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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the proportion of susceptible workers can represent a first step to the biological risk assessment related to measles, mumps, rubella and varicella exposure. This study aimed to assess the immunity against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella viruses in a cohort of female school workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in a sample of 263 school workers undergoing routine annual workplace health surveillance program was conducted. As part of the health surveillance program, serum samples were collected and tested for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella IgG antibodies. RESULTS: Overall seropositivity was 90.5%, 85.2%, 94.7% and 97.3% for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella, respectively. In relation to mumps occupation-specific seropositivity, a statistically significant difference was observed, showing the lowest prevalence of protected individuals in other occupation groups. Moreover, in relation to rubella, school workers born in Centre Italy had the lowest seropositivity of protective antibodies and the difference between groups was statistically significant. Measles and rubella seropositivity showed a significant decrease after 2015. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a relevant proportion of school workers susceptible to the aforementioned diseases. These results highlighted the need for proper health surveillance and immunological controls in school workers, especially for females, and provided useful insights to policymakers to select effective strategies aimed at containing the risk of vaccine-preventable diseases at schools.

2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443319

RESUMO

Metformin has been used for decades in millions of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In this time, correlations between metformin use and the occurrence of other disorders have been noted, as well as unpredictable metformin side effects. Diabetes is a significant cancer risk factor, but unexpectedly, metformin-treated diabetic patients have lower cancer incidence. Here, we show that metformin forms stable complexes with copper (II) ions. Both copper(I)/metformin and copper(II)/metformin complexes form adducts with glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidative peptide, found at high levels in cancer cells. Metformin reduces cell number and viability in SW1222 and K562 cells, as well as in K562-200 multidrug-resistant cells. Notably, the antiproliferative effect of metformin is enhanced in the presence of copper ions.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Metformina/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/química , Humanos , Células K562 , Metformina/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diversity in the clinical course of COVID-19 has been related to differences in innate and adaptative immune response mechanisms. Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes are critical protagonists of human host defense against viral infections. It would seem that reduced circulating levels of these cells have an impact on COVID-19 progression and severity. Their activity is strongly regulated by killer-cell immuno-globulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on the NK cell surface. The present study's focus was to investigate the impact of KIRs and their HLA Class I ligands on SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: KIR gene frequencies, KIR haplotypes, KIR ligands and combinations of KIRs and their HLA Class I ligands were investigated in 396 Sardinian patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparisons were made between 2 groups of patients divided according to disease severity: 240 patients were symptomatic or paucisymptomatic (Group A), 156 hospitalized patients had severe disease (Group S). The immunogenetic characteristics of patients were also compared to a population group of 400 individuals from the same geographical areas. RESULTS: Substantial differences were obtained for KIR genes, KIR haplotypes and KIR-HLA ligand combinations when comparing patients of Group S to those of Group A. Patients in Group S had a statistically significant higher frequency of the KIR A/A haplotype compared to patients in Group A [34.6% vs 23.8%, OR = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6); P = 0.02, Pc = 0.04]. Moreover, the KIR2DS2/HLA C1 combination was poorly represented in the group of patients with severe symptoms compared to those of the asymptomatic-paucisymptomatic group [33.3% vs 50.0%, OR = 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.8), P = 0.001, Pc = 0.002]. Multivariate analysis confirmed that, regardless of the sex and age of the patients, the latter genetic variable correlated with a less severe disease course [ORM = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.7), PM = 0.0005, PMC = 0.005]. CONCLUSIONS: The KIR2DS2/HLA C1 functional unit resulted to have a strong protective effect against the adverse outcomes of COVID-19. Combined to other well known factors such as advanced age, male sex and concomitant autoimmune diseases, this marker could prove to be highly informative of the disease course and thus enable the timely intervention needed to reduce the mortality associated with the severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, larger studies in other populations as well as experimental functional studies will be needed to confirm our findings and further pursue the effect of KIR receptors on NK cell immune-mediated response to SARS-Cov-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Imunogenética/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Ligantes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores KIR/genética , Receptores KIR/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 70: 101391, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119687

RESUMO

Conformational diseases are caused by the aggregation of misfolded proteins. The risk for such pathologies develops years before clinical symptoms appear, and is higher in people with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) polymorphisms. Thousands of people with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) are underdiagnosed. Enemy-aggregating proteins may reside in these underdiagnosed AATD patients for many years before a pathology for AATD fully develops. In this perspective review, we hypothesize that the AAT protein could exert a new and previously unconsidered biological effect as an endogenous metal ion chelator that plays a significant role in essential metal ion homeostasis. In this respect, AAT polymorphism may cause an imbalance of metal ions, which could be correlated with the aggregation of amylin, tau, amyloid beta, and alpha synuclein proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doença de Parkinson , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Humanos , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 566700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123979

RESUMO

Background: In times of global public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses stand at the front line, working in close contact with infected individuals. Being actively engaged in fighting against COVID-19 exposes nurses to a high risk of being infected but can also have a serious impact on their mental health, as they are faced with excessive workload and emotional burden in many front-line operating contexts. Purpose: The aim of the study is to analyze how risk factors such as perceived impact, preparedness to the pandemic, and worries were associated with mental health outcomes (crying, rumination and stress) in nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was performed via an online questionnaire survey. Participants included 894 registered nurses from Italy. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Multiple binary logistic regression was carried out to analyze the relationship between risk factors and health outcomes. Results: Increased job stress was related to higher levels of rumination about the pandemic (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001), job demand (OR = 2.00, p < 0.001), impact on job role (OR = 2.56, p < 0.001), watching coworkers crying at work (OR = 1.50, p < 0.05), non-work-related concerns (OR = 2.28, p < 0.001), and fear of getting infected (OR = 2.05, p < 0.001). Job stress (OR = 2.52, p < 0.01), rumination (OR = 2.28, p < 0.001), and watching colleagues crying (OR = 7.92, p < 0.001) were associated with crying at work. Rumination was associated with caring for patients who died of COVID-19 (OR = 1.54, p < 0.05), job demand (OR = 1.70, p < 0.01), watching colleagues crying (OR = 1.81, p < 0.001), non-work-related worries (OR = 1.57, p < 0.05), and fear of getting infected (OR = 2.02, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The psychological impact that this pandemic may cause in the medium/long term could be greater than the economical one. This is the main challenge that health organizations will have to face in the future. This study highlights that the perceived impact and worries about the pandemic affect nurses' mental health and can impact on their overall effectiveness during the pandemic. Measures to enhance nurses' protection and to lessen the risk of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress should be planned promptly.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Public Health Res ; 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to verify whether the density of particulate matter (PM10), the climate, and the mobility of people can influence the pandemic in the 19 regions and in the two autonomous Italian provinces as incidence rate and lethality. DESIGN AND METHODS: The incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants and the case fatality ratio (CFR) (dependent variables) in all Italian regions were calculated in January 2021 at John Hopkins University Coronavirus Center. The independent variables were: -Minimum average temperatures in the same month (January) of 2020, -Average pollution of PM10 in the air in each region in the last year available reported on a 0-10 scale to 0 = total absence of PM10 to 10 maximum pollutions. -Number of places in hotels occupied per inhabitants in 2020. Linear regression and Multiple Regression Analysis were carried out. RESULTS: The spread of the COVID-19 in the Italian regions seems to be related to pollution of PM10, the number of beds occupied in hotels (as an index of mobility and temperature (indirect correlation). On the contrary, the CFR correlates inversely with temperature but not with pollution. Measuring the concomitant effect of two independent variables by means of Multiple Regression Analysis, temperature and pollution show a synergistic effect on COVID-19 incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The study seems to confirm the literature on the influence of temperature on the lethality of COVID-19 but adds the new results of an inverse relationship between the spread of the virus and low temperature in regions between the Mediterranean area (which includes southern Italy and Sicily and Sardinia islands) and the cold European temperate zone which includes the northern regions under the Alps. A new date also concerns the summation effect of the risk between cold weather and PM10 air pollution was found. Due to several methodic weakness the study has an exploratory than conclusive relevance.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), a widely used tool to assess catastrophizing related to spinal disorders, shows valid psychometric properties in general but the minimal important change (MIC) is still not determined. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. AIM: To assess responsiveness and MIC of the PCS in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP) undergoing multidisciplinary rehabilitation. SETTING: Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. POPULATION: Two hundred and five patients with chronic LBP. METHODS: Before and after an 8-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation program, 205 patients completed the Italian version of the PCS (PCS-I). We calculated the PCS-I responsiveness by distribution-based methods [effect size, ES; standardised response mean, SRM; minimum detectable change, MDC] and anchor-based methods [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves]. After the program, participants completed a 7-point global perceived effect scale (GPE), based on which they were classified as "improved" vs. "stable". ROC curves computed the best cut-off level (taken as the MIC) between the two groups. ROC analysis was also performed on subgroups according to patients' baseline PCS scores. RESULT: ES, SRM and MDC were 0.71, 0.67 and 7.73, respectively. ROC analysis yielded an MIC of 8 points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6-10; area under the curve [AUC]: 0.88). ROC analysis of the PCS subgroups confirmed an MIC of 8 points (95%CI: 6-10) for no/low catastrophizers (score <30, n=159; AUC: 0.90) and indicated an MIC of 11 points (95%CI: 8-14) for catastrophizers (score >30, n=33; AUC: 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: The PCS-I showed good ability to detect patient-perceived clinical changes in chronic LBP post-rehabilitation. The MIC values we determined provide a benchmark for assessing individual improvement in this clinical context. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: The present study calculated - in a sample of people with chronic LBP - the responsiveness and MIC of the PCS. These values increase confidence in interpreting score changes, enhancing their meaningfulness for both research and clinical contexts.

8.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 49, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified glyphosate, the most used herbicide worldwide, as a probable human carcinogen. We inquired into the association between occupational exposure to glyphosate and risk of lymphoma subtypes in a multicenter case-control study conducted in Italy. METHODS: The Italian Gene-Environment Interactions in Lymphoma Etiology (ItGxE) study took place in 2011-17 in six Italian centres. Overall, 867 incident lymphoma cases and 774 controls participated in the study. Based on detailed questionnaire information, occupational experts classified duration, confidence, frequency, and intensity of exposure to glyphosate for each study subject. Using unconditional regression analysis, we modelled risk of major lymphoma subtypes associated with exposure to glyphosate adjusted by age, gender, education, and study centre. RESULTS: Very few study subjects (2.2%) were classified as ever exposed to glyphosate. Risk of follicular lymphoma (FL) was elevated 7-fold in subjects classified as ever exposed to glyphosate with medium-high confidence, 4.5-fold in association with medium-high cumulative exposure level, 12-fold with medium-high exposure intensity, and 6-fold with exposure for 10 days or more per year. Significant upward trends were detected with all the exposure metrics, but duration. The overall p-value for an upward trend with four independent metrics was 1.88 × 10- 4. There was no association with risk of lymphoma (any subtype), Non Hodgkin Lymphoma, B-cell lymphoma, or the major lymphoma subtypes other than FL. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide limited support to the IARC decision to classify glyphosate as Group 2A human carcinogen.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main anthropic sources of exposure to airborne benzene include vehicular traffic, cigarette smoke, and industrial emissions. METHODS: To detect early genotoxic effects of environmental exposure to benzene, we monitored environmental, personal, and indoor airborne benzene in children living in an urban area and an area near a petrochemical plant. We also used urinary benzene and S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) as biomarkers of benzene exposure and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker of early genotoxic effects. RESULTS: Although always below the European Union limit of 5 µg/m3, airborne benzene levels were more elevated in the indoor, outdoor, and personal samples from the industrial surroundings compared to the urban area (p = 0.026, p = 0.005, and p = 0.001, respectively). Children living in the surroundings of the petrochemical plant had urinary benzene values significantly higher than those from the urban area in both the morning and evening samples (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Results of multiple regression modelling showed that age was a significant predictor of 8-OHdG excretion, independent of the sampling hour. Moreover, at the low exposure level experienced by the children participating in this study, neither personal or indoor airborne benzene level, nor personal monitoring data, affected 8-OHdG excretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the importance of biological monitoring of low-level environmental exposure and its relation to risk of genotoxic effects among children.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Exposição Ocupacional , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Criança , Dano ao DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802520

RESUMO

Airport activity causes the emission of particulate matter and noise, two environmental contaminants and potential health hazards, particularly for the personnel operating nearby taxiways. We explored the association between exposure to fine/ultrafine particles (UFPs) and noise with heart rate variability (HRV), an early indicator of cardiovascular autonomic response, among a sample of airport ground staff. Between May and June 2018, thirty-four male operators (mean age = 43 years and SD = 6.7) underwent personal monitoring of exposure to nanoparticles and noise, and HRV during their work activity. We conducted univariate and multivariate analysis to test the effect of UFP and noise exposure HRV. Total Lung Deposition Surface Area (LDSA) was significantly associated with a decrease in HRV Total Power and Triangular index (ß = -0.038 p = 0.016 and ß = -7.8 × 10-5, p = 0.042, respectively). Noise peak level showed an opposite effect, which was significant for Total Power (ß = 153.03, p = 0.027), and for Triangular index (ß = 0.362, p = 0.035). Further investigation is warranted to clarify the effect of the concurrent exposure to UFPs and noise on early changes of cardiac autonomic regulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nanopartículas , Adulto , Aeroportos , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Material Particulado/análise
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 293, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General physiotherapy is a common means of rehabilitation after surgery for proximal humeral fracture (PHF). Better-targeted exercises seem worthy of investigation and the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a rehabilitation program including task-oriented exercises in improving disability, pain, and quality of life in patients after a PHF. METHODS: By means of a randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up, 70 working patients (mean age of 49 ± 11 years; 41 females), who were selected for open reduction and internal fixation with plates caused by PHF, were randomized to be included in an experimental (n = 35) or control group (n = 35). There was a permuted-block randomization plan, and a list of program codes was previously created; subsequently, an automatic assignment system was used to conceal the allocation. The first group underwent a supervised rehabilitation program of task-oriented exercises based on patients' specific job activities, and occupational therapy. The second group underwent general physiotherapy, including supervised mobility, strengthening and stretching exercises. Both groups individually followed programs of 60-min session three times per week for 12 weeks in the outpatient setting. The Disability Arm Shoulder Hand questionnaire (DASH; scores range from 0 to 100; primary outcome), a Pain intensity Numerical Rating Scale (scores range 0 to 10; secondary outcomes), and the Short-Form Health Survey (scores range from 0 to 100; secondary outcomes) assessed the interventions. Participants were evaluated before surgery, before and after rehabilitation (primary endpoint), and at the one-year follow-up (secondary endpoint). A linear mixed model analysis for repeated measures was carried out for each outcome measure (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Time, group and time by group showed significant effects for all outcome measures in favour of the experimental group. The DASH and the DASH work achieved clinically important between-group differences of 16.0 points (95% confidence interval [C.I.] 7.3 to 24.7) and 19.7 (95% C.I. 9.0 to 30.5) at follow-up, respectively. The NRS achieved a between-group difference of 2.9 (95% C.I. 1.0 to 3.9) at follow-up. As for SF-36, there were between-group differences ranging from 17.9 to 37.0 at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation program based on task-oriented exercises was useful in improving disability, pain, and quality of life in working patients after PHFs. Improvements lasted for at least 12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: On 16/12/2019, the trial was retrospectively registered in the ISRCTN registry with the ID number 17996552 .


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Fraturas do Ombro , Adulto , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas do Ombro/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Front Psychol ; 12: 622415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716888

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic is asking health care workers (HCWs) to meet extraordinary challenges. In turn, HCWs were experiencing tremendous psycho-social crisis as they have had to deal with unexpected emotional requirements (ERs) arising from caring for suffering and dying patients on a daily basis. In that context, recent studies have highlighted how HCWs working during the COVID-19 outbreak manifested extreme emotional and behavioral reactions that may have impacted their mental health, increasing the risk for developing post-traumatic stress symptoms. Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate post-traumatic stress symptoms, such as intrusion symptoms, as a potential mediator of the link between ERs and crying at work, and whether rumination moderates the relationship between ERs and intrusion-based PTS symptoms among HCWs who have had to deal with patients dying from COVID-19. Methods: An online cross-sectional study design was performed. A total of 543 Italian HCWs (physicians and nurses) participated in the study. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. We used the SPSS version of bootstrap-based PROCESS macro for testing the moderated mediation model. Results: ERs had an indirect effect on crying at work through the mediating role of intrusion symptoms. Results from the moderated mediation model showed that rumination moderated the indirect effect of ERs on crying at work via intrusion symptoms, and this effect was significant only for high rumination. Furthermore, when we tested for an alternative model where rumination moderates the direct effect of ERs on crying at work, this moderation was not significant. Conclusions: As the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, there is an urgent need for decision-makers to rapidly implement interventions aimed at offering timely psychological support to HCWs, especially in those contexts where the risk of emotional labor associated to patients dying from COVID-19 is higher.

13.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211000245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are among the professionals at serious risk for the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their mental health. In this sense, the next public health challenge globally will be to preserving healthy HCWs during this pandemic. AIM: The present study has the aim of investigating the relationship among concerns, perceived impact, preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic and the mental health of Italian physicians. METHODS: From March 29th to April 15th 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques through Limesurvey platform. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple binary logistic regressions. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for perceived job stress were concerns about catching COVID-19 (OR = 3.18 [95% CI = 2.00-5.05] P < .001), perceived impact on job demands (OR = 1.63 [95% CI = 1.05-2.52] P < .05), perceived impact on job role (OR = 2.50 [95% CI = 1.60-3.90] P < .001), and non-working concerns (OR = 1.86 [95% CI = 1.15-3.03] P < .05). With respect to the risk factors for rumination about the pandemic emerged concerns about catching COVID-19 (OR 1.74, [95% CI = 1.12-2.71] P < .05), perceived impact on job role (OR = 1.68 [95% CI = 1.12-2.52] P < .05), and impact on personal life (OR = 2.04 [95% CI = 1.08-3.86] P < .05). Finally, the risk factors for crying at work were perceived impact on job role (OR = 2.47, [95% CI = 1.20-5.09] P < .05), rumination about the pandemic (OR = 3.027 [95% CI = 1.27-7.19] P < .01), watching colleagues crying at work (OR = 3.82 [95% CI = 1.88-7.77] P < .01), and perceived job stress (OR = 3.53 [95% CI = 1.24-10.07] P < .05). CONCLUSION: In general, our results highlighted that being concerned about being infected/infecting other people, carrying out new and unusual tasks, and witnessing colleagues crying at work were important risk factors for physicians' well-being. Additional data are necessary to advance understanding of these risk factors in a long-term perspective.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Papel do Médico , Ruminação Cognitiva , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 953-961, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are highly prevalent among university students, but little is known about their underlying determinants. This study explores mental health among university students, the association between "effort-reward imbalance" (ERI), overcommitment and mental health, and to what extent ERI and overcommitment explain gender differences in mental health. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 4760 Italian university students. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 was used to measure self-reported psychological distress, as an indicator of mental health, and the ERI - Student Questionnaire to measure effort, reward and overcommitment. The associations between ERI and overcommitment with psychological distress were estimated with multinomial logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: 78.5% of the respondents experienced psychological distress, with 21.3%, 21.1%, and 36.1% reporting respectively mild, moderate and severe psychological distress. Female students were more likely to report moderate and severe psychological distress. ERI and overcommitment were strongly associated with severe psychological distress with ORs respectively up to 19.9 (95% CI: 12.2-32.5) and 22.2 (95% CI: 16.1-30.7). ERI and overcommitment explained part of the higher odds of severe psychological distress among female students comparing to males, attenuating the ORs from 2.3 (95% CI: 1.9-2.7) to 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.7). LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional study was performed on a large, but convenient sample. DISCUSSION: More than one out of three students reported severe psychological distress. Decreasing ERI and overcommitment may be beneficial in the prevention of psychological distress among university students and may reduce gender differences in psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate these associations.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Angústia Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
15.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(1): 41-50, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019. Some authors reported pieces of evidence that patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could have direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, and in symptomatic cases, gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain) could be very common. AREA COVERED: In this article, we reviewed current-published data of the gastrointestinal aspects involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, including prevalence and incidence of specific symptoms, the presumptive biological mechanism of GI infection, prognosis, clinical management, and public health-related concerns on the possible risk of oral-fecal transmission. EXPERT OPINION: Different clues point to direct virus infection and replication in mucosal cells of the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 could enter into the gastrointestinal epithelial cells by the Angiotensin-Converting enzyme two membrane receptor. These findings, coupled with the identification of viral RNA found in stools of patients, clearly suggest that direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is very likely. This can justify most of the gastrointestinal symptoms but also suggest a risk for an oral-fecal route for transmission, additionally or alternatively to the main respiratory route.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/transmissão , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/citologia , Humanos , Incidência , Náusea/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Vômito/epidemiologia
16.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(1): 42-51, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103203

RESUMO

Objectives This study aimed to estimate the risk of lymphoma and its major subtypes in relation to occupational exposure to specific organic dusts. Methods We explored the association in 1853 cases and 1997 controls who participated in the EpiLymph case-control study, conducted in six European countries in 1998-2004. Based on expert assessment of lifetime occupational exposures, we calculated the risk of the major lymphoma subtypes associated with exposure to six specific organic dusts, namely, flour, hardwood, softwood, natural textile, synthetic textile, and leather, and two generic (any types) groups: wood and textile dusts. Risk was predicted with unconditional regression modeling, adjusted by age, gender, study center, and education. Results We observed a 2.1-fold increase in risk of follicular lymphoma associated with ever exposure to leather dust [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-4.20]. After excluding subjects who ever worked in a farm or had ever been exposed to solvents, risk of B-cell lymphoma was elevated in relation to ever exposure to leather dust [odd ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% CI 1.00-4.78], but it was not supported by increasing trends with the exposure metrics. Risk of Hodgkin lymphoma was elevated (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.95-4.30) for exposure to textile dust, with consistent upward trends by cumulative exposure and three independent exposure metrics combined (P=0.023, and P=0.0068, respectively). Conclusions Future, larger studies might provide further insights into the nature of the association we observed between exposure to textile dust and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339208

RESUMO

In the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, the combination of job demands, job control, and social support was hypothesized to lead to eight different constellations of job types. According to the model, these constellations are linked to wellbeing/health and learning outcomes. In the last three decades, these constellations of job types have been investigated by adopting a variable-centered perspective. However, latent profile analyses (LPA) enable a person-centered approach and empirically capture constellations of job types. In the present study, we used LPA to empirically identify distinct profiles of JDCS among Italian healthcare workers. Furthermore, we investigated the role of social stressors (workplace relationships and coworkers' incivility) as antecedents of these profiles and the association of these profiles with job burnout and work motivation. Results from LPA (n = 1671) revealed four profiles: Isolated Prisoner, Participatory Leader, Moderate Strain, and Low Strain. Negative relationships at work and coworkers' incivility increased the chances of being included in both Isolated prisoner and Participatory Leader profiles. Finally, the Isolated Prisoner and Moderate Strain profiles showed the highest levels of emotional exhaustion and cynicism and the lower levels of intrinsic work motivation. This study extends previous JDCS research, highlighting that researchers should consider empirically identified profiles rather than theoretically defined subgroups. Implications for stress theory, future research, and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Satisfação no Emprego , Motivação , Humanos , Itália , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 605688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343579

RESUMO

Aim: SARS-CoV-2 infection is a world-wide public health problem. Several aspects of its pathogenesis and the related clinical consequences still need elucidation. In Italy, Sardinia has had very low numbers of infections. Taking advantage of the low genetic polymorphism in the Sardinian population, we analyzed clinical, genetic and immunogenetic factors, with particular attention to HLA class I and II molecules, to evaluate their influence on susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the clinical outcome. Method and Materials: We recruited 619 healthy Sardinian controls and 182 SARS-CoV-2 patients. Thirty-nine patients required hospital care and 143 were without symptoms, pauci-symptomatic or with mild disease. For all participants, we collected demographic and clinical data and analyzed the HLA allele and haplotype frequencies. Results: Male sex and older age were more frequent in hospitalized patients, none of whom had been vaccinated during the previous seasonal flu vaccination campaignes. Compared to the group of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic patients, hospitalized patients also had a higher frequency of autoimmune diseases and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PDH) deficiency. None of these patients carried the beta-thalassemia trait, a relatively common finding in the Sardinian population. The extended haplotype HLA-A*02:05, B*58:01, C*07:01, DRB1*03:01 [OR 0.1 (95% CI 0-0.6), Pc = 0.015] was absent in all 182 patients, while the HLA-C*04:01 allele and the three-loci haplotype HLA-A*30:02, B*14:02, C*08:02 [OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.8-8.1), Pc = 0.025] were more frequently represented in patients than controls. In a comparison between in-patients and home care patients, the HLA-DRB1*08:01 allele was exclusively present in the hospitalized patients [OR > 2.5 (95% CI 2.7-220.6), Pc = 0.024]. Conclusion: The data emerging from our study suggest that the extended haplotype HLA-A*02:05, B*58:01, C*07:01, DRB1*03:01 has a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Sardinian population. Genetic factors that resulted to have a negative influence on the disease course were presence of the HLA-DRB1*08:01 allele and G6PDH deficiency, but not the beta-thalassemic trait. Absence of influenza vaccination could be a predisposing factor for more severe disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenética , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e037163, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the time trend and geographical distribution of childhood leukaemia incidence over the territory of the Italian region of Sardinia. SETTING: All hospitals departments, diagnostic centres and social security agencies in Sardinia were regularly screened in 1974-2003 to identify, register and review the diagnoses of incident cases of haematological malignancies (HM). PARTICIPANTS: The whole child population aged 0-14 resident in Sardinia. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and time trend of childhood HM and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) over the study period, and use of Bayesian methods to plot the probability of areas with excess incidence on the regional map. RESULTS: Overall, 675 HM cases, including 378 ALL cases, occurred among children aged 0-14 years resident in Sardinia in 1974-2003, with an incidence rate of 6.97×10-5 (95% CI 6.47 to 7.51) and 3.85×10-5 (95% CI 3.48 to 4.26), respectively. Incidence of HM and ALL showed an upward trend along the study period especially among females. Three communes out of the 356 existing in 1974, namely Ittiri, Villa San Pietro and Carbonia, stand out as areas with excess incidence of HM and ALL in particular and another, Carloforte, for ALL only. CONCLUSIONS: Our results might serve as convincing arguments for extending the coverage of routine cancer registration over the whole Sardinian population, while prompting further research on the genetic and environmental determinants in the areas at risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878025

RESUMO

In these days of 2020, tests for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, and their use in the context of health surveillance of workers, are becoming popular. Nevertheless, their sensitivity and specificity could vary on the basis of the type of test used and on the moment of infection of the subject tested. The aim of this viewpoint paper is to make employers, workers, occupational physicians, and public health specialists think about the limits of diagnostic tests currently available, and the possible implication related to the erroneous and incautious assignment of "immunity passports" or "risk-free certificates" to workers during screening campaigns in workplaces.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Local de Trabalho
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