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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4670, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945220

RESUMO

Characterising associations between the methylome, proteome and phenome may provide insight into biological pathways governing brain health. Here, we report an integrated DNA methylation and phenotypic study of the circulating proteome in relation to brain health. Methylome-wide association studies of 4058 plasma proteins are performed (N = 774), identifying 2928 CpG-protein associations after adjustment for multiple testing. These are independent of known genetic protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) and common lifestyle effects. Phenome-wide association studies of each protein are then performed in relation to 15 neurological traits (N = 1,065), identifying 405 associations between the levels of 191 proteins and cognitive scores, brain imaging measures or APOE e4 status. We uncover 35 previously unreported DNA methylation signatures for 17 protein markers of brain health. The epigenetic and proteomic markers we identify are pertinent to understanding and stratifying brain health.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705636

RESUMO

Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and often leads to premature aging; however, the mechanisms of alcohol-associated cellular aging are not well understood. In this study, we used DNA methylation derived telomere length (DNAmTL) as a novel approach to investigate the role of alcohol use on the aging process. DNAmTL was estimated by 140 cytosine phosphate guanines (CpG) sites in 372 individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 243 healthy controls (HC) and assessed using various endophenotypes and clinical biomarkers. Validation in an independent sample of DNAmTL on alcohol consumption was performed (N = 4219). Exploratory genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on DNAmTL were also performed to identify genetic variants contributing to DNAmTL shortening. Top GWAS findings were analyzed using in-silico expression quantitative trait loci analyses and related to structural MRI hippocampus volumes of individuals with AUD. DNAmTL was 0.11-kilobases shorter per year in AUD compared to HC after adjustment for age, sex, race, and blood cell composition (p = 4.0 × 10-12). This association was partially attenuated but remained significant after additionally adjusting for BMI, and smoking status (0.06 kilobases shorter per year, p = 0.002). DNAmTL shortening was strongly associated with chronic heavy alcohol use (ps < 0.001), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (ps < 0.004). Comparison of DNAmTL with PCR-based methods of assessing TL revealed positive correlations (R = 0.3, p = 2.2 × 10-5), highlighting the accuracy of DNAmTL as a biomarker. The GWAS meta-analysis identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4374022 and 18 imputed ones in Thymocyte Expressed, Positive Selection Associated 1(TESPA1), at the genome-wide level (p = 3.75 × 10-8). The allele C of rs4374022 was associated with DNAmTL shortening, lower hippocampus volume (p < 0.01), and decreased mRNA expression in hippocampus tissue (p = 0.04). Our study demonstrates DNAmTL-related aging acceleration in AUD and suggests a functional role for TESPA1 in regulating DNAmTL length, possibly via the immune system with subsequent biological effects on brain regions negatively affected by alcohol and implicated in aging.

3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 580, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697829

RESUMO

Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can progress to kidney failure. Risk factors include genetics and diabetes mellitus (DM), but little is known about their interaction. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses for estimated GFR based on serum creatinine (eGFR), separately for individuals with or without DM (nDM = 178,691, nnoDM = 1,296,113). Our genome-wide searches identified (i) seven eGFR loci with significant DM/noDM-difference, (ii) four additional novel loci with suggestive difference and (iii) 28 further novel loci (including CUBN) by allowing for potential difference. GWAS on eGFR among DM individuals identified 2 known and 27 potentially responsible loci for diabetic kidney disease. Gene prioritization highlighted 18 genes that may inform reno-protective drug development. We highlight the existence of DM-only and noDM-only effects, which can inform about the target group, if respective genes are advanced as drug targets. Largely shared effects suggest that most drug interventions to alter eGFR should be effective in DM and noDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Creatinina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Rim
4.
Circulation ; 146(3): 240-248, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Whether deprivation status should be incorporated in more cardiovascular risk estimation scores remains unclear. This study evaluates how socioeconomic deprivation status affects the performance of 3 primary prevention cardiovascular risk scores. METHODS: The Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study was used to evaluate the performance of 3 cardiovascular risk scores with (ASSIGN [Assessing cardiovascular risk using SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) guidelines to ASSIGN preventive treatment]) and without (SCORE2 [Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation 2 algorithm], Pooled Cohort Equations) socioeconomic deprivation as a covariate in the risk prediction model. Deprivation was defined by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation score. The predicted 10-year risk was evaluated against the observed event rate for the cardiovascular outcome of each risk score. The comparison was made across 3 groups defined by the deprivation index score consisting of group 1 defined as most deprived, group 3 defined as least deprived, and group 2, which consisted of individuals in the middle deprivation categories. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 15 506 individuals (60.0% female, median age of 51). Across the population, 1808 (12%) individuals were assigned to group 1 (most deprived), 8119 (52%) to group 2, and 4708 (30%) to group 3 (least deprived), and 871 (6%) individuals had a missing deprivation score. Risk scores based on models that did not include deprivation status significantly under predicted risk in the most deprived (6.43% observed versus 4.63% predicted for SCORE2 [P=0.001] and 6.69% observed versus 4.66% predicted for Pooled Cohort Equations [P<0.001]). Both risk scores also significantly overpredicted the risk in the least deprived group (3.97% observed versus 4.72% predicted for SCORE2 [P=0.007] and 4.22% observed versus 4.85% predicted for Pooled Cohort Equations [P=0.028]). In contrast, no significant difference was demonstrated in the observed versus predicted risk when using the ASSIGN risk score, which included socioeconomic deprivation status in the risk model. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status is a largely unrecognized risk factor in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Risk scores that exclude socioeconomic deprivation as a covariate under- and overestimate the risk in the most and least deprived individuals, respectively. This study highlights the importance of incorporating socioeconomic deprivation status in risk estimation systems to ultimately reduce inequalities in health care provision for cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
EBioMedicine ; 79: 104000, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with time-varying environmental factors that contribute to major depressive disorder (MDD) risk. We sought to test whether DNAm signatures of lifestyle and biochemical factors were associated with MDD to reveal dynamic biomarkers of MDD risk that may be amenable to lifestyle interventions. METHODS: Here, we calculated methylation scores (MS) at multiple p-value thresholds for lifestyle (BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, and educational attainment) and biochemical (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol) factors in Generation Scotland (GS) (N=9,502) and in a replication cohort (ALSPACadults, N=565), using CpG sites reported in previous well-powered methylome-wide association studies. We also compared their predictive accuracy for MDD to a MDD MS in an independent GS sub-sample (N=4,432). FINDINGS: Each trait MS was significantly associated with its corresponding phenotype in GS (ßrange=0.089-1.457) and in ALSPAC (ßrange=0.078-2.533). Each MS was also significantly associated with MDD before and after adjustment for its corresponding phenotype in GS (ßrange=0.053-0.145). After accounting for relevant lifestyle factors, MS for educational attainment (ß=0.094) and alcohol consumption (MSp-value<0.01-0.5; ßrange=-0.069-0.083) remained significantly associated with MDD in GS. Smoking (AUC=0.569) and educational attainment (AUC=0.585) MSs could discriminate MDD from controls better than the MDD MS (AUC=0.553) in the independent GS sub-sample. Analyses implicating MDD did not replicate across ALSPAC, although the direction of effect was consistent for all traits when adjusting for the MS corresponding phenotypes. INTERPRETATION: We showed that lifestyle and biochemical MS were associated with MDD before and after adjustment for their corresponding phenotypes (pnominal<0.05), but not when smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI were also included as covariates. MDD results did not replicate in the smaller, female-only independent ALSPAC cohort (NALSPAC=565; NGS=9,502), potentially due to demographic differences or low statistical power, but effect sizes were consistent with the direction reported in GS. DNAm scores for modifiable MDD risk factors may contribute to disease vulnerability and, in some cases, explain additional variance to their observed phenotypes. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Herança Multifatorial , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
6.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 51, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein truncating variants in ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2 are associated with increased breast cancer risk, but risks associated with missense variants in these genes are uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data on 59,639 breast cancer cases and 53,165 controls from studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium BRIDGES project. We sampled training (80%) and validation (20%) sets to analyze rare missense variants in ATM (1146 training variants), BRCA1 (644), BRCA2 (1425), CHEK2 (325), and PALB2 (472). We evaluated breast cancer risks according to five in silico prediction-of-deleteriousness algorithms, functional protein domain, and frequency, using logistic regression models and also mixture models in which a subset of variants was assumed to be risk-associated. RESULTS: The most predictive in silico algorithms were Helix (BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2) and CADD (ATM). Increased risks appeared restricted to functional protein domains for ATM (FAT and PIK domains) and BRCA1 (RING and BRCT domains). For ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2, data were compatible with small subsets (approximately 7%, 2%, and 0.6%, respectively) of rare missense variants giving similar risk to those of protein truncating variants in the same gene. For CHEK2, data were more consistent with a large fraction (approximately 60%) of rare missense variants giving a lower risk (OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.47-2.08)) than CHEK2 protein truncating variants. There was little evidence for an association with risk for missense variants in PALB2. The best fitting models were well calibrated in the validation set. CONCLUSIONS: These results will inform risk prediction models and the selection of candidate variants for functional assays and could contribute to the clinical reporting of gene panel testing for breast cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
7.
Nat Genet ; 54(5): 581-592, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534559

RESUMO

Estimates from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of unrelated individuals capture effects of inherited variation (direct effects), demography (population stratification, assortative mating) and relatives (indirect genetic effects). Family-based GWAS designs can control for demographic and indirect genetic effects, but large-scale family datasets have been lacking. We combined data from 178,086 siblings from 19 cohorts to generate population (between-family) and within-sibship (within-family) GWAS estimates for 25 phenotypes. Within-sibship GWAS estimates were smaller than population estimates for height, educational attainment, age at first birth, number of children, cognitive ability, depressive symptoms and smoking. Some differences were observed in downstream SNP heritability, genetic correlations and Mendelian randomization analyses. For example, the within-sibship genetic correlation between educational attainment and body mass index attenuated towards zero. In contrast, analyses of most molecular phenotypes (for example, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) were generally consistent. We also found within-sibship evidence of polygenic adaptation on taller height. Here, we illustrate the importance of family-based GWAS data for phenotypes influenced by demographic and indirect genetic effects.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
8.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 14(1): e12280, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475137

RESUMO

Introduction: The levels of many blood proteins are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or its pathological hallmarks. Elucidating the molecular factors that control circulating levels of these proteins may help to identify proteins associated with disease risk mechanisms. Methods: Genome-wide and epigenome-wide studies (nindividuals ≤1064) were performed on plasma levels of 282 AD-associated proteins, identified by a structured literature review. Bayesian penalized regression estimated contributions of genetic and epigenetic variation toward inter-individual differences in plasma protein levels. Mendelian randomization (MR) and co-localization tested associations between proteins and disease-related phenotypes. Results: Sixty-four independent genetic and 26 epigenetic loci were associated with 45 proteins. Novel findings included an association between plasma triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) levels and a polymorphism and cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site within the MS4A4A locus. Higher plasma tubulin-specific chaperone A (TBCA) and TREM2 levels were significantly associated with lower AD risk. Discussion: Our data inform the regulation of biomarker levels and their relationships with AD.

9.
Nat Genet ; 54(4): 437-449, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361970

RESUMO

We conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment (EA) in a sample of ~3 million individuals and identify 3,952 approximately uncorrelated genome-wide-significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A genome-wide polygenic predictor, or polygenic index (PGI), explains 12-16% of EA variance and contributes to risk prediction for ten diseases. Direct effects (i.e., controlling for parental PGIs) explain roughly half the PGI's magnitude of association with EA and other phenotypes. The correlation between mate-pair PGIs is far too large to be consistent with phenotypic assortment alone, implying additional assortment on PGI-associated factors. In an additional GWAS of dominance deviations from the additive model, we identify no genome-wide-significant SNPs, and a separate X-chromosome additive GWAS identifies 57.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(3): 511-529, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uromodulin, the most abundant protein excreted in normal urine, plays major roles in kidney physiology and disease. The mechanisms regulating the urinary excretion of uromodulin remain essentially unknown. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for raw (uUMOD) and indexed to creatinine (uUCR) urinary levels of uromodulin in 29,315 individuals of European ancestry from 13 cohorts. We tested the distribution of candidate genes in kidney segments and investigated the effects of keratin-40 (KRT40) on uromodulin processing. RESULTS: Two genome-wide significant signals were identified for uUMOD: a novel locus (P 1.24E-08) over the KRT40 gene coding for KRT40, a type 1 keratin expressed in the kidney, and the UMOD-PDILT locus (P 2.17E-88), with two independent sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms spread over UMOD and PDILT. Two genome-wide significant signals for uUCR were identified at the UMOD-PDILT locus and at the novel WDR72 locus previously associated with kidney function. The effect sizes for rs8067385, the index single nucleotide polymorphism in the KRT40 locus, were similar for both uUMOD and uUCR. KRT40 colocalized with uromodulin and modulating its expression in thick ascending limb (TAL) cells affected uromodulin processing and excretion. CONCLUSIONS: Common variants in KRT40, WDR72, UMOD, and PDILT associate with the levels of uromodulin in urine. The expression of KRT40 affects uromodulin processing in TAL cells. These results, although limited by lack of replication, provide insights into the biology of uromodulin, the role of keratins in the kidney, and the influence of the UMOD-PDILT locus on kidney function.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Rim , Creatinina , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/genética , Uromodulina/genética
12.
Elife ; 112022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023833

RESUMO

Protein biomarkers have been identified across many age-related morbidities. However, characterising epigenetic influences could further inform disease predictions. Here, we leverage epigenome-wide data to study links between the DNA methylation (DNAm) signatures of the circulating proteome and incident diseases. Using data from four cohorts, we trained and tested epigenetic scores (EpiScores) for 953 plasma proteins, identifying 109 scores that explained between 1% and 58% of the variance in protein levels after adjusting for known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) genetic effects. By projecting these EpiScores into an independent sample (Generation Scotland; n = 9537) and relating them to incident morbidities over a follow-up of 14 years, we uncovered 137 EpiScore-disease associations. These associations were largely independent of immune cell proportions, common lifestyle and health factors, and biological aging. Notably, we found that our diabetes-associated EpiScores highlighted previous top biomarker associations from proteome-wide assessments of diabetes. These EpiScores for protein levels can therefore be a valuable resource for disease prediction and risk stratification.


Although our genetic code does not change throughout our lives, our genes can be turned on and off as a result of epigenetics. Epigenetics can track how the environment and even certain behaviors add or remove small chemical markers to the DNA that makes up the genome. The type and location of these markers may affect whether genes are active or silent, this is, whether the protein coded for by that gene is being produced or not. One common epigenetic marker is known as DNA methylation. DNA methylation has been linked to the levels of a range of proteins in our cells and the risk people have of developing chronic diseases. Blood samples can be used to determine the epigenetic markers a person has on their genome and to study the abundance of many proteins. Gadd, Hillary, McCartney, Zaghlool et al. studied the relationships between DNA methylation and the abundance of 953 different proteins in blood samples from individuals in the German KORA cohort and the Scottish Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They then used machine learning to analyze the relationship between epigenetic markers found in people's blood and the abundance of proteins, obtaining epigenetic scores or 'EpiScores' for each protein. They found 109 proteins for which DNA methylation patterns explained between at least 1% and up to 58% of the variation in protein levels. Integrating the 'EpiScores' with 14 years of medical records for more than 9000 individuals from the Generation Scotland study revealed 137 connections between EpiScores for proteins and a future diagnosis of common adverse health outcomes. These included diabetes, stroke, depression, Alzheimer's dementia, various cancers, and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Age-related chronic diseases are a growing issue worldwide and place pressure on healthcare systems. They also severely reduce quality of life for individuals over many years. This work shows how epigenetic scores based on protein levels in the blood could predict a person's risk of several of these diseases. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the EpiScore results replicated previous research linking protein levels in the blood to future diagnosis of diabetes. Protein EpiScores could therefore allow researchers to identify people with the highest risk of disease, making it possible to intervene early and prevent these people from developing chronic conditions as they age.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Epigenômica/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Proteoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(3): e216744, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084436

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Rare germline genetic variants in several genes are associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk, but their precise contributions to different disease subtypes are unclear. This information is relevant to guidelines for gene panel testing and risk prediction. OBJECTIVE: To characterize tumors associated with BC susceptibility genes in large-scale population- or hospital-based studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The multicenter, international case-control analysis of the BRIDGES study included 42 680 patients and 46 387 control participants, comprising women aged 18 to 79 years who were sampled independently of family history from 38 studies. Studies were conducted between 1991 and 2016. Sequencing and analysis took place between 2016 and 2021. EXPOSURES: Protein-truncating variants and likely pathogenic missense variants in ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The intrinsic-like BC subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and ERBB2 (formerly known as HER2) status, and tumor grade; morphology; size; stage; lymph node involvement; subtype-specific odds ratios (ORs) for carrying protein-truncating variants and pathogenic missense variants in the 9 BC susceptibility genes. RESULTS: The mean (SD) ages at interview (control participants) and diagnosis (cases) were 55.1 (11.9) and 55.8 (10.6) years, respectively; all participants were of European or East Asian ethnicity. There was substantial heterogeneity in the distribution of intrinsic subtypes by gene. RAD51C, RAD51D, and BARD1 variants were associated mainly with triple-negative disease (OR, 6.19 [95% CI, 3.17-12.12]; OR, 6.19 [95% CI, 2.99-12.79]; and OR, 10.05 [95% CI, 5.27-19.19], respectively). CHEK2 variants were associated with all subtypes (with ORs ranging from 2.21-3.17) except for triple-negative disease. For ATM variants, the association was strongest for the hormone receptor (HR)+ERBB2- high-grade subtype (OR, 4.99; 95% CI, 3.68-6.76). BRCA1 was associated with increased risk of all subtypes, but the ORs varied widely, being highest for triple-negative disease (OR, 55.32; 95% CI, 40.51-75.55). BRCA2 and PALB2 variants were also associated with triple-negative disease. TP53 variants were most strongly associated with HR+ERBB2+ and HR-ERBB2+ subtypes. Tumors occurring in pathogenic variant carriers were of higher grade. For most genes and subtypes, a decline in ORs was observed with increasing age. Together, the 9 genes were associated with 27.3% of all triple-negative tumors in women 40 years or younger. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results of this case-control study suggest that variants in the 9 BC risk genes differ substantially in their associated pathology but are generally associated with triple-negative and/or high-grade disease. Knowing the age and tumor subtype distributions associated with individual BC genes can potentially aid guidelines for gene panel testing, risk prediction, and variant classification and guide targeted screening strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(4): 651-664, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523677

RESUMO

The environment and events that we are exposed to in utero, during birth and in early childhood influence our future physical and mental health. The underlying mechanisms that lead to these outcomes are unclear, but long-term changes in epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, could act as a mediating factor or biomarker. DNA methylation data were assayed at 713 522 CpG sites from 9537 participants of the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, a family-based cohort with extensive genetic, medical, family history and lifestyle information. Methylome-wide association studies of eight early life environment phenotypes and two adult mental health phenotypes (major depressive disorder and brief resilience scale) were conducted using DNA methylation data collected from adult whole blood samples. Two genes involved with different developmental pathways (PRICKLE2, Prickle Planar Cell Polarity Protein 2 and ABI1, Abl-Interactor-1) were annotated to CpG sites associated with preterm birth (P < 1.27 × 10-9). A further two genes important to the development of sensory pathways (SOBP, Sine Oculis Binding Protein Homolog and RPGRIP1, Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator Interacting Protein) were annotated to sites associated with low birth weight (P < 4.35 × 10-8). The examination of methylation profile scores and genes and gene-sets annotated from associated CpGs sites found no evidence of overlap between the early life environment and mental health conditions. Birth date was associated with a significant difference in estimated lymphocyte and neutrophil counts. Previous studies have shown that early life environments influence the risk of developing mental health disorders later in life; however, this study found no evidence that this is mediated by stable changes to the methylome detectable in peripheral blood.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Nascimento Prematuro , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Mental , Gravidez
16.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(2): 297-308, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535985

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies have largely relied on small sample sizes and have assessed quantitative traits. We performed a case-control GWAS in the UK Biobank using recorded diagnosis of NAFLD based on diagnostic codes recommended in recent consensus guidelines. We performed a GWAS of 4,761 cases of NAFLD and 373,227 healthy controls without evidence of NAFLD. Sensitivity analyses were performed excluding other co-existing hepatic pathology, adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and adjusting for alcohol intake. A total of 9,723,654 variants were assessed by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, genetic principal components, and genotyping batch. We performed a GWAS meta-analysis using available summary association statistics. Six risk loci were identified (P < 5*10-8 ) (apolipoprotein E [APOE], patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 [PNPLA3, transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 [TM6SF2], glucokinase regulator [GCKR], mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 [MARC1], and tribbles pseudokinase 1 [TRIB1]). All loci retained significance in sensitivity analyses without co-existent hepatic pathology and after adjustment for BMI. PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 remained significant after adjustment for alcohol (alcohol intake was known in only 158,388 individuals), with others demonstrating consistent direction and magnitude of effect. All six loci were significant on meta-analysis. Rs429358 (P = 2.17*10-11 ) is a missense variant within the APOE gene determining ϵ4 versus ϵ2/ϵ3 alleles. The ϵ4 allele of APOE offered protection against NAFLD (odds ratio for heterozygotes 0.84 [95% confidence interval 0.78-0.90] and homozygotes 0.64 [0.50-0.79]). Conclusion: This GWAS replicates six known NAFLD-susceptibility loci and confirms that the ϵ4 allele of APOE is associated with protection against NAFLD. The results are consistent with published GWAS using histological and radiological measures of NAFLD, confirming that NAFLD identified through diagnostic codes from consensus guidelines is a valid alternative to more invasive and costly approaches.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Aciltransferases/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Códon sem Sentido , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fosfolipases A2 Independentes de Cálcio/genética , /genética
17.
Hepatology ; 75(5): 1081-1094, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci for gallstone disease. As with most polygenic traits, it is likely that many genetic determinants are undiscovered. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants that represent new targets for gallstone research and treatment. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed a GWAS of 28,627 gallstone cases and 348,373 controls in the UK Biobank, replicated findings in a Scottish cohort (1089 cases, 5228 controls), and conducted a GWA meta-analysis (43,639 cases, 506,798 controls) with the FinnGen cohort. We assessed pathway enrichment using gene-based then gene-set analysis and tissue expression of identified genes in Genotype-Tissue Expression project data. We constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) and evaluated phenotypic traits associated with the score. Seventy-five risk loci were identified (p < 5 × 10-8 ), of which 46 were new. Pathway enrichment revealed associations with lipid homeostasis, glucuronidation, phospholipid metabolism, and gastrointestinal motility. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) and transmembrane Protein 147 (TMEM147), both in novel, replicated loci, are expressed in the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract. Both regulate gastrointestinal motility. The gallstone risk allele rs7599-A leads to suppression of hepatic TMEM147 expression, suggesting that the protein protects against gallstone formation. The highest decile of the PRS demonstrated a 6-fold increased odds of gallstones compared with the lowest decile. The PRS was strongly associated with increased body mass index, serum liver enzymes, and C-reactive protein concentrations, and decreased lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This GWAS demonstrates the polygenic nature of gallstone risk and identifies 46 novel susceptibility loci. We implicate genes influencing gastrointestinal motility in the pathogenesis of gallstones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cálculos Biliares/genética , Cálculos Biliares/metabolismo , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(2): 1111-1119, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782712

RESUMO

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) often is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide interaction of MDD and cognitive function using data from four large European cohorts in a total of 3510 MDD cases and 6057 controls. In addition, we conducted analyses using polygenic risk scores (PRS) based on data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) on the traits of MDD, Bipolar disorder (BD), Schizophrenia (SCZ), and mood instability (MIN). Functional exploration contained gene expression analyses and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA®). We identified a set of significantly interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between MDD and the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cognitive domains of executive function, processing speed, and global cognition. Several of these SNPs are located in genes expressed in brain, with important roles such as neuronal development (REST), oligodendrocyte maturation (TNFRSF21), and myelination (ARFGEF1). IPA® identified a set of core genes from our dataset that mapped to a wide range of canonical pathways and biological functions (MPO, FOXO1, PDE3A, TSLP, NLRP9, ADAMTS5, ROBO1, REST). Furthermore, IPA® identified upstream regulator molecules and causal networks impacting on the expression of dataset genes, providing a genetic basis for further clinical exploration (vitamin D receptor, beta-estradiol, tadalafil). PRS of MIN and meta-PRS of MDD, MIN and SCZ were significantly associated with all cognitive domains. Our results suggest several genes involved in physiological processes for the development and maintenance of cognition in MDD, as well as potential novel therapeutic agents that could be explored in patients with MDD associated cognitive dysfunction.

19.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 26, 2022 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood-based markers of cognitive functioning might provide an accessible way to track neurodegeneration years prior to clinical manifestation of cognitive impairment and dementia. RESULTS: Using blood-based epigenome-wide analyses of general cognitive function, we show that individual differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) explain 35.0% of the variance in general cognitive function (g). A DNAm predictor explains ~4% of the variance, independently of a polygenic score, in two external cohorts. It also associates with circulating levels of neurology- and inflammation-related proteins, global brain imaging metrics, and regional cortical volumes. CONCLUSIONS: As sample sizes increase, the ability to assess cognitive function from DNAm data may be informative in settings where cognitive testing is unreliable or unavailable.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Cognição , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos
20.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103730, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: parent-of-origin effects (POE) play important roles in complex disease and thus understanding their regulation and associated molecular and phenotypic variation are warranted. Previous studies mainly focused on the detection of genomic regions or phenotypes regulated by POE. Understanding whether POE may be modified by environmental or genetic exposures is important for understanding of the source of POE-associated variation, but only a few case studies addressing modifiable POE exist. METHODS: in order to understand this high order of POE regulation, we screened 101 genetic and environmental factors such as 'predicted mRNA expression levels' of DNA methylation/imprinting machinery genes and environmental exposures. POE-mQTL-modifier interaction models were proposed to test the potential of these factors to modify POE at DNA methylation using data from Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health Study(N=2315). FINDINGS: a set of vulnerable/modifiable POE-CpGs were identified (modifiable-POE-regulated CpGs, N=3). Four factors, 'lifetime smoking status' and 'predicted mRNA expression levels' of TET2, SIRT1 and KDM1A, were found to significantly modify the POE on the three CpGs in both discovery and replication datasets. We further identified plasma protein and health-related phenotypes associated with the methylation level of one of the identified CpGs. INTERPRETATION: the modifiable POE identified here revealed an important yet indirect path through which genetic background and environmental exposures introduce their effect on DNA methylation, motivating future comprehensive evaluation of the role of these modifiers in complex diseases. FUNDING: NSFC (81971270),H2020-MSCA-ITN(721815), Wellcome (204979/Z/16/Z,104036/Z/14/Z), MRC (MC_UU_00007/10, MC_PC_U127592696), CSO (CZD/16/6,CZB/4/276, CZB/4/710), SFC (HR03006), EUROSPAN (LSHG-CT-2006-018947), BBSRC (BBS/E/D/30002276), SYSU, Arthritis Research UK, NHLBI, NIH.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dioxigenases/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Sirtuína 1/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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