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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1054-1065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335277

RESUMO

Despite the advanced PCR-based assays available, a fraction of the pediatric respiratory infections remain unexplained every epidemic season, and there is a perception that novel viruses might be present in these specimens. We systematically collected samples from a prospective cohort of pediatric patients with respiratory infections, that returned negative results by validated molecular RT-PCR assays, and studied them with a target-independent, high-throughput sequencing-based approach. We also included a matched cohort of children with no symptoms of respiratory infection, as a contrast study population. More than fifty percent of the specimens from the group of patients with unexplained respiratory infections were resolved. However, the higher rate of detection was not due to the presence of novel viruses, but to the identification of well-known viral respiratory pathogens. Our results show that already known viral pathogens are responsible for the majority of cases that remain unexplained after the epidemic season. High-throughput sequencing approaches that use pathogen-specific probes are easier to standardize because they ensure reproducible library enrichment and sequencing. In consequence, these techniques might be desirable from a regulatory standpoint for diagnostic laboratories seeking to benefit from the many advantages of these sequencing technologies.

2.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302060

RESUMO

Currently, there are some therapies that are being practiced without adjusting to the available scientific evidence. The terminology is confusing, encompassing terms such as "alternative medicine", "natural medicine", "complementary medicine", "pseudoscience" or "pseudo-therapies". The Medicines Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics considers that no health professional should recommend treatments not supported by scientific evidence. Also, diagnostic and therapeutic actions should be always based on protocols and clinical practice guidelines. Health authorities and judicial system should regulate and regularize the use of alternative medicines in children, warning parents and prescribers of possible sanctions in those cases in which the clinical evolution is not satisfactory, as well responsibilities are required for the practice of traditional medicine, for health professionals who act without complying with the "lex artis ad hoc", and for the parents who do not fulfill their duties of custody and protection. In addition, it considers that, as already has happened, Professional Associations should also sanction, or at least reprobate or correct, those health professionals who, under a scientific recognition obtained by a university degree, promote the use of therapies far from the scientific method and current evidence, especially in those cases in which it is recommended to replace conventional treatment with pseudo-therapy, and in any case if said substitution leads to a clinical worsening that could have been avoided.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limited systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting mainly children less than 5 years of age. Risk factors for cardiac involvement and resistance to treatment are insufficiently studied in non-Japanese children. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for resistance to treatment and coronary artery lesions (CAL) in KD in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective study (May 2011-June 2016) of all patients less than 16 years of age diagnosed with KD included in KAWA-RACE network (84 Spanish hospitals). RESULTS: A total of 625 cases were analyzed, 63% were males, 79% under 5 year-olds and 16.8% younger than 12 months. On echocardiographic examination CAL were the most frequent findings (23%) being ectasia the most common (12%). Coronary aneurysms were diagnosed in 9.6%, reaching 20% in infants under 12 months (p<0.001). A total of 97% of the patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with a median number of days from fever onset to IVIG administration of 7.2. A second dose was given to 15.7% and steroids to 14.5% patients. Only 1.4% patients received infliximab. No deaths were reported. A multivariate analysis identified anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, higher creatinine and procalcitonin as independent risk factors for treatment failure and length under 103 cm, hemoglobin < 10.2 mg/dL, platelets > 900,000 cells/mm3, maximum temperature < 39.5°C, total duration of fever > 10 days and fever before treatment ≥ 8 days as independent risk factors for developing coronary aneurysms. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, children under 12 months develop coronary aneurysms more frequently and children with KD with anemia and leukocytosis have high risk of cardiac involvement. Adding steroids early should be considered in those patients, especially if the treatment is not started before 8 days of fever. A score applicable to non-Japanese children able to predict the risk of aneurysm development and IVIG resistance is necessary.

4.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 90(6): 400.e1-400.e9, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979681

RESUMO

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as the growth of microorganisms in a sterile urine culture in a patient with compatible clinical symptoms. The presence of bacteria without any symptoms is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria, and does not require any treatment. In neonates and infants, fever is the guiding sign to suspecting a UTI. Classic urinary tract symptoms become more important in older children. Urine cultures collected before starting antibiotics is always required for diagnosis. Clean-catch (midstream) specimens should be collected for urine culture. In the case of non-toilet-trained children, specimens must be obtained by urinary catheterisation, or suprapubic puncture in neonates and infants. Specimens collected by urine bag should not be used for urine culture. There are no significant differences in the clinical evolution and prognosis between oral versus short intravenous followed by oral antibiotic. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be guided by local susceptibility patterns. Second-generation cephalosporin (children under 6 years) and fosfomycin trometamol (over 6 years), are the empiric therapy recommended in this consensus. In the case of pyelonephritis, recommended antibiotic treatment are third-generation cephalosporins (outpatient care) or, if admission is required, aminoglycosides. Ampicillin should be added in infants less than 3 months old. Antibiotic de-escalation should be always practiced once the result of the urine culture is known.

5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(4): 705-712, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Subclinical synovitis is often detected by musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients in clinical remission. The main objective of this prospective, observational, longitudinal, multicentre study was to evaluate the predictive value of MSUS-detected subclinical synovitis in relation to flares at 12 months following TNFi tapering in a JIA population in stable clinical remission. METHODS: We included 56 JIA patients in stable remission undergoing TNFi therapy tapered at baseline and in some cases at 6 months. We performed baseline and 6-month MSUS assessment on B-mode (BM) and power Doppler (PD) mode of 22 joints and 8 tendons. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (32.1%) experienced a flare during the 12-month study period. BM synovitis was frequent (83.9%) but PD synovitis was scarcely found (8.9%). There were no significant differences in MSUS findings between patients who experienced a flare and those who remained in remission. Only 5 patients had positive for PD synovitis, in joints with BM synovitis grades 2 or 3, and none experienced a flare. Concomitant methotrexate (MTX) was more frequent in patients who were successfully tapered (71.1% vs. 27.8%; p=0.002) and patients older than 12 experienced a greater number of flares and earlier onset. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical synovitis, as detected by MSUS, proved not to be a predictor of flares. Those patients on a TNFi-tapered concomitant methotrexate regimen experienced the fewest flares although flare risk increased with age.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinovite/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Juvenil/patologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Metotrexato , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Membrana Sinovial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(6): 873-880, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory tract infections are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acute bronchiolitis (AB) is the leading cause of hospital admission among infants. Clinical scores have proven to be inaccurate in predicting prognosis. Our aim was to build a score based on findings of lung ultrasound (LU) performed at admission, to stratify patients at risk of needing respiratory support (non-invasive and invasive ventilation). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter study including infants <6 months of age admitted with AB. Point-of-care LU was performed on admission, and a score was calculated based on ultrasound findings (presence and localization of B lines, B line confluence and/or consolidations) and clinical data. Main outcome was need of respiratory support. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were included in the study, with a median age of 1.7 months [IQR: 1.2-2.8], 47.6% were female. Mean duration of symptoms prior to admission was 3.1 days (SD 1.8). Fifty-six patients (39%) required non-invasive ventilation (NIV), 14 (9.7%) were transferred to PICU, and 3 needed invasive ventilation (3/145). Identification of at least one posterior consolidation >1 cm was the main factor associated to NIV (RR 4.4; [CI95%1.8-10.8]) The LU score built according to the findings on admission showed an AUC: 0.845(CI95%:0.78-0.91). A score ≥3.5 showed a sensitivity of 89.1% (CI95%:78.2-94.9%) and specificity of 56% (CI95%: 45.3-66.1%) CONCLUSIONS: Among infants below 6 months of age admitted with AB, point-of-care LU was a helpful tool to identify patients at risk of needing respiratory support.

8.
Early Hum Dev ; 132: 1-5, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908988

RESUMO

AIM: Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are responsible for fever without a source (FWS), sepsis-like illness and encephalitis in neonates and children under 3 months of age. Short-term outcome is generally good, but there is great concern about medium and long- term outcome of infants after HPeV infection. The aim of this study is to assess the medium-term outcome in infants following HPeV infection without encephalitis. METHODS: Patients who suffered HPeV infection involving cerebrospinal fluid were evaluated twice using Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 (ASQ-3). The first evaluation was conducted at least one year after the infection and the second one year later. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were evaluated in the first assessment, and three of them presented mild alterations in motor function domains. Moreover, hypotonia was observed in the neurologic exam in one case, and hemiparesis in another case. In the second assessment fifteen patients were included, and only the patient with hemiparesis continued presenting gross motor disfunction, with complete recovery of the remaining patients. INTERPRETATION: We have observed a good medium-term prognosis in infants after HPeV infections, with improvement of mild motor alterations after at-home intervention. Infants who suffer HPeV infection without encephalitis seem to have a better prognosis than those with encephalitis.

9.
Euro Surveill ; 24(7)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782267

RESUMO

IntroductionEnterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an emerging pathogen that causes a wide range of disorders including severe neurological manifestations. In the past 20 years, this virus has been associated with large outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease with neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region, while in Europe mainly sporadic cases have been reported. In spring 2016, however, an EV-A71 outbreak associated with severe neurological cases was reported in Catalonia and spread further to other Spanish regions.AimOur objective was to investigate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the outbreak.MethodsWe carried out a retrospective study which included 233 EV-A71-positive samples collected during 2016 from hospitalised patients. We analysed the clinical manifestations associated with EV-A71 infections and performed phylogenetic analyses of the 3'-VP1 and 3Dpol regions from all Spanish strains and a set of EV-A71 from other countries.ResultsMost EV-A71 infections were reported in children (mean age: 2.6 years) and the highest incidence was between May and July 2016 (83%). Most isolates (218/233) were classified as subgenogroup C1 and 217 of them were grouped in one cluster phylogenetically related to a new recombinant variant strain associated with severe neurological diseases in Germany and France in 2015 and 2016. Moreover, we found a clear association of EV-A71-C1 infection with severe neurological disorders, brainstem encephalitis being the most commonly reported.ConclusionAn emerging recombinant variant of EV-A71-C1 was responsible for the large outbreak in 2016 in Spain that was associated with many severe neurological cases.

10.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(2): 194-199, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of viruses in children with respiratory tract infections and humoral immunodeficiencies has hardly been studied. We have evaluated these infections in children with humoral immunodeficiencies who required immunoglobulin replacement therapy, considering their relationship with symptoms, lung function, bacterial co-infection, and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study during a 1-year period, including children with humoral immunodeficiencies receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy. For each patient, at least one healthy family member was included. Respiratory samples for viral detection were taken every 1-3 months, and in case of respiratory tract infections. Symptoms questionnaires were filled biweekly. Spirometry and sputum culture were performed in every episode. RESULTS: Sixty-six episodes were analyzed in 14 patients (median age 12 years; IQR 7-17), identifying 18 respiratory viruses (27.3%), being rhinovirus the most frequently isolated one (12/18; 66%). Positive viral episodes were associated with clinical symptoms (89% vs 43%), more frequent antibiotic treatment (44% vs 15%) or hospital admission (22% vs 0%) than negative ones. Patients with positive viral detection showed impaired lung function, with lower FEV1 and FVC values. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, viral respiratory tract infections can cause significant respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function, in children with HID, despite immunoglobulin replacement therapy. These patients could benefit from the monitoring of viral infections, as these may be a gateway for ongoing lung damage.

11.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 89(5): 314.e1-314.e6, nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177123

RESUMO

La investigación clínica es la piedra angular para el desarrollo de la Medicina, y, en el ámbito de la Pediatría, supone un reto adicional debido a las peculiaridades que diferencian a los niños de los adultos. A pesar del enorme impacto de la salud infantil en el resto de la vida, nuestra sociedad aún no está suficientemente concienciada sobre la importancia de la investigación pediátrica, que, en general, se encuentra también muy alejada del día a día de quienes nos dedicamos a esta profesión. Desde la Asociación Española de Pediatría (AEP) se ha creado una plataforma específica de investigación -INVEST-AEP- para dar respuesta específica a los retos de la investigación en el seno de nuestra sociedad. En este artículo se retrata el escenario actual de la investigación pediátrica en España y se objetivan las metas alcanzadas en los últimos años, gracias al esfuerzo de los pediatras investigadores. Además, se realiza un análisis en profundidad sobre las barreras cotidianas que dificultan el desarrollo amplio y competitivo de la investigación pediátrica, como la falta de incentivación y ausencia de formación específica de pre y posgrado, la elevada carga asistencial o la falta de infraestructuras y financiación específicas. Definimos la misión, visión y valores de INVEST-AEP para tratar de diseñar una "hoja de ruta" para la investigación pediátrica española de los próximos años


Research is the cornerstone of medical progress. Paediatric research has its own nuances and represents an additional challenge due to the intrinsic characteristics of the paediatric population compared with adults. Despite the tremendous importance of childhood health and its impact during adulthood, society is still not convinced about the importance of conducting research in paediatrics. This also applies to paediatricians themselves, who think about research as a discipline that does not directly involve them. The Spanish Academy of Paediatrics has developed a specific research platform- INVEST-AEP- to try to help and answer the challenges associated with paediatric research in the society This article reflects the current status of paediatric research in Spain, and the goals achieved over the last few years due to the effort of paediatric researchers. In addition, a deeper analysis is provided as regards: a) the barriers that represent a hurdle for the development of broad and competitive paediatric research in our day to day work; b) the limited incentives and specific pre- and post-doctoral training; c) the high clinical burden for paediatricians or; d) the lack of specific infrastructure and dedicated funding for paediatrics. The mission, vision and values of INVEST-AEP are to develop an accessible roadmap for the development and implementation of paediatric research in Spain for the next few years


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Pediatria , Prioridades em Saúde , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Espanha
13.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 89(5): 314.e1-314.e6, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309723

RESUMO

Research is the cornerstone of medical progress. Paediatric research has its own nuances and represents an additional challenge due to the intrinsic characteristics of the paediatric population compared with adults. Despite the tremendous importance of childhood health and its impact during adulthood, society is still not convinced about the importance of conducting research in paediatrics. This also applies to paediatricians themselves, who think about research as a discipline that does not directly involve them. The Spanish Academy of Paediatrics has developed a specific research platform- INVEST-AEP- to try to help and answer the challenges associated with paediatric research in the society This article reflects the current status of paediatric research in Spain, and the goals achieved over the last few years due to the effort of paediatric researchers. In addition, a deeper analysis is provided as regards: a) the barriers that represent a hurdle for the development of broad and competitive paediatric research in our day to day work; b) the limited incentives and specific pre- and post-doctoral training; c) the high clinical burden for paediatricians or; d) the lack of specific infrastructure and dedicated funding for paediatrics. The mission, vision and values of INVEST-AEP are to develop an accessible roadmap for the development and implementation of paediatric research in Spain for the next few years.

15.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a multisystem vasculitis associated with coronary artery abnormalities. Infections could be a trigger of the inflammation. The main aim of this study was to describe the presence of infections in children with KD, and to analyse the clinical characteristics and the presence of coronary abnormalities in these cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed within the Kawasaki Diseases Network (KAWA-RACE (2011-2016). An analysis was performed that included patients with positive microbiological findings (PMF) during the acute phase, as well as those with a previous recent infection (PRI) during the 4 weeks preceding KD diagnosis. RESULTS: The study included total of 621 children with KD, with PMF being found in 101 (16.3%) patients, and a PRI in 107 (17.2%). Significantly less echocardiographic abnormalities were found in the in the group with a PRI, when compared to those without a PRI (23 vs. 35%, P=.01) and also a lower proportion of overall coronary artery lesions (16 vs. 25%, P=.054). No significant differences were found in the proportion of aneurysms in either of these groups (PRI or PMF) when compared to those without infection. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, no differences were found in the incidence of coronary aneurysms in either of the groups, with or without PRI or PMF. Therefore, if KD is suspected, appropriate treatment should be started despite having a confirmed infection.

17.
Acta Paediatr ; 107(10): 1792-1797, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705992

RESUMO

AIM: The traditional approach for acute paediatric osteoarticular infections (OAI) has comprised initial intravenous antibiotics followed by prompt oral antibiotics. We assessed how providing just oral antibiotics compared to the traditional two-step approach. METHODS: This prospective study was performed at the Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain, from September 2015 to September 2016. We compared 25 outpatients, with good general health and a mean age of 25 months who received just oral antibiotics, with 228 hospitalised children of a similar age who received intravenous and oral antibiotics from other hospitals in the Spanish Network of Osteoarticular Infections. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, fever, erythrocyte sedimentation rate value, C-reactive protein and diagnosis. The oral group comprised 15 with osteomyelitis, seven with septic arthritis, two with osteoarthritis and one with spondylodiscitis. This group had a lower percentage of Staphylococcus aureus (8% vs 26%, p = 0.06) and higher proportion of Kingella kingae (24% vs 9%, p = 0.017) than the intravenous group. There were complications (24%) and follow-up sequelae (6%) in the intravenous group, but none in the oral group. CONCLUSION: Outpatients with OAI who were in good general health had favourable outcomes when they received oral antibiotics without intravenous antibiotics.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29613974

RESUMO

Newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using T-cell receptor-excision circles (TRECs) allows prompt diagnosis and initiation of supportive and curative therapy thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. However, profound combined immunodeficiencies with normal numbers of non-functional T cells will go undetected. We present a patient with ORAI1 deficiency and normal TREC numbers observed after diagnosis at the age of 14 months who suffered from disseminated fatal cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection, demonstrating a potential pitfall of the current NBS program.

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