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1.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 58: 126424, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No safe blood lead concentration in children has been identified. Lead can affect nearly every system in the body and is especially harmful to the developing central nervous system of children. The aim of this study is to analyze blood lead in a population of children and its association with sociodemographic variables, biochemical parameters, copper, iron, selenium and zinc. METHODS: We recruited 155 children (86 boys and 69 girls) with a mean age of 7.3 (SD:4.1). Blood lead and serum selenium concentrations were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum iron levels were determined by colorimetric assay. A risk exposure questionnaire for lead was administered to the participants. RESULTS: The median blood lead level was 1.1 (IQR 0.7-1.6) µg/dL. Regarding risk exposure factors, the youngest children (<2 years) who played outdoors presented a median blood lead concentration of 1.1 µg/dL IQR: 0.48-1.48, compared to the median of 0.3 µg/dL IQR:0.2-0.48 in the children who stated they played at home (p = 0.024). Significant differences were also found when taking into account those parents who smoked (median 1.3 IQR 0.8-1.9 µg/dL vs 0.9 IQR 0.5-1.4 µg/dL of non-smokers, p = 0.002). Children who drank tap water had higher blood lead levels (median 1.2 IQR 0.7-1.6 µg/dL) than those who drank bottled water (median 0.7 IQR 0.2-1.3 µg/dL p = 0.014). In addition, children whose mothers had not finished school had higher blood lead levels (median 1.7 IQR 1.2-2.3 µg/dL) than those whose mothers had finished school (median 1.2 IQR 0.7-1.7 µg/dL) and those whose mothers had gone to university (median 0.9 IQR 0.5-1.4 µg/dL) p = 0.034. In the multivariate lineal regression analysis we continue to observe the association between mother's higher level of education and lower blood levels (p = 0.04) and the interaction between age and outdoor play (p = 0.0145). CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the decline in blood lead concentrations, associated risk factors continue to exist in vulnerable populations such as children.

2.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 518-521, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344216

RESUMO

Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY in most cases) is a frequently underdiagnosed chromosomal anomaly associated with multiple comorbidities in adult life. Patients with Klinefelter syndrome have a higher risk of cancer. Specifically, these patients have a higher risk for mediastinal germ cell tumors. It is estimated that 8% of male patients with mediastinal tumors have Klinefelter. We report a 42-years-old male who suffered recurrent respiratory infections. During the study, a mediastinal mass was found, whose pathological study disclosed a type B thymoma. The patient had a history of infertility, high stature, gynecomastia, obesity with gynecoid distribution of body fat and testicular atrophy. A karyotype was requested (47, XXY), confirming the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Klinefelter/patologia , Timoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome de Klinefelter/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Klinefelter/genética , Masculino , Neoplasias do Mediastino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Radiografia Torácica , Timoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 518-521, abr. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1014254

RESUMO

Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY in most cases) is a frequently underdiagnosed chromosomal anomaly associated with multiple comorbidities in adult life. Patients with Klinefelter syndrome have a higher risk of cancer. Specifically, these patients have a higher risk for mediastinal germ cell tumors. It is estimated that 8% of male patients with mediastinal tumors have Klinefelter. We report a 42-years-old male who suffered recurrent respiratory infections. During the study, a mediastinal mass was found, whose pathological study disclosed a type B thymoma. The patient had a history of infertility, high stature, gynecomastia, obesity with gynecoid distribution of body fat and testicular atrophy. A karyotype was requested (47, XXY), confirming the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.

4.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 43: 93-105, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an inverse relationship between selenium status and cardiovascular health, although epidemiologic evidence yielded by the randomized trials did not find a beneficial effect of selenium administration. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between serum selenium levels and lipid profile adjusted by age, sex and other associated factors among a general adult population in Spain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 372 hospital employee volunteers (60 men and 312 women) with a mean age of 47 (SD: 10.9), whom were given a standardized questionnaire. Serum selenium concentration was measured by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. RESULTS: The mean of serum selenium was 79.5µg/L (SD: 11.7) with no sex-dependent differences. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, the associated factors with the mean levels of selenium were: age (ß=0.223; CI 95%: 0.101-0.345), p<0.001; widowhood (ß=-9.668; CI 95%: -17.234 to -2.102), p=0.012; calcium supplements (ß=3.949; CI 95%: 0.059-7.838), p=0.047; zinc (ß=0.126; CI 95%: 0.013-0.238), p=0.028 and glucose (ß=0.172; CI 95%: 0.062- 0.281), p=0.002; Participants with serum selenium≥79.5µg/L were 1.98 (OR=1.98; CI 95% 1.17-3.35; p=0.011) and 2.04 times (OR=2.04; CI 95% 1.06-3.97; p=0.034) more likely to have cholesterol ≥200mg/dL and LDL-c ≥100mg/dL respectively than those with serum selenium <79.5µg/L. CONCLUSIONS: Higher selenium was positively associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol but not with HDL-c and triglycerides. More studies are needed in order to confirm the lower serum selenium findings in widows.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Espanha , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Zinco/sangue
5.
Indian J Surg ; 77(4): 335, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702244

RESUMO

Epigastric hernia is a common condition, mostly asymptomatic although sometimes their unusual clinical presentation still represents a diagnostic dilemma for clinician. The theory of extra tension in the epigastric region by the diaphragm is the most likely theory of epigastric hernia formation. A detailed history and clinical examination in our thin, elderly male patient who presented with abdominal pain and constipation of 5 days of evolution was crucial in establishing a diagnosis. Noninvasive radiologic modalities such as ultrasonographic studies in the case of our patient can reliably confirm the diagnosis of epigastric hernia.

7.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 32: 122-34, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302920

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Consenso , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta , Peixes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Espanha
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, ene. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132578

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado son bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, existe preocupación a nivel mundial sobre los niveles de metilmercurio en el pescado, por lo que muchos países como Estados Unidos, Australia, Nueza Zelanda, Canadá y muchos países europeos han realizado recomendaciones de consumo de pescado a la población , especialmente a los grupos vulnerables con el fin de reducir la ingesta de metilmercurio. La sangre y el pelo son las mejores muestras biológicas para medir el metilmercurio. El método de análisis más empleado ha sido la espectroscopia de absorción atómica con la técnica del vapor frío, aunque existen también métodos directos que se basan en la descomposición térmica de la muestra. En los últimos años han aumentado los laboratorios que miden el mercurio por espectrometría de masas con plasma acoplado por inducción. Además, se puede diferenciar las distintas especies de mercurio acoplando métodos de separación cromatográficos. Es necesario que los laboratorios que analizan mercurio en muestras biológicas participen en programas de garantía externa de la calidad. Aunque se logre reducir las emisiones de mercurio, el mercurio del medio ambiente altodavía puede permanecer muchos años, por lo que es fundamental el consejo dietético para disminuir la exposición. No es aconsejable el uso de terapia quelante con fines diagnósticos o en pacientes asintomáticos. Es preciso proponer medidas de salud pública encaminadas a la disminución de la exposición al mercurio y que se evalúe también los beneficios de las mismas desde el punto de vista económico y social (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well-known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse ethylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Peixes , Análise Custo-Benefício
9.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, ene. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132579

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentessociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición al metilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposición al metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group’s main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta combusking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea
10.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 34(3): 105-123, sept.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131757

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentes sociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición almetilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposicional metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methyl mercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methyl mercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methyl mercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methyl mercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fatores de Risco , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Produtos Pesqueiros/efeitos adversos
11.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 969-88, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365001

RESUMO

Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Mercúrio/genética , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/patologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Estado Nutricional , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Alimentos Marinhos , Caracteres Sexuais , Toxicocinética
12.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365002

RESUMO

The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Gravidez , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 969-988, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132303

RESUMO

El mercurio es un tóxico ambiental que causa numerosos efectos adversos en la salud humana y en los ecosistemas naturales. Los factores que determinan la aparición de efectos adversos y su severidad son entre otros: la forma química del mercurio (elemental, inorgánico, orgánico), la dosis, la edad, la duración de la exposición, la vía de exposición y los factores ambientales, nutricionales y genéticos. En el ciclo acuático del mercurio, una vez que se ha depositado, se transforma en metilmercurio por la acción de determinadas bacterias sulfato reductoras y se bioacumula en los organismos acuáticos incorporándose a la cadena trófica de alimentos. El contenido de metilmercurio es mayor en las especies depredadoras de mayor tamaño y que viven más años como el emperador, pez espada, tiburón, atún o marlín. El metilmercurio se halla unido a las proteínas del pescado por lo que no se elimina mediante la limpieza ni el cocinado del mismo. El feto en desarrollo y los niños pequeños son los más vulnerables a los efectos neurotóxicos del metilmercurio procedente de la ingesta de pescado contaminado. El metilmercurio se absorbe en el tracto gastrointestinal y atraviesa la barrera hematoencefálica y la placenta. Algunos componentes de la dieta como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, el selenio, la fibra, los compuestos tiol, algunos fitoquímicos y otros nutrientes pueden modificar la bioaccesibilidad del mercurio y su toxicidad. Además de los factores ambientales, los factores genéticos pueden influir en la toxicidad del mercurio y explicar parte de la vulnerabilidad individual (AU)


Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/síntese química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/uso terapêutico , Farmacocinética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacologia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/instrumentação , Selênio , Selênio
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132304

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, se ha referido que la ingesta excesiva de metilmercurio procedente del pescado contaminado produce toxicidad neurológica en los niños afectando a la función cognitiva, la memoria, la función visual-motora y al lenguaje. Después de las intoxicaciones de Minamata e Iraq, se realizaron grandes estudios epidemiológicos en Nueva Zelanda, las islas Féroe y las islas Seychelles y se establecieron recomendaciones internacionales sobre el consumo de pescado y marisco en las mujeres embarazadas y niños pequeños. En España, el proyecto Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) ha estudiado los efectos del medio ambiente y de la dieta sobre el desarrollo fetal e infantil en diversas zonas geográficas de España. Los estudios realizados nacionales e internacionales muestran que la concentración de mercurio depende principalmente del consumo de pescado, aunque existe una variabilidad entre los países que podría explicarse no solo por la cantidad de pescado consumida, sino también por el tipo o especies de pescados que se consumen, así como por otro tipo de factores. Aunque los efectos perjudiciales del metilmercurio mejor documentados son los que se producen sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso en el feto y en el recién nacido, cada vez hay más estudios que indican que también puede afectar a la función cognitiva, reproducción y especialmente al riesgo cardiovascular en la población adulta. Sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios para confirmarlo y establecer la existencia de una relación causal (AU)


The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles andinternational recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Animais , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio , Alimentos Marinhos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alimentação
15.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561094

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well- known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia
16.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, 2014 Nov 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561095

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 136(15): 653-658, mayo 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-89236

RESUMO

Fundamento y objetivo: La estimación del grosor íntimo-medial carotídeo (GIM) es un método que se ha propuesto para la detección de la aterosclerosis subclínica dentro de la estrategia de prevención cardiovascular. Los objetivos del estudio son describir la asociación entre el GIM y la presencia de otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular (RCV), así como describir la asociación entre el GIM y el RCV según SCORE.Sujetos y método: Estudio descriptivo realizado sobre la población general. Participaron 1.118 individuos a los que se les calculó el RCV según la función SCORE. Se escogió a 467 participantes a quienes se les realizó un eco-doppler carotídeo estimando el GIM y la presencia de placas ateroscleróticas. Resultados:De los 467 individuos, el 24, 49 y 27% pertenecieron a los grupos de RCV bajo, medio y alto, respectivamente. El GIM promedio fue de 0,63745mm. La media del GIM en los grupos de RCV bajo, medio y alto fue de 0,5629, 0,66269 y 0,66016mm, respectivamente. El GIM aumenta con la edad y está asociado a otros factores de RCV. En el 13% de las ecografías carotídeas realizadas se encontraron placas de aterosclerosis. El mayor porcentaje de individuos con placas de aterosclerosis se encontró en los grupos de RCV medio y alto.Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio muestran valores similares del GIM y de presencia de placas ateroscleróticas entre los grupos de RCV medio y alto. Existe una asociación directa entre un GIM aumentado y la edad, el peso y la diabetes (AU)


Background and objective: Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed for the evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis as part of the cardiovascular prevention strategy. The objectives are to describe the association between IMT and the presence of other cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors and with CVR estimated by the SCORE function. Subjects and methods: Descriptive study in general population through non-probability sampling. There were 1,118 participants to whom we estimated their cardiovascular risk according to the SCORE function. We selected 467 participants who underwent carotid echo-doppler in which IMT was determined and carotid plaque was evaluated.Results: Of the 467 individuals, 24, 49 and 27% belonged to the CVR, medium and high respectively. The population mean IMT was 0.63745mm. The mean IMT for the cardiovascular risk groups low, medium and high was 0.5629, 0.66269 and 0.66016mm respectively. IMT increased with age and was associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. In 13% of carotid ultrasound performed, atherosclerotic plaques were found. The highest percentage of individuals with atherosclerotic plaques were seen in the intermediate and high CVR groups.Conclusions: The results of this study show similar values of carotid IMT and presence of carotid plaque in subjects of intermediate and high CVR. We also found an association between increased carotid IMT and age, weight and diabetes (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Túnica Íntima/fisiopatologia , Túnica Média/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Risco Ajustado , Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia
18.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 136(15): 653-8, 2011 May 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21397278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed for the evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis as part of the cardiovascular prevention strategy. The objectives are to describe the association between IMT and the presence of other cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors and with CVR estimated by the SCORE function. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Descriptive study in general population through non-probability sampling. There were 1,118 participants to whom we estimated their cardiovascular risk according to the SCORE function. We selected 467 participants who underwent carotid echo-doppler in which IMT was determined and carotid plaque was evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 467 individuals, 24, 49 and 27% belonged to the CVR, medium and high respectively. The population mean IMT was 0.63745 mm. The mean IMT for the cardiovascular risk groups low, medium and high was 0.5629, 0.66269 and 0.66016 mm respectively. IMT increased with age and was associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. In 13% of carotid ultrasound performed, atherosclerotic plaques were found. The highest percentage of individuals with atherosclerotic plaques were seen in the intermediate and high CVR groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show similar values of carotid IMT and presence of carotid plaque in subjects of intermediate and high CVR. We also found an association between increased carotid IMT and age, weight and diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Túnica Íntima/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/ultraestrutura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Túnica Íntima/ultraestrutura , Túnica Média/ultraestrutura , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 41(5): 521-6, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21155766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is associated with cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to identify advanced subclinical atherosclerosis in patients who are at low or intermediate risk. METHODS: Thousand hundred and eighteen Spanish subjects were prospectively enrolled in an ambulatory screening of cardiovascular risk (CVR). Three hundred and twenty patients aged over 30 years with low-intermediate CVR according to European SCORE function underwent carotid ultrasonography. Carotid IMT and plaque assessment were performed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Participants with abnormal CIMT were reclassified to high CVR. RESULTS: According to SCORE function, 104 patients (32·5%) were of low CVR and 216 (67·5%) of intermediate CVR. Mean carotid IMT was 0·62 ± 0·13 mm, and carotid plaque was found in 35 (10·9%) patients. Carotid ultrasonography changed the risk stratum in 59 (18·4%) patients, who were reclassified to high CVR. Reclassification was more frequent in the intermediate CVR group than in the low CVR group (22·7% vs. 9·6%, P = 0·005) and was associated to age (P = 0·002), history of arterial hypertension (P < 0·001) and increased systolic blood pressure (P = 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: CIMT calculated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography could become an important tool in preventive medicine. Measuring CIMT may be useful in identifying asymptomatic individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis not detected by the actual CVR functions.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Íntima/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Ultrassonografia
20.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 42(9): 482-485, sept. 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-83074

RESUMO

La estratificación del riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) en el momento actual forma parte de la práctica clínica habitual para establecer las estrategias de prevención cardiovascular. Un enfoque complementario a las escalas de valoración del RCV es la evaluación directa no invasiva de la lesión aterosclerótica que permita identificar a pacientes de alto riesgo de desarrollar una complicación cardiovascular con posterioridad. La medición del grosor íntimo-medial carotídeo es un método no invasivo basado en el ultrasonido adecuado para la detección de la aterosclerosis subclínica. Nos permite estratificar el RCV más allá de los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares convencionales y por tanto supondría un complemento a las funciones de RCV. La inclusión del grosor íntimo-medial carotídeo en la estratificación del RCV puede ayudar en la identificación de individuos asintomáticos con un RCV alto no detectados por las funciones de RCV actuales(AU)


Cardiovascular risk stratification is currently part of routine clinical practice to establish cardiovascular prevention strategies. A complementary approach to the assessment scales of cardiovascular risk stratification is the non-invasive evaluation of the atherosclerotic lesion to identify patients at high risk for cardiovascular complications. Carotid intima-media thickness is a non-invasive method based on ultrasound suitable for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. It allows us to stratify cardiovascular risk beyond conventional cardiovascular risk factors and would complement the cardiovascular risk functions. The inclusion of the carotid intima-media thickness in cardiovascular risk stratification may help identify asymptomatic individuals with a high cardiovascular risk not detected by current scales of cardiovascular risk stratification(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Artérias Carótidas/anatomia & histologia , Túnica Íntima/anatomia & histologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia
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