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1.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8758-8766, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661967

RESUMO

Efficient and versatile spin-to-charge current conversion is crucial for the development of spintronic applications, which strongly rely on the ability to electrically generate and detect spin currents. In this context, the spin Hall effect has been widely studied in heavy metals with strong spin-orbit coupling. While the high crystal symmetry in these materials limits the conversion to the orthogonal configuration, unusual configurations are expected in low-symmetry transition-metal dichalcogenide semimetals, which could add flexibility to the electrical injection and detection of pure spin currents. Here, we report the observation of spin-to-charge conversion in MoTe2 flakes, which are stacked in graphene lateral spin valves. We detect two distinct contributions arising from the conversion of two different spin orientations. In addition to the conventional conversion where the spin polarization is orthogonal to the charge current, we also detect a conversion where the spin polarization and the charge current are parallel. Both contributions, which could arise either from bulk spin Hall effect or surface Edelstein effect, show large efficiencies comparable to the best spin Hall metals and topological insulators. Our finding enables the simultaneous conversion of spin currents with any in-plane spin polarization in one single experimental configuration.

2.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1074-1082, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608710

RESUMO

Graphene is an excellent material for long-distance spin transport but allows little spin manipulation. Transition-metal dichalcogenides imprint their strong spin-orbit coupling into graphene via the proximity effect, and it has been predicted that efficient spin-to-charge conversion due to spin Hall and Rashba-Edelstein effects could be achieved. Here, by combining Hall probes with ferromagnetic electrodes, we unambiguously demonstrate experimentally the spin Hall effect in graphene induced by MoS2 proximity and for varying temperatures up to room temperature. The fact that spin transport and the spin Hall effect occur in different parts of the same material gives rise to a hitherto unreported efficiency for the spin-to-charge voltage output. Additionally, for a single graphene/MoS2 heterostructure-based device, we evidence a superimposed spin-to-charge current conversion that can be indistinguishably associated with either the proximity-induced Rashba-Edelstein effect in graphene or the spin Hall effect in MoS2. By a comparison of our results to theoretical calculations, the latter scenario is found to be the most plausible one. Our findings pave the way toward the combination of spin information transport and spin-to-charge conversion in two-dimensional materials, opening exciting opportunities in a variety of future spintronic applications.

3.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7252, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26006728

RESUMO

The realization of quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells is considered a milestone in the discovery of topological insulators. Quantum spin Hall states are predicted to allow current flow at the edges of an insulating bulk, as demonstrated in various experiments. A key prediction yet to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken time-reversal symmetry. Here we first establish a systematic framework for the magnetic field dependence of electrostatically gated quantum spin Hall devices. We then study edge conduction of an inverted quantum well device under broken time-reversal symmetry using microwave impedance microscopy, and compare our findings to a non-inverted device. At zero magnetic field, only the inverted device shows clear edge conduction in its local conductivity profile, consistent with theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little change. This indicates physics beyond simple quantum spin Hall model, including material-specific properties and possibly many-body effects.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(1): 64-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24317285

RESUMO

The properties of quantum systems interacting with their environment, commonly called open quantum systems, can be affected strongly by this interaction. Although this can lead to unwanted consequences, such as causing decoherence in qubits used for quantum computation, it can also be exploited as a probe of the environment. For example, magnetic resonance imaging is based on the dependence of the spin relaxation times of protons in water molecules in a host's tissue. Here we show that the excitation energy of a single spin, which is determined by magnetocrystalline anisotropy and controls its stability and suitability for use in magnetic data-storage devices, can be modified by varying the exchange coupling of the spin to a nearby conductive electrode. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we observe variations up to a factor of two of the spin excitation energies of individual atoms as the strength of the spin's coupling to the surrounding electronic bath changes. These observations, combined with calculations, show that exchange coupling can strongly modify the magnetic anisotropy. This system is thus one of the few open quantum systems in which the energy levels, and not just the excited-state lifetimes, can be renormalized controllably. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, a property normally determined by the local structure around a spin, can be tuned electronically. These effects may play a significant role in the development of spintronic devices in which an individual magnetic atom or molecule is coupled to conducting leads.

5.
ACS Nano ; 6(4): 3614-23, 2012 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22443380

RESUMO

The synthesis of wafer-scale single crystal graphene remains a challenge toward the utilization of its intrinsic properties in electronics. Until now, the large-area chemical vapor deposition of graphene has yielded a polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries are detrimental to its electrical properties. Here, we study the physicochemical mechanisms underlying the nucleation and growth kinetics of graphene on copper, providing new insights necessary for the engineering synthesis of wafer-scale single crystals. Graphene arises from the crystallization of a supersaturated fraction of carbon-adatom species, and its nucleation density is the result of competition between the mobility of the carbon-adatom species and their desorption rate. As the energetics of these phenomena varies with temperature, the nucleation activation energies can span over a wide range (1-3 eV) leading to a rational prediction of the individual nuclei size and density distribution. The growth-limiting step was found to be the attachment of carbon-adatom species to the graphene edges, which was independent of the Cu crystalline orientation.

6.
Nature ; 458(7242): 1150-3, 2009 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19407797

RESUMO

Iron, cobalt and nickel are archetypal ferromagnetic metals. In bulk, electronic conduction in these materials takes place mainly through the s and p electrons, whereas the magnetic moments are mostly in the narrow d-electron bands, where they tend to align. This general picture may change at the nanoscale because electrons at the surfaces of materials experience interactions that differ from those in the bulk. Here we show direct evidence for such changes: electronic transport in atomic-scale contacts of pure ferromagnets (iron, cobalt and nickel), despite their strong bulk ferromagnetism, unexpectedly reveal Kondo physics, that is, the screening of local magnetic moments by the conduction electrons below a characteristic temperature. The Kondo effect creates a sharp resonance at the Fermi energy, affecting the electrical properties of the system; this appears as a Fano-Kondo resonance in the conductance characteristics as observed in other artificial nanostructures. The study of hundreds of contacts shows material-dependent log-normal distributions of the resonance width that arise naturally from Kondo theory. These resonances broaden and disappear with increasing temperature, also as in standard Kondo systems. Our observations, supported by calculations, imply that coordination changes can significantly modify magnetism at the nanoscale. Therefore, in addition to standard micromagnetic physics, strong electronic correlations along with atomic-scale geometry need to be considered when investigating the magnetic properties of magnetic nanostructures.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 120(11): 5067-72, 2004 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15267374

RESUMO

Lifetimes of triplet-state molecules and triplet quantum yields are important parameters in photobiology as they determine the generation of singlet-oxygen upon irradiation with visible light. Here we report lifetimes of protoporphyrin IX (pp) in vacuo measured in an ion storage ring. We find that after 532 nm photon absorption, pp(-) (free base and negatively charged carboxylate) and pp(+) (single protonation of ring nitrogen) have triplet-state lifetimes of 12 and 6 ms, respectively. After 415 or 390 nm absorption the lifetime of the anion is shorter (1.5 and 0.6 ms) as expected from the increase in temperature. Triplet quantum yields of pp(-) and pp(+) are similar, 0.6-0.7, close to values reported for the free base and monocation in solution. The other channel, direct decay to the electronic ground state and subsequent dissociation of vibrationally excited ions, is much faster than triplet-singlet intersystem crossing. We measured lifetimes of 63 micros, 96 micros, and 0.3 ms after 390, 415, and 532 nm excitation, respectively. A fit of a statistical model to the pp(-) decay results in an Arrhenius activation energy of 0.5+/-0.2 eV for CO(2) loss and a low preexponential factor (10(6)-10(10) s(-1)), indicative of an entropic barrier.


Assuntos
Luz , Protoporfirinas/química , Protoporfirinas/efeitos da radiação , Teoria Quântica , Absorção , Íons , Cinética , Modelos Estatísticos , Fótons , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
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