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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Utilizing a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (N=1,595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (N=883). We applied these models to genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpGs are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62,938 CpG sites (CpGs) investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P<7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions which have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
3.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(7): 1803-1811, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633655

RESUMO

Genetic variants in genes acting during the maturation process of immature B-cell to differentiated plasma cell could influence the risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). During B-cell maturation, several programmed genetic rearrangements occur to increase the variation of the immunoglobulin chains. Class switch recombination (CSR) is one of the most important among these mechanisms. Germline polymorphisms altering even subtly this process could play a role in the etiology and outcome of MM. We performed an association study of 30 genetic variants in the key CSR genes, using 2632 MM patients and 2848 controls from the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, the Heidelberg MM Group and the ESTHER cohort. We found an association between LIG4-rs1555902 and decreased MM risk, which approached statistical significance, as well as significant associations between AICDA-rs3794318 and better outcome. Our results add to our knowledge on the genetic component of MM risk and survival.

5.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(4): 544-550, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629142

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has an extremely poor prognosis, caused by various factors, such as the aggressiveness of the disease, the limited therapeutic options and the lack of early detection and risk markers. The ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2) protein plays a critical role in response to various drugs and is differentially expressed in gemcitabine sensitive and resistant cells. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene have been associated with differential outcomes and prognosis in several tumour types. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between SNPs in the ABCC2 gene and overall survival (OS) in PDAC patients. We analysed 12 polymorphisms, including tagging-SNPs covering all the genetic variability of the ABCC2 gene and genotyped them in 1415 PDAC patients collected within the Pancreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. We tested the association between ABCC2 SNPs and PDAC OS using Cox proportional hazard models. We analysed PDAC patients dividing them by stage and observed that the minor alleles of three SNPs showed an association with worse OS [rs3740067: hazard ratio (HR) = 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.56-6.97, P = 0.002; rs3740073: HR = 3.11, 95% CI = 1.52-6.38, P = 0.002 and rs717620: HR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.41-5.95, P = 0.004, respectively] in stage I patients. In patients with more advanced PDAC, we did not observe any statistically significant association. Our results suggest that rs3740067, rs3740073 and rs717620 could be promising prognostic markers in stage I PDAC patients.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325019

RESUMO

Telomere deregulation is a hallmark of cancer. Telomere length measured in lymphocytes (LTL) has been shown to be a risk marker for several cancers. For pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) consensus is lacking whether risk is associated with long or short telomeres. Mendelian randomization approaches have shown that a score built from SNPs associated with LTL could be used as a robust risk marker. We explored this approach in a large scale study within the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. We analyzed 10 SNPs (ZNF676-rs409627, TERT-rs2736100, CTC1-rs3027234, DHX35-rs6028466, PXK-rs6772228, NAF1-rs7675998, ZNF208-rs8105767, OBFC1-rs9420907, ACYP2-rs11125529 and TERC-rs10936599) alone and combined in a LTL genetic score ("teloscore", which explains 2.2% of the telomere variability) in relation to PDAC risk in 2,374 cases and 4,326 controls. We identified several associations with PDAC risk, among which the strongest were with the TERT-rs2736100 SNP (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.35-1.76; p = 1.54 × 10-10 ) and a novel one with the NAF1-rs7675998 SNP (OR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.73-0.88; p = 1.87 × 10-6 , ptrend = 3.27 × 10-7 ). The association of short LTL, measured by the teloscore, with PDAC risk reached genome-wide significance (p = 2.98 × 10-9 for highest vs. lowest quintile; p = 1.82 × 10-10 as a continuous variable). In conclusion, we present a novel genome-wide candidate SNP for PDAC risk (TERT-rs2736100), a completely new signal (NAF1-rs7675998) approaching genome-wide significance and we report a strong association between the teloscore and risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that telomeres are a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer.

8.
Blood ; 132(19): 2040-2052, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194254

RESUMO

To further our understanding of inherited susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), we performed a meta-analysis of 7 genome-wide association studies totaling 5325 HL cases and 22 423 control patients. We identify 5 new HL risk loci at 6p21.31 (rs649775; P = 2.11 × 10-10), 6q23.3 (rs1002658; P = 2.97 × 10-8), 11q23.1 (rs7111520; P = 1.44 × 10-11), 16p11.2 (rs6565176; P = 4.00 × 10-8), and 20q13.12 (rs2425752; P = 2.01 × 10-8). Integration of gene expression, histone modification, and in situ promoter capture Hi-C data at the 5 new and 13 known risk loci implicates dysfunction of the germinal center reaction, disrupted T-cell differentiation and function, and constitutive NF-κB activation as mechanisms of predisposition. These data provide further insights into the genetic susceptibility and biology of HL.

9.
Br J Haematol ; 183(3): 375-384, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079960

RESUMO

Over the past four decades, remarkable progress has been made in the treatment and prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM), although it remains an incurable disease. Chemotherapy resistance is a major hurdle for treatment efficacy. Drug resistance can be innate and so driven by genes involved in the drug metabolism pathways. We performed an association study of 71 germline variants within the major genes in those pathways (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and their regulators NR1I2/PXR and NR1I3/CAR) in the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, consisting of 1365 MM cases with survival information recruited in 5 European countries. Two of the SNPs showed a significant association with the survival of MM patients, namely rs2235013, located in ABCB1 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1·52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·18-1·95, P = 0·00087], and rs4148388, located in ABCC2 (HR = 2·15, 95% CI = 1·44-3·22, P = 0·0001). ABCC2 plays an essential role in transporting various anticancer drugs, including several used against MM, out of the cell. In silico analyses predict that the variant alleles of four SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with ABCC2-rs4148388 are associated with increased gene expression. Overexpression of ABCC2 increases drug clearance and therefore may induce drug resistance mechanisms. In conclusion, we found a promising association between ABCC2-rs4148388 and MM outcome that is supported by a plausible biological explanation.

11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 29, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) copy number and deletions have been proposed as risk markers for various cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). METHODS: To gain a more comprehensive picture on how these markers can modulate BC risk, alone or in conjunction, we performed simultaneous measurements of LTL and mtDNA copy number in up to 570 BC cases and 538 controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. As a first step, we measured LTL and mtDNA copy number in 96 individuals for which a blood sample had been collected twice with an interval of 15 years. RESULTS: According to the intraclass correlation (ICC), we found very good stability over the time period for both measurements, with ICCs of 0.63 for LTL and 0.60 for mtDNA copy number. In the analysis of the entire study sample, we observed that longer LTL was strongly associated with increased risk of BC (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.58-4.65, p = 3.07 × 10- 4 for highest vs. lowest quartile; OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.57-6.55, p = 1.41 × 10- 3 as a continuous variable). We did not find any association between mtDNA copy number and BC risk; however, when considering only the functional copies, we observed an increased risk of developing estrogen receptor-positive BC (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.05-5.80, p = 0.04 for highest vs. lowest quartile). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a very good correlation between the markers over a period of 15 years. We confirm a role of LTL in BC carcinogenesis and suggest an effect of mtDNA copy number on BC risk.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 556, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422604

RESUMO

In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.

13.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 360-367, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309705

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN) account for less than 5% of all pancreatic neoplasms and genetic association studies on susceptibility to the disease are limited. We sought to identify possible overlap of genetic susceptibility loci between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and pNEN; therefore, PDAC susceptibility variants (n = 23) from Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were genotyped in 369 pNEN cases and 3277 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium to evaluate the odds associated with pNEN risk, disease onset and tumor characteristics. Main effect analyses showed four PDAC susceptibility variants-rs9854771, rs1561927, rs9543325 and rs10919791 to be associated with pNEN risk. Subsequently, only associations with rs9543325, rs10919791 and rs1561927 were noteworthy with false positive report probability (FPRP) tests. Stratified analyses considering age at onset (50-year threshold), showed rs2736098, rs16986825 and rs9854771 to be associated with risk of developing pNEN at a younger age. Stratified analyses also showed some single nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with different degrees of tumor grade, metastatic potential and functionality. Our results identify known GWAS PDAC susceptibility loci, which may also be involved in sporadic pNEN etiology and suggest that some genetic mechanisms governing pathogenesis of these two entities may be similar, with few of these loci being more influential in younger cases or tumor subtypes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Int J Cancer ; 142(2): 290-296, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913878

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a very aggressive tumor with a five-year survival of less than 6%. Chronic pancreatitis (CP), an inflammatory process in of the pancreas, is a strong risk factor for PDAC. Several genetic polymorphisms have been discovered as susceptibility loci for both CP and PDAC. Since CP and PDAC share a consistent number of epidemiologic risk factors, the aim of this study was to investigate whether specific CP risk loci also contribute to PDAC susceptibility. We selected five common SNPs (rs11988997, rs379742, rs10273639, rs2995271 and rs12688220) that were identified as susceptibility markers for CP and analyzed them in 2,914 PDAC cases, 356 CP cases and 5,596 controls retrospectively collected in the context of the international PANDoRA consortium. We found a weak association between the minor allele of the PRSS1-PRSS2-rs10273639 and an increased risk of developing PDAC (ORhomozygous = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, p = 0.023). Additionally all the SNPs confirmed statistically significant associations with risk of developing CP, the strongest being PRSS1-PRSS2-rs10273639 (ORheterozygous = 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.67, p = 1.10 × 10-6 ) and MORC4-rs 12837024 (ORhomozygous = 2.07 (1.55-2.77, ptrend = 0.7 × 10-11 ). Taken together, the results from our study do not support variants rs11988997, rs379742, rs10273639, rs2995271 and rs12688220 as strong predictors of PDAC risk, but further support the role of these SNPs in CP susceptibility. Our study suggests that CP and PDAC probably do not share genetic susceptibility, at least in terms of high frequency variants.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tripsina/genética , Tripsinogênio/genética
15.
Int J Cancer ; 142(6): 1182-1188, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114882

RESUMO

We assessed the association between 1,414 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, and risk of breast cancer in situ (BCIS), with the aim of determining whether any of these were disease specific. This was carried out using 1,062 BCIS cases and 10,126 controls as well as 6,113 invasive breast cancer cases from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Three SNPs showed at least one nominally significant association in homozygous minor versus homozygous major models. ACVR2A-rs2382112 (ORhom = 3.05, 95%CI = 1.72-5.44, Phom = 1.47 × 10-4 ), MAST2-rs12124649 (ORhom = 1.73, 95% CI =1.18-2.54, Phom = 5.24 × 10-3 ), and INSR-rs10500204 (ORhom = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.44-2.67, Phom =1.68 × 10-5 ) were associated with increased risk of BCIS; however, only the latter association was significant after correcting for multiple testing. Furthermore, INSR-rs10500204 was more strongly associated with the risk of BCIS than invasive disease in case-only analyses using the homozygous minor versus homozygous major model (ORhom = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.30-2.44, Phom = 3.23 × 10-4 ). The SNP INSR-rs10500204 is located in an intron of the INSR gene and is likely to affect binding of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. The PML gene is known as a tumor suppressor and growth regulator in cancer. However, it is not clear on what pathway the A-allele of rs10500204 could operate to influence the binding of the protein. Hence, functional studies are warranted to investigate this further.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/genética , Antígenos CD/genética , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Idoso , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteína da Leucemia Promielocítica/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(6): 1814-1822, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232439

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89-1.13, P = 0.95). Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Causalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 17(1): 104, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetics plays an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the last 10 years genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 independent low penetrance polymorphic variants. However, these loci only explain around 1­4% of CRC heritability, highlighting the dire need of identifying novel risk loci. In this study, we focused our attention on the genetic variability of the TAS2R16 gene, encoding for one of the bitter taste receptors that selectively binds to salicin, a natural antipyretic that resembles aspirin. Given the importance of inflammation in CRC, we tested whether polymorphic variants in this gene could affect the risk of developing this neoplasia hypothesizing a role of TAS2R16 in modulating chronic inflammation within the gut. METHODS: We performed an association study using 6 tagging SNPs, (rs860170, rs978739, rs1357949, rs1525489, rs6466849, rs10268496) that cover all TAS2R16 genetic variability. The study was carried out on 1902 CRC cases and 1532 control individuals from four European countries. RESULTS: We did not find any statistically significant association between risk of developing CRC and selected SNPs. However, after stratification by histology (colon vs. rectum) we found that rs1525489 was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer with a (Ptrend of = 0.0071). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that polymorphisms within TAS2R16 gene do not have a strong influence on colon cancer susceptibility, but a possible role in rectal cancer should be further evaluated in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , República Tcheca , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Itália , Lituânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9239, 2017 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835712

RESUMO

Several studies have suggested a possible relationship between polymorphic variants of the taste receptors genes and the acceptance, liking and intake of food and beverages. In the last decade investigators have attempted to link the individual ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and the sensations, such as astringency and bitterness, elicited by wine or its components, but with contradictory results. We have used the genotype instead of the phenotype (responsiveness to PROP or other tastants), to test the possible relation between genetic variability and the perception of wine characteristic in 528 subjects from Italy and the Czech Republic. We observed several interesting associations, among which the association between several TAS2R38 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (P = 0.002) and the TAS2R16-rs6466849 polymorphism with wine sourness P = 0.0003). These associations were consistent in both populations, even though the country of origin was an important factor in the two models, thus indicating therefore that genetics alongside cultural factors also play a significant role in the individual liking of wine.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(8): 1349-1351, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765340

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare neoplasms for which very little is known about either environmental or genetic risk factors. Only a handful of association studies have been performed so far, suggesting a small number of risk loci.Methods: To replicate the best findings, we have selected 16 SNPs suggested in previous studies to be relevant in PNET etiogenesis. We genotyped the selected SNPs (rs16944, rs1052536, rs1059293, rs1136410, rs1143634, rs2069762, rs2236302, rs2387632, rs3212961, rs3734299, rs3803258, rs4962081, rs7234941, rs7243091, rs12957119, and rs1800629) in 344 PNET sporadic cases and 2,721 controls in the context of the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.Results: After correction for multiple testing, we did not observe any statistically significant association between the SNPs and PNET risk. We also used three online bioinformatic tools (HaploReg, RegulomeDB, and GTEx) to predict a possible functional role of the SNPs, but we did not observe any clear indication.Conclusions: None of the selected SNPs were convincingly associated with PNET risk in the PANDoRA consortium.Impact: We can exclude a major role of the selected polymorphisms in PNET etiology, and this highlights the need for replication of epidemiologic findings in independent populations, especially in rare diseases such as PNETs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1349-51. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43812, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272475

RESUMO

Expression of the solute carrier (SLC) transporter SLC22A3 gene is associated with overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients. This study tested whether genetic variability in SLC22A3 associates with pancreatic cancer risk and prognosis. Twenty four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the SLC22A3 gene sequence and regulatory elements were selected for analysis. Of these, 22 were successfully evaluated in the discovery phase while six significant or suggestive variants entered the validation phase, comprising a total study number of 1,518 cases and 3,908 controls. In the discovery phase, rs2504938, rs9364554, and rs2457571 SNPs were significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Moreover, rs7758229 associated with the presence of distant metastases, while rs512077 and rs2504956 correlated with overall survival of patients. Although replicated, the association for rs9364554 did not pass multiple testing corrections in the validation phase. Contrary to the discovery stage, rs2504938 associated with survival in the validation cohort, which was more pronounced in stage IV patients. In conclusion, common variation in the SLC22A3 gene is unlikely to significantly contribute to pancreatic cancer risk. The rs2504938 SNP in SLC22A3 significantly associates with an unfavorable prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Further investigation of this SNP effect on the molecular and clinical phenotype is warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
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