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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453257

RESUMO

For many years, it was clearly shown that surgical procedures might be associated with surgical site infection (SSI). Many scientific institutions prepared guidelines to use in surgery to reduce abuse and misuse of antibiotics. However, in the general guidelines for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, plastic surgical procedures are not addressed or are only marginally discussed, and children were almost systematically excluded. The main aim of this Consensus document is to provide clinicians with recommendations on antimicrobial prophylaxis for pediatric patients undergoing plastic surgery. The following scenarios were considered: clean plastic surgery in elective procedures with an exclusive skin and subcutis involvement; clean-contaminated/contaminated plastic surgery in elective procedures with an exclusive skin and subcutis involvement; elective plastic surgery with use of local flaps; elective plastic surgery with the use of grafts; prolonged elective plastic surgery; acute burns; clean contused lacerated wounds without bone exposure; high-risk contused lacerated wounds or with bone exposure; contused lacerated wound involving the oral mucosa; plastic surgery following human bite; plastic surgery following animal bite; plastic surgery with tissue expander insertion. Our Consensus document shows that antimicrobial perioperative prophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing plastic surgery is recommended in selected cases. While waiting the results of further pediatric studies, the application of uniform and shared protocols in these procedures will improve surgical practice, with a reduction in SSIs and consequent rationalization of resources and costs, as well as limiting the phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329867

RESUMO

Evidence shows that a substantial proportion of patients with COVID-19 experiences long-term consequences of the disease, but the predisposing factors are poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors present during COVID-19 hospitalization associated with an increased risk of exhibiting new or persisting symptoms (Post-COVID-19 Syndrome, PCS). MedLine and WebOfScience were last searched on 30 September 2021. We included English language clinical trials and observational studies investigating prognostic factors for PCS in adults previously hospitalized for COVID-19, reporting at least one individual prospective follow-up of minimum 12 weeks. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias, which was judged generally moderate. Risk factors were included in the analysis if their association with PCS was investigated by at least two studies. To summarize the prognostic effect of each factor (or group of factors), odds ratios were estimated using raw data. Overall, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria, involving 13,340 patients. Associations were statistically significant for two factors: female sex with any symptoms (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.27-1.82), with mental health symptoms (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.21-2.29) and with fatigue (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.79); acute disease severity with respiratory symptoms (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.68). The I² statistics tests were calculated to quantify the degree of study heterogeneity. This is the first meta-analysis measuring the association between factors present during COVID-19 hospitalization and long-term sequelae. The role of female sex and acute disease severity as independent prognostic factors must be confirmed in robust longitudinal studies with longer follow-up. Identifying populations at greatest risk for PCS can enable the development of targeted prevention and management strategies. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42021253467.

3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326754

RESUMO

Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent a potential complication in any type of surgery and can occur up to one year after the procedure in the case of implant placement. In the field of orthopedic and hand surgery, the rate of SSIs is a relevant issue, considering the need for the placement of synthesis devices and the type of some interventions (e.g., exposed fractures). This work aims to provide guidance on the management of peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for the pediatric and neonatal population undergoing orthopedic and hand surgery in order to standardize the management of patients and to reduce, on the one hand, the risk of SSI and, on the other, the development of antimicrobial resistance. The following scenarios were considered: (1) bloodless fracture reduction; (2) reduction of unexposed fracture and grade I and II exposed fracture; (3) reduction of grade III exposed fracture or traumatic amputation; (4) cruel fracture reduction with percutaneous synthesis; (5) non-traumatic amputation; (6) emergency intact skin trauma surgery and elective surgery without synthetic media placement; (7) elective orthopedic surgery with prosthetic and/or synthetic media placement and spinal surgery; (8) clean elective hand surgery with and without bone involvement, without use of synthetic means; (9) surgery of the hand on an elective basis with bone involvement and/or with use of synthetic means. This manuscript has been made possible by the multidisciplinary contribution of experts belonging to the most important Italian scientific societies and represents, in our opinion, the most complete and up-to-date collection of recommendations regarding the behavior to be adopted in the peri-operative setting in neonatal and pediatric orthopedic and hand surgery. The specific scenarios developed are aimed at guiding the healthcare professional in practice to ensure the better and standardized management of neonatal and pediatric patients, together with an easy consultation.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326760

RESUMO

The main aim of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) in urologic procedures is to prevent bacteraemia, surgical site infections (SSIs), and postoperative urinary tract infections (ppUTIs). Guidelines for SAP in paediatric urology are lacking. Only some aspects of this complex topic have been studied, and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to surgical procedures seems to be more often linked to institutional schools of thought or experts' opinions than to rules dictated by studies demonstrating the most correct and preferred management. Therefore, the aim of this Consensus document realized using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method is to provide clinicians with a series of recommendations on SAP for the prevention of bacteraemia, SSIs, and ppUTIs after urologic imaging and surgical procedures in paediatric patients. Despite the few available studies, experts agree on some basilar concepts related to SAP for urologic procedures in paediatric patients. Before any urological procedure is conducted, UTI must be excluded. Clean procedures do not require SAP, with the exception of prosthetic device implantation and groin and perineal incisions where the SSI risk may be increased. In contrast, SAP is needed in clean-contaminated procedures. Studies have also suggested the safety of eliminating SAP in paediatric hernia repair and orchiopexy. To limit the emergence of resistance, every effort to reduce and rationalize antibiotic consumption for SAP must be made. Increased use of antibiotic stewardship can be greatly effective in this regard.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326845

RESUMO

Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent a potential complication in surgical procedures, mainly because clean/contaminated surgery involves organs that are normally colonized by bacteria. Dental, maxillo-facial and ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeries are among those that carry a risk of SSIs because the mouth and the first respiratory tracts are normally colonized by a bacterial flora. The aim of this consensus document was to provide clinicians with recommendations on surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in neonates (<28 days of chronological age) and pediatric patients (within the age range of 29 days-18 years) undergoing dental, maxillo-facial or ENT surgical procedures. These included: (1) dental surgery; (2) maxilla-facial surgery following trauma with fracture; (3) temporo-mandibular surgery; (4) cleft palate and cleft lip repair; (5) ear surgery; (6) endoscopic paranasal cavity surgery and septoplasty; (7) clean head and neck surgery; (8) clean/contaminated head and neck surgery and (9) tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Due to the lack of pediatric data for the majority of dental, maxillo-facial and ENT surgeries and the fact that the recommendations for adults are currently used, there is a need for ad hoc studies to be rapidly planned for the most deficient areas. This seems even more urgent for interventions such as those involving the first airways since the different composition of the respiratory microbiota in children compared to adults implies the possibility that surgical antibiotic prophylaxis schemes that are ideal for adults may not be equally effective in children.

6.
J Clin Transl Sci ; 6(1): e1, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35154812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical Research Coordinators (CRCs) are key members of research teams who ensure rigorous conduction of clinical studies and quality standard compliance. Yet, their roles and responsibilities are still not well defined, and formal recognition of their professional profile is lacking in Italy. This survey of Italian healthcare institutions collected data on centers' research activities number of CRCs and tasks they performed and explored factors associated with CRC employment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a brief questionnaire. Data were analyzed by means of graphical representations, histogram, scatter, and polar plots. Multivariable linear regression was specified to test the association between the number of CRCs and a subset of factors. RESULTS: Data collection took place from February to December 2020. 62/143 institutions (43.4%) responded. Median number of ongoing studies reported by centers was 65 (IQR 29-205); of these, median of sponsored and interventional studies was 32 and 35, respectively. Median number of CRCs employed at each center was 6 (IQR 2-9). The frequency with which activities were reported to be performed by CRCs overlapped with those of Data Managers. Linear multivariable regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the number of employed CRCs and the number of sponsored studies (P = 0.01), but not with the total number of studies, geographical location, or institution type. CONCLUSIONS: The association between industry funding and the number of CRCs observed in this study should be further explored to understand the direction of this relationship and to verify whether this may influence compliance with quality standards.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128667, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648011

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with cancer who would benefit from psychosocial care do not receive it. Implementation strategies may favor the integration of psychosocial care into practice and improve patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Humanization in Cancer Care (HuCare) Quality Improvement Strategy vs standard care as improvement of at least 1 of 2 domains (emotional or social function) of patient health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months. A key secondary aim included investigation of the long-term effect. Design, Setting, and Participants: HuCare2 was a multicenter, incomplete, stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, conducted from May 30, 2016, to August 28, 2019, in three 5-center clusters of cancer centers representative of hospital size and geographic location in Italy. The study was divided into 5 equally spaced epochs. Implementation sequence was defined by a blinded statistician; the nature of the intervention precluded blinding for clinical staff. Participants included consecutive adult outpatients with newly diagnosed cancer of any type and stage starting medical cancer treatment. Interventions: The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy comprised (1) clinician communication training, (2) on-site visits for context analysis and problem-solving, and (3) implementation of 6 evidence-based recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference between the means of changes of individual scores in emotional or social functions of health-related quality of life detected at baseline and 3-month follow-up (within each group) and during the postintervention epoch compared with control periods (between groups). Long-term effect of the intervention (at 12 months) was assessed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: A total of 762 patients (475 [62.3%] women) were enrolled (400 HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy and 362 usual care); mean (SD) age was 61.4 (13.1) years. The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved emotional function during treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .008) but not social function (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09; P = .80). Effect on emotional function persisted at 12 months (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved the emotional function aspect of health-related quality of life during cancer treatment and at 12 months, indicating a change in clinician behavior and in ward organization. These findings support the need for strategies to introduce psychosocial care; however, more research is needed on factors that may maximize the effects. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03008993.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
8.
Children (Basel) ; 8(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682125

RESUMO

Lymphadenopathy is an irregularity in the size and texture of the lymph nodes, which is quite common in childhood. When the enlargement of lymph nodes is caused by inflammatory and infectious processes, it is called lymphadenitis. The main objective of this manuscript is to summarize the common infectious etiologies and presentations of lymphadenitis in children providing a management guide for clinical practice. PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published up to April 2021 using keywords such as "lymphadenitis" and "children". Literature analysis showed that the differential diagnosis for lymphadenitis in pediatrics is broad. Although lymph node enlargement in children is usually benign and self-limited, it is important to exclude malignant etiology. In most cases, history and physical examination allow to identify the correct diagnosis and start a proper treatment with a prompt resolution of the lymphadenopathy. However, particularly in the case of persistent lymphadenitis, determining the cause of lymph node enlargement may be difficult, and the exact etiology may not be identified despite extensive investigations. Further studies should develop and validate an algorithm to assist pediatricians in the diagnosis and timely treatment of lymphadenitis, suggesting situations in which a watchful waiting may be considered a safe approach, those in which empiric antibiotic therapy should be administered, and those requiring a timely diagnostic work-up.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638360

RESUMO

Psychosocial morbidity can have negative consequences for cancer patients, including maladaptive coping, poor treatment adherence, and lower quality of life. Evidence shows that psychosocial interventions can positively impact quality of life, as well as symptoms and side effects; however, they are not always offered to patients who might benefit from them. These guidelines were produced by a multidisciplinary panel of 16 experts, including patients, following GRADE methodology. The panel framed clinical questions and voted on outcomes to investigate. Studies identified by rigorous search strategies were assessed to rate certainty of evidence, and recommendations were formulated by the panel. Although the quality of the evidence found was generally moderate, interventions could be recommended aimed at improving patient information, communication with healthcare professionals and involvement in decision-making; detecting and managing patient psychosocial needs, particularly with non-pharmacological therapy; and supporting families of patients with advanced cancer. The role of nurses as providers of information and psychosocial care is stressed. Most recommended interventions do not appear to necessitate new services or infrastructures, and therefore do not require allocation of additional resources, but predominantly involve changes in clinical staff behavior and/or ward organization. Patients should be made aware of psychosocial care standards so that they can expect to receive them.

10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680787

RESUMO

The development and spread of antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important global public health problem, even in paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). In light of the variability in the data, it is necessary to conduct surveillance studies to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in specific geographical areas to optimize therapeutic management. In this observational, retrospective, multicentre study, the medical records of 1801 paediatric patients who were hospitalised for UTI between 1 January 2012, and 30 June 2020, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, were analysed. Escherichia coli was the most frequently detected pathogen (75.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%). Overall, 840 cases (46.7%) were due to antimicrobial-resistant uropathogens: 83 (4.7%) extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, 119 (6.7%) multidrug resistant (MDR) and 4 (0.2%) extensively drug resistant (XDR) bacteria. Empirical antibiotic therapy failed in 172 cases (9.6%). Having ESBL or MDR/XDR uropathogens, a history of recurrent UTI, antibiotic therapy in the preceding 30 days, and empirical treatment with amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate were significantly associated with treatment failure, whereas first-line therapy with third-generation cephalosporins was associated with protection against negative outcomes. In conclusion, the increase in the resistance of uropathogens to commonly used antibiotics requires continuous monitoring, and recommendations for antibiotic choice need updating. In our epidemiological context, amoxicillin/clavulanate no longer seems to be the appropriate first-line therapy for children hospitalised for UTI, whereas third-generation cephalosporins continue to be useful. To further limit the emergence of resistance, every effort to reduce and rationalise antibiotic consumption must be implemented.

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573982

RESUMO

The concentration of the majority of hemostatic proteins differs considerably in early life, especially in neonates compared to adulthood. Knowledge of the concept of developmental hemostasis is an essential prerequisite for the proper interpretation of conventional coagulation tests (CCT) and is critical to ensure the optimal diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhagic and thrombotic diseases in neonatal age. Viscoelastic tests (VETs) provide a point-of-care, real-time, global, and dynamic assessment of the mechanical properties of the coagulation system with the examination of both cellular and plasma protein contributions to the initiation, formation, and lysis of clots. In this work, we provide a narrative review of the basic principles of VETs and summarize current evidence regarding the two most studied point-of-care VETs, thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®), in the field of neonatal care. A literature analysis shows that viscoelastic hemostatic monitoring appears to be a useful additive technique to CCT, allowing targeted therapy to be delivered quickly. These tools may allow researchers to determine the neonatal coagulation profile and detect neonatal patients at risk for postoperative bleeding, coagulation abnormalities in neonatal sepsis, and other bleeding events in a timely manner, guiding transfusion therapies using the goal-oriented transfusion algorithm. However, diagnosis and treatment algorithms incorporating VETs for neonatal patients in a variety of clinical situations should be developed and applied to improve clinical outcomes. Further studies should be performed to make routinary diagnostic and therapeutic application possible for the neonatal population.

12.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577628

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting inherited disease in Caucasian populations, affecting approximately 80,000 people worldwide. CF is a complex multi-organ monogenic autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Since the discovery of the CFTR gene in 1989, more than 2000 mutations have been identified so far and about 240 can cause CF. Until recently, the treatment for CF was aimed to prevent and manage the manifestations of CFTR dysfunction, primarily recurrent pulmonary infections and pancreatic exocrine failure. Over the past few decades, the therapeutic approach to CF has been revolutionized by the development of a new class of small molecules called CFTR modulators that target specific defects caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. CFTR modulators have been shown to change profoundly the clinical course of the CF, leading to meaningful improvements in the lives of a large proportion of people of CF heterozygous for F508del, especially if started in young children. Further studies are needed to extend the use of triple CFTR modulation therapy also for young children in order to prevent the irreversible effects of the disease and for patients with very rare mutations with a personalized approach to treatment.

13.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern is growing about the negative consequences that response measures to the COVID-19 epidemic may have on the management of other medical conditions. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive case-series study conducted at a large University-hospital in northern Italy, an area severely hit by the epidemic. RESULTS: Between 23 February and 14 May 2020, 4160 (52%) COVID-19 and 3778 (48%) non-COVID-19 patients were hospitalized. COVID-19 admissions peaked in the second half of March, a period characterized by an extremely high mortality rate (27.4%). The number of admissions in 2020 was similar to 2019, but COVID-19 patients gradually occupied all available beds. Comparison between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 admissions in 2020 revealed significant differences concerning all age classes and gender. Specifically, COVID-19 patients were older, predominantly male, and exhibited more comorbidities. Overall, admissions for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in 2020 vs. 2019 dropped by approximately one third. Statistically significant reductions were observed for acute myocardial infarction (-78, -33.9%), cerebrovascular disease (-235, -41.5%), and cancer (-368, -31.9%). While the first two appeared equally distributed between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, chronic NCDs were statistically significantly more frequent in the former, except cancer, which was less frequent in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of collateral damage to patients with other diseases should be an integral part of epidemic response plans. Prospective cohort studies are needed to understand the long-term impact.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248276, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. We hypothesized that colchicine, by counteracting proinflammatory pathways implicated in the uncontrolled inflammatory response of COVID-19 patients, reduces pulmonary complications, and improves survival. METHODS: This retrospective study included 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients (hospitalized with pneumonia on CT scan or outpatients) who received colchicine and compared with 70 control patients who did not receive colchicine in two serial time periods at the same institution. We used inverse probability of treatment propensity-score weighting to examine differences in mortality, clinical improvement (using a 7-point ordinary scale), and inflammatory markers between the two groups. RESULTS: Amongst the 141 COVID-19 patients (118 [83.7%] hospitalized), 70 (50%) received colchicine. The 21-day crude cumulative mortality was 7.5% in the colchicine group and 28.5% in the control group (P = 0.006; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24 [95%CI: 0.09 to 0.67]); 21-day clinical improvement occurred in 40.0% of the patients on colchicine and in 26.6% of control patients (adjusted relative improvement rate: 1.80 [95%CI: 1.00 to 3.22]). The strong association between the use of colchicine and reduced mortality was further supported by the diverging linear trends of percent daily change in lymphocyte count (P = 0.018), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), and in C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.009). Colchicine was stopped because of transient side effects (diarrhea or skin rashes) in 7% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort study colchicine was associated with reduced mortality and accelerated recovery in COVID-19 patients. This support the rationale for current larger randomized controlled trials testing the safety/efficacy profile of colchicine in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colchicina/metabolismo , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e034742, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nursing home residents represent a particularly vulnerable population experiencing high risk of unplanned hospital admissions, but few interventions have proved effective in reducing this risk. The aim of this research will be to verify the effects of a hospital-based multidisciplinary mobile unit (MMU) team intervention delivering urgent care to nursing home residents directly at their bedside. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Four nursing homes based in the Parma province, in Northern Italy, will be involved in this prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, 18-month quasiexperimental study (sequential design with two cohorts). The residents of two nursing homes will receive the MMU team care intervention. In case of urgent care needs, the nursing home physician will contact the hospital physician responsible for the MMU team by phone. The case will be triaged as (a) manageable by phone advice, (b) requiring urgent assessment by the MMU team or (c) requiring immediate emergency department (ED) referral. MMU team is composed of one senior physician and one emergency-medicine resident chosen within the staff of Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit of Parma University-Hospital, usually with different specialty background, and equipped with portable ultrasound, set of drugs and devices useful in urgency. The MMU visits patients in nursing homes, with the mission to stabilise clinical conditions and avoid hospital admission. Residents of the other two nursing homes will receive usual care, that is, ED referral in every case of urgency. Study endpoints include unplanned hospital admissions (primary), crude all-cause mortality, hospital mortality, length of stay and healthcare-related costs (secondary). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Area Vasta Emilia Nord (Emilia-Romagna region). Informed consent will be collected from patients or legal representatives. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations, in compliance with the Italian law. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT04085679); Pre-results.


Assuntos
Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Casas de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Ann Palliat Med ; 8(4): 381-389, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare quality of life (QoL) of patients receiving early palliative care (EPC) vs. standard oncologic care (SOC). METHODS: Pragmatic, multicenter, randomized trial at five University and Community Hospital Cancer Centers in Northern Italy. Advanced non-small cell lung, gastric, pancreatic and biliary tract cancer patients diagnosed within the previous 8 weeks. In the EPC arm, visits were performed systematically by a dedicated physician/nurse palliative care (PC) team, who assessed physical and psychosocial symptoms, and enacted the necessary services. In the SOC arm, PC visits were only carried out if requested. The primary outcome was the difference in the change of QoL [Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General measure (FACT-G)] from baseline to 12 weeks in the two groups. RESULTS: From November 2014 to March 2016, 281 patients were enrolled (142 EPC, 139 SOC); 218 completed FACT-G at 12 weeks. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar for the two groups. Values of FACT-G at baseline and 12 weeks were 72.3 (SD 12.6) and 70.1 (SD 15.5) for patients enrolled in the EPC arm, vs. 71.7 (SD 14.7) and 69.6 (SD 15.5) for the SOC arm, but the change scores did not differ significantly between groups. In the multivariable analysis, adjusting for QoL at baseline, two potential prospective prognostic factors were statistically significant: lung cancer (P=0.03) and interaction of living without a partner and intervention arm (P=0.01). Dying within 6 months (P<0.001) was also statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, EPC did not improve QoL in advanced cancer patients, but our findings highlight aspects which may guide future research on EPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/psicologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/psicologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am Heart J ; 203: 12-16, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966801

RESUMO

The main objective of cardiovascular disease prevention is to reduce morbidity and mortality by promoting a healthy lifestyle, reducing risk factors, and improving adherence to medications. Secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome has proved to be effective in reducing new cardiovascular events, but its limited use in everyday clinical practice suggests that there is considerable room for improvement. The short-term results of evidence-based studies of nurse-coordinated secondary prevention programs have been positive, but there is a lack of long-term outcome data. The Alliance for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Emilia-Romagna region (ALLEPRE) is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial designed to compare the effects of a structured nurse-coordinated intensive intervention on long-term outcomes and risk profiles after an acute coronary syndrome with those of the standard of care. All of the patients randomized to the intervention group take part in 9 one-to-one sessions with an experienced nurse from the participating centers with the aim at promoting healthy lifestyles, reducing risk factors, and increasing adherence to medication over a mean period of 5 years. The primary clinical end point is the reduction in the risk of the 5-year occurrence of major adverse events (a composite of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal reinfarction, and nonfatal stroke). The primary surrogate end point is the achievement of prespecified targets relating to classical risk factors, lifestyle modifications, and adherence to pharmacological therapy after 2 years of follow-up. Coronary heart disease is a chronic degenerative disease, and patients who recover from an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at high risk of developing recurrent events.1 Although secondary prevention measures have proved to be effective and are strongly recommended by all of the international guidelines,2., 3. the 4 EUROASPIRE surveys4., 5., 6., 7., 8. showed that there was still a high prevalence of conventional risk factors, that secondary prevention measures were inadequately implemented, and that their main goals were often not reached. In addition, there were considerable discrepancy in secondary prevention practices between centers and countries, and a widespread underuse of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation programs despite their demonstrated effectiveness in reducing cardiovascular risk over time.9., 10. Over the last 10 years, nurses have been increasingly involved in successful cardiovascular risk management,11., 12., 13. but although this has improved levels of cardiovascular risk, no clear reduction in hard end points such as major cardiovascular adverse events and mortality has been demonstrated.10 The aim of the ALLEPRE trial is to evaluate the benefit of a homogeneous, structured, secondary prevention intervention program, fully coordinated by nurses from in- and outpatient clinics, in terms of cardiovascular risk profiles and major clinical events in ACS patients living in the large Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , Aconselhamento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/enfermagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Recenti Prog Med ; 109(2): 143-145, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493643

RESUMO

This work aimed to objectively identify the main research areas at the University Hospital of Parma. To this end, a multidisciplinary working group, comprising clinicians, researchers, and hospital management, was formed to develop a shared quali-quantitative method. Easily retrievable performance indicators were selected from the literature (concerning bibliometric data and grant acquisition), and a scoring system developed to assign weights to each indicator. Subsequently, Research Team Leaders were identified from the hospital's "Research Plan", a document produced every three years which contains information on the main research themes carried out at each Department, involved staff and available resources, provided by health care professionals themselves. The selected performance indicators were measured for each Team Leader, and scores assigned, thus creating a ranking list. Through the analyses of the research themes of top Team Leaders, the Working Group identified the following five strategic research areas: (a) personalized treatment in oncology and hematology; (b) chronicization mechanisms in immunomediate diseases; (c) old and new risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; (d) nutritional disorders, metabolic and chronic-degenerative diseases; (e) molecular diagnostic and predictive markers. We have developed an objective method to identify a hospital's main research areas. Its application can guide resource allocation and can offer ways to value the work of professionals involved in research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Itália , Alocação de Recursos/métodos
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(17): 1869-1877, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although clopidogrel is still frequently used in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), its efficacy is hampered by interpatient response variability caused by genetic polymorphisms associated with clopidogrel's metabolism. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether selecting antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor) on the basis of a patient's genetic and clinical characteristics leads to better clinical outcomes compared with the standard of care, which bases the selection on clinical characteristics alone. METHODS: Patients hospitalized for ACS were randomly assigned to standard of care or the pharmacogenomic arm, which included the genotyping of ABCB1, CYP2C19*2, and CYP2C19*17 using an ST Q3 system that provides data within 70 min at each patient's bedside. The patients were followed up for 12 ± 1 month for the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death and the first occurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and major bleeding defined according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 to 5 criteria. RESULTS: After enrolling 888 patients, the study was prematurely stopped. Clopidogrel was used more frequently in the standard-of-care arm (50.7% vs. 43.3%), ticagrelor in the pharmacogenomic arm (42.6% vs. 32.7%; p = 0.02), and prasugrel was equally used in both arms. The primary endpoint occurred in 71 patients (15.9%) in the pharmacogenomic arm and in 114 (25.9%) in the standard-of-care arm (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 0.78; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A personalized approach to selecting antiplatelet therapy for patients with ACS may reduce ischemic and bleeding events. (Pharmacogenetics of Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes [PHARMCLO]; NCT03347435).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Stroke ; 48(12): 3316-3322, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Public campaigns to increase stroke preparedness have been tested in different contexts, showing contradictory results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a stroke campaign, designed specifically for the Italian population in reducing prehospital delay. METHODS: According to an SW-RCT (Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial) design, the campaign was launched in 4 provinces in the northern part of the region Emilia Romagna at 3-month intervals in randomized sequence. The units of analysis were the patients admitted to hospital, with stroke and transient ischemic attack, over a time period of 15 months, beginning 3 months before the intervention was launched in the first province to allow for baseline data collection. The proportion of early arrivals (within 2 hours of symptom onset) was the primary outcome. Thrombolysis rate and some behavioral end points were the secondary outcomes. Data were analyzed using a fixed-effect model, adjusting for cluster and time trends. RESULTS: We enrolled 1622 patients, 912 exposed and 710 nonexposed to the campaign. The proportion of early access was nonsignificantly lower in exposed patients (354 [38.8%] versus 315 [44.4%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-1.08; P=0.15). As for secondary end points, an increase was found for stroke recognition, which approximated but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Our campaign was not effective in reducing prehospital delay. Even if some limitations of the intervention, mainly in terms of duration, are taken into account, our study demonstrates that new communication strategies should be tested before large-scale implementation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01881152.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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