBD) is not well understood. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing in large cohorts of LBD cases and neurologically healthy controls to study the genetic architecture of this understudied form of dementia, and to generate a resource for the scientific community. Genome-wide association analysis identified five independent risk loci, whereas genome-wide gene-aggregation tests implicated mutations in the gene GBA. Genetic risk scores demonstrate that LBD shares risk profiles and pathways with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, providing a deeper molecular understanding of the complex genetic architecture of this age-related neurodegenerative condition.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
20.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(4): 1124-1133, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the brain metabolic correlates of the different regional extent of ALS, evaluated with the King's staging system, using brain 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET (18F-FDG-PET). METHODS: Three hundred ninety ALS cases with King's stages 1, 2, and 3 (n = 390), i.e., involvement of 1, 2, and 3 body regions respectively, underwent brain 18F-FDG-PET at diagnosis. King's stage at PET was derived from ALSFRS-R and was regressed out against whole-brain metabolism in the whole sample. The full factorial design confirmed the hypothesis that differences among groups (King's 1, King's 2, King's 3, and 40 healthy controls (HC)) existed overall. Comparisons among stages and between each group and HC were performed. We included age at PET and sex as covariates. RESULTS: Brain metabolism was inversely correlated with stage in medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, and right precentral and postcentral gyri. The full factorial design resulted in a significant main effect of groups. There was no significant difference between stages 1 and 2. Comparing stage 3 to stage 1+2, a significant relative hypometabolism was highlighted in the former in the left precentral and medial frontal gyri, and in the right medial frontal, postcentral, precentral, and middle frontal gyri. The comparisons between each group and HC showed the extension of frontal metabolic changes from stage 1 to stage 3, with the larger metabolic gap between stages 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that in ALS, the propagation of neurodegeneration follows a corticofugal, regional ordered pattern, extending from the motor cortex to posterior and anterior regions.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Glucose , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
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