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1.
Vascular ; : 17085381221097163, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Opioids are commonly used for pain control after lower extremity amputations (LEA)-below the knee amputations (BKA) and above the knee amputations (AKA). Well-defined benchmarks for prescription requirements after amputation are deficient. This analysis evaluated opioid utilization after amputation to identify high-risk patients and provide recommendations for post-hospitalization opioid prescriptions at discharge. METHODS: Patients undergoing LEA (2008-2016) with identified peripheral vascular disease were selected from Cerner's Health Facts® database using ICD-9 and 10 diagnosis and procedure codes. Patient demographics, disease severity, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics were evaluated. Post-operative opioid medications administered intravenously and orally during the hospital stay were identified from the data and converted to Morphine Milligram Equivalent per day (MME/d) for an evaluation and comparison during the index hospitalization. Descriptive statistics were used to report continuous and dichotomous variables. Dichotomous variables are reported as n (%) and continuous variables are reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Chi-square and T-tests were used as appropriate. RESULTS: 2399 patients who underwent AKA or BKA with peripheral vascular disease were evaluated. Sixty-three percent of the cohort was male, 67% Caucasian, and 42% married, and 58% had a Charlson index >3. The majority of patients had an average length of hospital stay of 5.7 days (M = 5.72, SD = 4.56). Patient groups that used significantly higher MME/d in the early postop period included: BKA (29.2 vs 20.7, p = 0.006), males (62.6 vs 54.0, p < 0.0001), Caucasians (64.3 vs 44.7, p < 0.0001), younger patients (69.6 vs 54.0, p < 0.0001), and those at non-training institutions (66.7 vs 56.7, p < 0.0001). Patients whose hospital stay was greater than 6 days were found to have increased opioid utilization likely secondary to index complications. For those discharged by post-operative day 7, the mean MME utilized on postop day 1 was 59.5 and decreased to a mean MME/d utilization prior to discharge of 17.6. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates that younger patients, males, patients with BKAs, and those who receive amputations for vascular disease at non-training institutions have higher post-operative opioid utilization during the hospital stay. At the time of discharge, patients utilized an average of 17.6 MME/d which equates to approximately three hydrocodone/acetaminophen 5/325 mg tablets per day. Based on these findings, vascular surgeons are likely over prescribing opioids at discharge and must be cognizant of appropriate dosing quantities. Prescriptions at discharge should reflect the daily utilization described from this analysis and tapered to avoid chronic utilization, overdose, and possible death.

2.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative for repairing complex abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Comparisons of outcomes for FEVAR and traditional endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are limited. We evaluated outcomes following elective endovascular AAA repair with FEVAR or EVAR. METHODS: Hospitalizations for elective nonruptured AAA repair from 2014 to 2016 were selected from the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) using ICD-9 and ICD-10 procedure and diagnosis codes. In-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), complications, 30-day readmission, and charges were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounding between groups. RESULTS: We identified 23,262 EVAR and 2,373 FEVAR with nonruptured elective procedures. In-hospital mortality was 0.14% for both groups (P = 0.99). Of those at risk for readmission (21,152 EVAR, 1,915 FEVAR), index LOS was greater for FEVAR compared to EVAR, 1.8 days versus 1.7 days (P = 0.028). There was no difference in procedure type based on hospital location (P = 0.37), teaching status (P = 0.17) or hospital size (P = 0.26). During the index hospitalization, pneumonia, renal, and respiratory complications were similar between groups (all P > 0.05). FEVAR patients were more likely to experience cardiac complications (P = 0.0098) or hemorrhage (P = 0.029). Total charges for the index stay were greater for FEVAR compared to EVAR ($125,381 vs. $113,513, P < 0.0001). All-cause 30-day readmission was similar between groups (7.0% EVAR vs. 8.0% FEVAR, P = 0.37), as were time to readmission (11.9 vs. 13.3 days, P = 0.16) and readmission charges ($53,967 vs. $56,617, P = 0.75). Renal failure was the most common readmission stay complication, with similar rates for EVAR and FEVAR patients (P = 0.22). Pneumonia was a more common complication during the readmission stay for EVAR patients (P = 0.004). Renal disease and chronic pulmonary disease were the most common comorbidities in the readmission stay for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with nonruptured elective AAA, FEVAR was not associated with increased mortality, length of stay, readmission, or most complications compared to traditional EVAR. Despite the increased technical complexity of cannulating and stenting visceral arteries with FEVAR, these data demonstrate that FEVAR carries a similar risk of renal, respiratory, and infectious complications compared to traditional EVAR. FEVAR patients were more likely to experience hemorrhagic and cardiac complications during the index hospitalization. EVAR patients were more likely to have pneumonia during readmission. The overall risk for readmission after an endovascular aortic repair was associated with female sex, greater age, chronic pulmonary disease, malignancy, and loss of function. Further investigations into the causes and prevention of 30-day readmissions are needed for both procedures.

3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 355-361, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital identification of the injured patient likely to require emergent care remains a challenge. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) has been used in the prehospital setting to monitor respiratory physiology and confirmation of endotracheal tube placement. Low levels of ETCO2 have been demonstrated to correlate with injury severity and mortality in a number of in-hospital studies. We hypothesized that prehospital ETCO2 values would be predictive of mortality and need for massive transfusion (MT) in intubated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter trial with 24 participating centers. Prehospital, emergency department, and hospital values were collected. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and compared. Massive transfusion defined as >10 U of blood in 6 hours or death in 6 hours with at least 1 U of blood transfused. RESULTS: A total of 1,324 patients were enrolled. ETCO2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.71) was better in predicting mortality than shock index (SI) (AUROC, 0.55; CI, 0.50-0.60) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AUROC, 0.58; CI, 0.53-0.62) (p < 0.0005). Prehospital lowest ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.69; CI, 0.64-0.75), SBP (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.70-0.81), and SI (AUROC, 0.74; CI, 0.68-0.79) were all predictive of MT. Analysis of patients with normotension demonstrated lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.66; CI, 0.61-0.71), which was more predictive of mortality than SBP (AUROC, 0.52; CI, 0.47-0.58) or SI (AUROC, 0.56; CI, 0.50-0.62) (p < 0.001). Lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.65-0.84), SBP (AUROC, 0.63; CI, 0.54-0.74), and SI (AUROC, 0.64; CI, 0.54-0.75) were predictive of MT in normotensive patients. ETCO2 cutoff for MT was 26 mm Hg. The positive predictive value was 16.1%, and negative predictive value was high at 98.1%. CONCLUSION: Prehospital ETCO2 is predictive of mortality and MT. ETCO2 outperformed traditional measures such as SBP and SI in the prediction of mortality. ETCO2 may outperform traditional measures in predicting need for transfusion in occult shock. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Estados Unidos , Sinais Vitais
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 951-954, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891446

RESUMO

The time interval between the peaks in the electroccardiogram (ECG) and ballistocardiogram (BCG) waveforms, TEB, has been associated with the pre-ejection period (PEP), which is an important marker of ventricular contractility. However, the applicability of BCG-related markers in clinical practice is limited by the difficulty to obtain a replicable and consistent signal on patients. In this study, we test the feasibility of BCG measurements within a complex clinical setting, by means of an accelerometer under the head pillow of patients admitted to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU). The proposed technique proved capable of capturing TEB based on the R peaks in the ECG and the BCG in its head-to-toe and dorso- ventral directions. TEB detection was found to be consistent and repeatable both in healthy individuals and SICU patients over multiple data acquisition sessions. This work provides a promising starting point to investigate how TEB changes may relate to the patients' complex health conditions and give additional clinical insight into their care needs.


Assuntos
Balistocardiografia , Cuidados Críticos , Eletrocardiografia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
5.
Pediatrics ; 148(6)2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize patterns of surgery among pediatric patients during terminal hospitalizations in children's hospitals. METHODS: We reviewed patients ≤20 years of age who died among 4 424 886 hospitalizations from January 2013-December 2019 within 49 US children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database. Surgical procedures, identified by International Classification of Diseases procedure codes, were classified by type and purpose. Descriptive statistics characterized procedures, and hypothesis testing determined if undergoing surgery varied by patient age, race and ethnicity, or the presence of chronic complex conditions (CCCs). RESULTS: Among 33 693 terminal hospitalizations, the majority (n = 30 440, 90.3%) of children were admitted for nontraumatic causes. Of these children, 15 142 (49.7%) underwent surgery during the hospitalization, with the percentage declining over time (P < .001). When surgical procedures were classified according to likely purpose, the most common were to insert or address hardware or catheters (31%), explore or aid in diagnosis (14%), attempt to rescue patient from mortality (13%), or obtain a biopsy (13%). Specific CCC types were associated with undergoing surgery. Surgery during terminal hospitalization was less likely among Hispanic children (47.8%; P < .001), increasingly less likely as patient age increased, and more so for Black, Asian American, and Hispanic patients compared with white patients (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of children undergo surgery during their terminal hospitalization, and accordingly, pediatric surgical care is an important aspect of end-of-life care in hospital settings. Differences observed across race and ethnicity categories of patients may reflect different preferences for and access to nonhospital-based palliative, hospice, and end-of-life care.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/classificação , Assistência Terminal , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cateterismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Implantação de Prótese/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 234-240, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial guidance for common bile duct (CBD) stones is limited. We sought to examine the effect of antibiotic duration on infectious complications in patients with choledocholithiasis and/or gallstone pancreatitis. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients undergoing same admission cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis between 2016 and 2019. We excluded patients with cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. Patients were divided into groups based on duration of antibiotics: prophylactic (<24 hours) or prolonged (≥24 hours). We analyzed these two groups in the preoperative and postoperative periods. Outcomes included infectious complications, acute kidney injury (AKI), and hospital length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: There were 755 patients in the cohort. Increasing age, CBD diameter, and a preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.73; p < 0.001) significantly predicted prolonged preoperative antibiotic use. Increasing age, operative duration, and a postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.85-13.65; p < 0.001) significantly predicted prolonged postoperative antibiotic use. Rates of infectious complications were similar between groups, but LOS was 2 days longer for patients receiving overall prolonged antibiotics (p < 0.0001). Patients with AKI received two more days of overall antibiotic therapy (p = 0.02) compared with those without AKI. CONCLUSION: Rates of postoperative infectious complications were similar among patients treated with a prolonged or prophylactic course of antibiotics. Prolonged antibiotic use was associated with a longer LOS and AKI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level IV.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Pancreatite/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
8.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1964-e1972, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have numerous risk factors for acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and developing severe outcomes, but current data are conflicting. METHODS: Health-care providers enrolled consecutively, by nonrandom sampling, people living with HIV (PWH) with lab-confirmed COVID-19, diagnosed at their facilities between 1 April and 1 July 2020. Deidentified data were entered into an electronic Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) system. The primary endpoint was a severe outcome, defined as a composite endpoint of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, or death. The secondary outcome was the need for hospitalization. RESULTS: There were 286 patients included; the mean age was 51.4 years (standard deviation, 14.4), 25.9% were female, and 75.4% were African American or Hispanic. Most patients (94.3%) were on antiretroviral therapy, 88.7% had HIV virologic suppression, and 80.8% had comorbidities. Within 30 days of testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 164 (57.3%) patients were hospitalized, and 47 (16.5%) required ICU admission. Mortality rates were 9.4% (27/286) overall, 16.5% (27/164) among those hospitalized, and 51.5% (24/47) among those admitted to an ICU. The primary composite endpoint occurred in 17.5% (50/286) of all patients and 30.5% (50/164) of hospitalized patients. Older age, chronic lung disease, and hypertension were associated with severe outcomes. A lower CD4 count (<200 cells/mm3) was associated with the primary and secondary endpoints. There were no associations between the ART regimen or lack of viral suppression and the predefined outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Severe clinical outcomes occurred commonly in PWH with COVID-19. The risks for poor outcomes were higher in those with comorbidities and lower CD4 cell counts, despite HIV viral suppression. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04333953.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Idoso , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(1): 106-109, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259743

RESUMO

Background: Although single-incision endoscopic splenectomy (SIES-Sp) has been shown to be feasible and safe, few have compared the SIES-Sp with multiport laparoscopic splenectomy (MPLS). The purpose of this study was to compare the two techniques in children undergoing total splenectomy. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all children (age <18 years) who underwent minimally invasive total splenectomy at a single tertiary referral center from January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2019. The primary outcome was complication rate 30 days after discharge defined by maximum Clavien-Dindo score. Secondary outcomes included conversion, operative time, hospital length of stay, postoperative pain scores, and readmission within 30 days of discharge. SIES-Sp and MPLS were compared using univariate analysis. Results: Of 48 children undergoing laparoscopic total splenectomy, 60% (n = 29) were SIES-Sp and 40% (n = 19) were MPLS. Subjects were 48% female (n = 23). Common diagnoses were idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (33% [n = 16]), hereditary spherocytosis (29% [n = 14]), and other congenital hemolytic anemias (23% [n = 11]). There were no differences in age, gender, or diagnosis between groups (all P > .05). One in three cases involved additional procedures. Spleens were smaller in both greatest dimension (13.0 cm versus 16.4 cm) and weight (156.5 g versus 240.0 g) in SIES-Sp compared with MPLS patients (both P < .05). Readmission and reoperation rates were similar (both P > .05). Complications occurred in 7% (n = 2) of SIES-Sp and in 11% (n = 2) of MPLS patients (P > .99). Severe complications included: cardiac arrest in 1 SIES-Sp patient and bleeding requiring reoperation in 1 MPLS patient. Conclusion: SIES-Sp is a safe alternative to the traditional MPLS for children. Additional procedures do not preclude a less invasive approach, but larger spleens may present a challenge.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Esplenectomia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
12.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(8): 1613-1616, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In trauma research, accurate estimates of mortality that can be rapidly calculated prior to enrollment are essential to ensure appropriate patient selection and adequate sample size. This study compares the accuracy of the BIG (Base Deficit, International normalized ratio and Glasgow Coma scale) score in predicting mortality in pediatric trauma patients to Pediatric Risk of Mortality III (PRISM III) score, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM2) score and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) score. METHODS: Data were collected from Virtual Pediatric Systems (VPS, LLC) database for children between 2004 and 2015 from 149 PICUs. Logistic regression models were developed to evaluate mortality prediction. The Area under the Curve (AUC) of Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were derived from these models and compared between scores. RESULTS: A total of 45,377 trauma patients were analyzed. The BIG score could only be calculated for 152 patients (0.33%). PRISM III, PIM2, and PELOD scores were calculated for 44,360, 45,377 and 14,768 patients respectively. The AUC of the BIG score was 0.94 compared to 0.96, 0.97 and 0.93 for the PRISM III, PIM2, and PELOD respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The BIG score is accurate in predicting mortality in pediatric trauma patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I prognosis.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Curva ROC , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently 20-35% of pregnant women are obese, posing a major health risk for mother and fetus. It is postulated that an abnormal maternal-fetal nutritional environment leads to adverse metabolic programming, resulting in altered substrate metabolism in the offspring and predisposing to risks of obesity and diabetes later in life. Data indicate that oocytes from overweight animals have abnormal mitochondria. We hypothesized that maternal obesity is associated with altered mitochondrial function in healthy neonatal offspring. METHODS: Overweight and obese (body mass index, (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2, n = 14) and lean (BMI < 25 kg/m2, n = 8), African-American pregnant women carrying male fetuses were recruited from the Barnes Jewish Hospital obstetric clinic. Maternal and infant data were extracted from medical records. Infants underwent body composition testing in the first days of life. Circumcision skin was collected for isolation of fibroblasts. Fibroblast cells were evaluated for mitochondrial function, metabolic gene expression, nutrient uptake, and oxidative stress. RESULTS: Skin fibroblasts of infants born to overweight mothers had significantly higher mitochondrial respiration without a concurrent increase in ATP production, indicating mitochondrial inefficiency. These fibroblasts had higher levels of reactive oxygen species and evidence of oxidative stress. Evaluation of gene expression in offspring fibroblasts revealed altered expression of multiple genes involved in fatty acid and glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration in infants of overweight mothers. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates altered mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts of infants born to overweight mothers. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term impact of this finding on the metabolic health of these children.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mães , Sobrepeso , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Western Blotting , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Pele/patologia
14.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 18(5): e215-e223, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28350560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the use of fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma 24 hours compared to solvent detergent plasma is associated with international normalized ratio reduction or ICU mortality in critically ill children. DESIGN: This is an a priori secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study. Study groups were defined as those transfused with either fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma 24 hours or solvent detergent plasma. Outcomes were international normalized ratio reduction and ICU mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent associations. SETTING: One hundred one PICUs in 21 countries. PATIENTS: All critically ill children admitted to a participating unit were included if they received at least one plasma unit during six predefined 1-week (Monday to Friday) periods. All children were exclusively transfused with either fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma 24 hours or solvent detergent plasma. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 443 patients enrolled in the study. Twenty-four patients (5%) were excluded because no plasma type was recorded; the remaining 419 patients were analyzed. Fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma 24 hours group included 357 patients, and the solvent detergent plasma group included 62 patients. The median (interquartile range) age and weight were 1 year (0.2-6.4) and 9.4 kg (4.0-21.1), respectively. There was no difference in reason for admission, severity of illness score, pretransfusion international normalized ratio, or lactate values; however, there was a difference in primary indication for plasma transfusion (p < 0.001). There was no difference in median (interquartile range) international normalized ratio reduction, between fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma 24 hours and solvent detergent plasma study groups, -0.2 (-0.4 to 0) and -0.2 (-0.3 to 0), respectively (p = 0.80). ICU mortality was lower in the solvent detergent plasma versus fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma 24 hours groups, 14.5% versus 29.1%%, respectively (p = 0.02). Upon adjusted analysis, solvent detergent plasma transfusion was independently associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16-0.99; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Solvent detergent plasma use in critically ill children may be associated with improved survival. This hypothesis-generating data support a randomized controlled trial comparing solvent detergent plasma to fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma 24 hours.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Detergentes , Plasma , Solventes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 78(6 Suppl 1): S48-53, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26002263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) have been developed to implement damage control resuscitation (DCR) principles. A survey of MTP policies from American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (ACS-TQIP) participants was performed to establish which MTP activation, hemostatic resuscitation, and monitoring aspects of DCR are included in the MTP guidelines. METHODS: On October 10, 2013, ACS-TQIP administration administered a cross-sectional electronic survey to 187 ACS-TQIP participants. RESULTS: Seventy-one percent (132 of 187) of responses were analyzed, with 62% designated as Level I and 38% designated as Level II ACS-TQIP trauma centers. Sixty-nine percent of sites indicated that they have plasma immediately available for MTP activation. By policy, in the first group of blood products administered, 88% of sites target high (≥1:2) plasma-to-red blood cell (RBC) ratios and 10% target low ratios. Likewise, 79% of sites target high platelet-to-RBC ratios and 16% target low ratios. Eighteen percent of sites reported incorporating point-of-care thromboelastogram into MTP policies. The most common intravenous hemostatic adjunct incorporated into MTPs was tranexamic acid (49%). Thirty-four percent of sites reported that some or all of their emergency medical service agencies have the ability to administer blood products or hemostatic agents during prehospital transport. There were minimal differences in MTP policies or capabilities between Level I and II sites. CONCLUSION: The majority of ACS-TQIP participants reported having MTPs that support the use of DCR principles including high plasma-to-RBC and platelet-to-RBC ratios. Immediate availability of plasma and product use by emergency medical services are becoming increasingly common, whereas the incorporation of point-of-care thromboelastogram into MTP policies remains low.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/normas , Protocolos Clínicos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Melhoria de Qualidade , Tromboelastografia , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem
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