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Front Immunol ; 10: 297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941118


Non-canonical NF-κB-pathway signaling is integral in immunoregulation. Heterozygous mutations in NFKB2 have recently been established as a molecular cause of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and DAVID-syndrome, a rare condition combining deficiency of anterior pituitary hormone with CVID. Here, we investigate 15 previously unreported patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) from eleven unrelated families with heterozygous NFKB2-mutations including eight patients with the common p.Arg853* nonsense mutation and five patients harboring unique novel C-terminal truncating mutations. In addition, we describe the clinical phenotype of two patients with proximal truncating mutations. Cohort analysis extended to all 35 previously published NFKB2-cases revealed occurrence of early-onset PID in 46/50 patients (mean age of onset 5.9 years, median 4.0 years). ACTH-deficiency occurred in 44%. Three mutation carriers have deceased, four developed malignancies. Only two mutation carriers were clinically asymptomatic. In contrast to typical CVID, most patients suffered from early-onset and severe disease manifestations, including clinical signs of T cell dysfunction e.g., chronic-viral or opportunistic infections. In addition, 80% of patients suffered from (predominately T cell mediated) autoimmune (AI) phenomena (alopecia > various lymphocytic organ-infiltration > diarrhea > arthritis > AI-cytopenia). Unlike in other forms of CVID, auto-antibodies or lymphoproliferation were not common hallmarks of disease. Immunophenotyping showed largely normal or even increased quantities of naïve and memory CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells and normal T-cell proliferation. NK-cell number and function were also normal. In contrast, impaired B-cell differentiation and hypogammaglobinemia were consistent features of NFKB2-associated disease. In addition, an array of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as regulatory T cell, Th17-, cTFH-, NKT-, and MAIT-cell numbers were decreased. We conclude that heterozygous damaging mutations in NFKB2 represent a distinct PID entity exceeding the usual clinical spectrum of CVID. Impairment of the non-canonical NF-κB pathways affects function and differentiation of numerous lymphocyte-subpopulations and thus causes a heterogeneous, more severe form of PID phenotype with early-onset. Further characteristic features are multifaceted, primarily T cell-mediated autoimmunity, such as alopecia, lymphocytic organ infiltration, and in addition frequently ACTH-deficiency.

Front Immunol ; 9: 1656, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072997


Background: A significant amount of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients manifest with autoimmunity. Particularly, autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP) is commonly seen. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are an established treatment option for both, CVID and AITP. Nonetheless, due to fewer systemic side effects, immunoglobulins are increasingly applied subcutaneously (SCIG). Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of IVIG and SCIG treatment in patients with both CVID and clinical relevant thrombocytopenia in the prevention of AITP bouts. Methods: Patients with both CVID and AITP were enrolled at the Centre for Chronic Immunodeficiency in Freiburg, Germany and at the Royal Free Hospital, London, UK. Clinical and laboratory features of patients were collected and analyzed. Results: This retrospective study recruited 61 adult patients between 19 and 71 years of age who had a diagnosis of CVID and at least one bout of thrombocytopenia defined as a platelet count of <50,000/µl if bleeding episodes occurred, or a platelet count of <20,000/µl without bleeding. Thirty patients received immunoglobulin through IVIG, and 31 patients were on SCIG replacement. One patient of the IVIG-group was excluded, because of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We did not find a higher occurrence of thrombocytopenic events in CVID patients who received SCIG, compared to CVID patients who had IVIG, but we identified a low IgG through level as a risk factor for AITP bouts. Conclusion: SCIG is at least as safe as IVIG for patients with CVID and concomitant AITP. However, an IgG through level under 7 g/l is a key factor for the development of AITP.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 299, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996795


BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) who survive to adulthood and willing to have a child mostly are worried whether their disease affects their fertility and/or pregnancy and also if their child would be predisposed to PID. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the outcome of conception, pregnancy and their management in 9 families with definite diagnosis of PID. A chronic granulomatous disease subject with an uneventful pregnancy developed fungal sacral osteomyelitis few weeks after delivery. A pregnant common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenia had platelet count dropped before delivery. A sever neutropenic mother who refused to get IFNγ delivered two healthy children. A CVID case intolerant to IVIg with eclampsia and PTE delivered a baby. Another CVID female gave birth to a baby without being on any treatment since she was not diagnosed with immunodeficiency disease at that time. A healthy girl was implanted via preimplantation gender selection in a family who owned a Wiskott Aldrich-affected son. A family who had two children with Ataxia Telangiectasia used donated oocyte for their 3rd child. Prenatal genetic diagnosis was used to screen the fetus for the impaired BTK and CVID genes detected in sibling and father respectively in 2 separate families. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy in PID patients is more complex than normal population. Because, not only it has the chance of being inherited by the offspring, but also there are some risks for the mother if she has any kind of immunity component defects. So consultation with a clinical geneticist is crucial to choose the best available approach. They also should be observed and followed by a clinical immunologist to take the best possible safe care.

Clin Immunol ; 195: 36-44, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048691


In the past few years, several genes were shown to be implicated in various forms of the Hyper Immunoglobulin E syndrome. The present study is the first to describe a cohort of DOCK8 deficiency patients from Egypt. The study included 15 patients with features of combined immunodeficiency (CID) suggestive of DOCK8 deficiency. Flow cytometry was used for evaluation of DOCK8 expression and studying different immunological characteristics of those patients including evaluation of Th17, Tregs, T and B lymphocytes differentiation and the effect of the DOCK8 deficiency on the activation of the STAT3. Diagnosis was confirmed by mutational analysis. Profound defects in Th17 cells and Tregs were observed in all patients with impaired STAT3 phosphorylation, indicating that DOCK8 plays a pivotal role in the STAT3 signaling pathway. These findings together with decrease in memory B cells and defective DOCK8 expression by flow cytometry can confirm the diagnosis.