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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794402

RESUMO

Metal nanoparticles deposited on oxide supports are essential to many technologies, including catalysts, fuel cells, and electronics. Therefore, understanding the chemical bonding strength between metal nanoparticles and oxide surfaces is of great interest. The adsorption energetics, adhesion energy, and adsorbate structure of Ag on dehydrated HCa2Nb3O10(001) nanosheets at 300 K have been studied using metal adsorption calorimetry and surface spectroscopies. These dehydrated ("dh") calcium niobate nanosheets (dh-HCa2Nb3O10(001)) have the stoichiometry Ca4Nb6O19. They impart unusual stability to metal nanoparticles when used as catalyst supports and are easy-to-prepare by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques, highly ordered, and essentially single-crystal surfaces of mixed oxides with a huge ratio of terrace to edge sites. Below the monolayer coverage, Ag grows on dh-HCa2Nb3O10(001) as 2D islands of thickness ∼2 layers. The differential heat of Ag adsorption is initially ∼303 kJ/mol, increasing slowly to ∼338 kJ/mol by 0.8 ML. At higher coverages, Ag atoms mainly add on top of these 2D islands, growing 3D nanoparticles of increasing thickness, as the heat decreases asymptotically toward silver's heat of sublimation (285 kJ/mol). The adhesion energy of Ag(s) to this Ca niobate surface is estimated to be 4.33 J/m2, larger than that on any oxide surface previously measured. This explains the sinter resistance reported for metal nanoparticles on this support. Electron transfer from Ag into the calcium niobate is also measured. These results demonstrate an easy way to do single-crystal-type surface science studies-and especially thermochemical measurements-on the complex surfaces of mixed oxides: using LB-deposited perovskite nanosheets and ultrahigh-vacuum annealing in O2.

2.
J Chem Phys ; 152(14): 140401, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295369
3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(21): 6916-6920, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861588

RESUMO

The post-transition-state dynamics in CO oxidation on Pt surfaces are investigated using DFT-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. While the initial CO2 formed on a terrace site on Pt(111) desorbs directly, it is temporarily trapped in a chemisorption well on a Pt(332) step site. These two reaction channels thus produce CO2 with hyperthermal and thermal velocities with drastically different angular distributions, in agreement with recent experiments (Nature, 2018, 558, 280-283). The chemisorbed CO2 is formed by electron transfer from the metal to the adsorbate, resulting in a bent geometry. While chemisorbed CO2 on Pt(111) is unstable, it is stable by 0.2 eV on a Pt(332) step site. This helps explain why newly formed CO2 produced at step sites desorbs with far lower translational energies than those formed at terraces. This work shows that steps and other defects could be potentially important in finding optimal conditions for the chemical activation and dissociation of CO2 .

4.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(4): 984-993, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879291

RESUMO

Better catalysts and electrocatalysts are essential for the production and use of clean fuels with less pollution and improved energy efficiency, for making chemicals with less energy and environmental impact, for pollution abatement, and for many other future technologies needed to achieve environmentally friendlier energy supply and chemicals industry. Crucial for rational design of better catalyst and electrocatalyst materials is knowledge of the energies of elementary chemical reactions on late transition metal surfaces. This knowledge would also aid in designing more efficient and stable photocatalysts and batteries for harvesting and storing solar energy. These are all crucial for sustainable living with high quality. Herein, I review measurements of surface reaction energies involving many of the most common adsorbates formed as intermediates on late transition metal surfaces in catalytic and electrocatalytic reactions of interest for energy and environmental technologies. I focus on calorimetric measurements of the heat of molecular and dissociative adsorption of gases on single crystals (i.e., single crystal adsorption calorimetry, or SCAC) that allow the heats of formation of adsorbed intermediates in well-defined structures to be directly determined. Adsorption reactions are often irreversible, and in such cases SCAC is required to get these heats, since the other methods for measuring adsorption energies (equilibrium adsorption isotherms and temperature-programmed desorption) work only for reversible adsorption. Common examples of irreversible adsorption reactions are ones that produce adsorbed molecular fragments or adsorbed molecules such as olefins and aromatic molecules that bind very strongly to non-noble metals. When the heats of formation of different adsorbed molecular fragments are compared to each other, and to their values on different metal surfaces, they reveal which properties of the metal surface and the molecular fragments determine metal-adsorbate bond strengths, and clarify differences in catalytic reactivity between different metals. When combined with earlier adsorption energy measurements, these heats also provide a database of reliable energies of adsorbed catalytic intermediates that serve as crucial benchmarks to guide the development of improved computational methods for calculating the energetics of elementary steps on late transition metal surfaces (i.e., reaction energies and activation barriers), such as density functional theory. The energy accuracy of such computational estimates is crucial for the future of catalysis research and catalyst discovery.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(51): 16877-16881, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353634

RESUMO

Understanding what controls the strength of bonding of adsorbed intermediates to transition-metal surfaces is of central importance in many technologies, especially catalysis and electrocatalysis. Our recently measured bond enthalpies of -OH, -OCH3 , -O(O)CH and -CH3 to Pt(111) and Ni(111) surfaces are fit well (standard deviation of 7.2 kJ mol-1 ) by a predictive equation involving only known parameters (gas-phase ligand-hydrogen bond enthalpies, bond enthalpies of adsorbed H atoms to that surface, electronegativities of the elements, and group electronegativities of the ligands). This equation is based upon Pauling's equation, with improvements introduced by Matcha, derived here following manipulations of Matcha's equation similar to (but going beyond) those introduced by Schock and Marks to explain ligand-metal bond enthalpy trends in organometallic complexes.

6.
Nature ; 558(7709): 280-283, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899477

RESUMO

Catalysts are widely used to increase reaction rates. They function by stabilizing the transition state of the reaction at their active site, where the atomic arrangement ensures favourable interactions 1 . However, mechanistic understanding is often limited when catalysts possess multiple active sites-such as sites associated with either the step edges or the close-packed terraces of inorganic nanoparticles2-4-with distinct activities that cannot be measured simultaneously. An example is the oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum surfaces, one of the oldest and best studied heterogeneous reactions. In 1824, this reaction was recognized to be crucial for the function of the Davy safety lamp, and today it is used to optimize combustion, hydrogen production and fuel-cell operation5,6. The carbon dioxide products are formed in a bimodal kinetic energy distribution7-13; however, despite extensive study 5 , it remains unclear whether this reflects the involvement of more than one reaction mechanism occurring at multiple active sites12,13. Here we show that the reaction rates at different active sites can be measured simultaneously, using molecular beams to controllably introduce reactants and slice ion imaging14,15 to map the velocity vectors of the product molecules, which reflect the symmetry and the orientation of the active site 16 . We use this velocity-resolved kinetics approach to map the oxidation rates of carbon monoxide at step edges and terrace sites on platinum surfaces, and find that the reaction proceeds through two distinct channels11-13: it is dominated at low temperatures by the more active step sites, and at high temperatures by the more abundant terrace sites. We expect our approach to be applicable to a wide range of heterogeneous reactions and to provide improved mechanistic understanding of the contribution of different active sites, which should be useful in the design of improved catalysts.

7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 47(12): 4314-4331, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745393

RESUMO

Catalyst sintering, a main cause of the loss of catalytic activity and/or selectivity at high reaction temperatures, is a major concern and grand challenge in the general area of heterogeneous catalysis. Although all heterogeneous catalysts are inevitably subjected to sintering during their operation, the immediate and drastic consequences can be mitigated by carefully engineering the catalytic particles and their interactions with the supports. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the physical chemistry and materials science involved in sintering, including the discussion of advanced techniques, such as in situ microscopy and spectroscopy, for investigating the sintering process and its rate. We also discuss strategies for the design and rational fabrication of sinter-resistant catalysts. Finally, we showcase recent success in improving the thermal stability and thus sinter resistance of supported catalytic systems.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(1): 328-338, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171955

RESUMO

We report measurements of adsorption isotherms and the determination of the isosteric heats of adsorption of several small gases (H2, D2, Ne, N2, CO, CH4, C2H6, Ar, Kr, and Xe) on the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000, which is one of the most thermally stable MOFs. It has transition-metal nodes of formula Zr6(µ3-OH)4(µ3-O)4(OH)4(OH2)4 that resemble hydrated ZrO2 clusters and can serve as catalysts or catalyst supports. The linkers in this MOF are pyrenes linked to the nodes via the carboxylate groups of benzoates. The broad range of adsorbates studied here allows us to compare trends both with adsorption on other surfaces and with density functional calculations also presented here. The experimental isotherms indicate similar filling of the MOF surface by the different gases, starting with strong adsorption sites near the Zr atoms, a result corroborated by the density functional calculations. This adsorption is followed by the filling of other adsorption sites on the nodes and organic framework. Capillary condensation occurs in wide pores after completion of a monolayer. The total amount adsorbed for all the gases is the equivalent of two complete monolayers. The experimental isosteric heats of adsorption are nearly proportional to the atom-atom (or molecule-molecule) Lennard-Jones well-depth parameters of the adsorbates but ∼13-fold larger. The density functional calculations show a similar trend but with much more scatter and heats that are usually greater (by 30%, on average).

11.
ACS Nano ; 11(2): 1196-1203, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045491

RESUMO

Nanoparticles on surfaces are ubiquitous in nanotechnologies, especially in catalysis, where metal nanoparticles anchored to oxide supports are widely used to produce and use fuels and chemicals, and in pollution abatement. We show that for hemispherical metal particles of the same diameter, D, the chemical potentials of the metal atoms in the particles (µM) differ between two supports by approximately -2(Eadh,A - Eadh,B)Vm/D, where Ead,i is the adhesion energy between the metal and support i, and Vm is the molar volume of the bulk metal. This is consistent with calorimetric measurements of metal vapor adsorption energies onto clean oxide surfaces where the metal grows as 3D particles, which proved that µM increases with decreasing particle size below 6 nm and, for a given size, decreases with Eadh. Since catalytic activity and sintering rates correlate with metal chemical potential, it is thus crucial to understand what properties of catalyst materials control metal/oxide adhesion energies. Trends in how Eadh varies with the metal and the support oxide are presented. For a given oxide, Eadh increases linearly from metal to metal with increasing heat of formation of the most stable oxide of the metal (per mole metal), or metal oxophilicity, suggesting that metal-oxygen bonds dominate interfacial bonding. For the two different stoichiometric oxide surfaces that have been studied on multiple metals (MgO(100) and CeO2(111), the slopes of these lines are the same, but their offset is large (∼2 J/m2). Adhesion energies increase as MgO(100) ≈ TiO2(110) < α-Al2O3(0001) < CeO2(111) ≈ Fe3O4(111).

12.
Faraday Discuss ; 188: 21-38, 2016 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27271786

RESUMO

Metal nanoparticles encapsulated within metal organic frameworks (MOFs) offer steric restrictions near the catalytic metal that can improve selectivity, much like in enzymes. A microkinetic model is developed for the regio-selective oxidation of n-butane to 1-butanol with O2 over a model for MOF-encapsulated bimetallic nanoparticles. The model consists of a Ag3Pd(111) surface decorated with a 2-atom-thick ring of (immobile) helium atoms which creates an artificial pore of similar size to that in common MOFs, which sterically constrains the adsorbed reaction intermediates. The kinetic parameters are based on energies calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The microkinetic model was analysed at 423 K to determine the dominant pathways and which species (adsorbed intermediates and transition states in the reaction mechanism) have energies that most sensitively affect the reaction rates to the different products, using degree-of-rate-control (DRC) analysis. This analysis revealed that activation of the C-H bond is assisted by adsorbed oxygen atoms, O*. Unfortunately, O* also abstracts H from adsorbed 1-butanol and butoxy as well, leading to butanal as the only significant product. This suggested to (1) add water to produce more OH*, thus inhibiting these undesired steps which produce OH*, and (2) eliminate most of the O2 pressure to reduce the O* coverage, thus also inhibiting these steps. Combined with increasing butane pressure, this dramatically improved the 1-butanol selectivity (from 0 to 95%) and the rate (to 2 molecules per site per s). Moreover, 40% less O2 was consumed per oxygen atom in the products. Under these conditions, a terminal H in butane is directly eliminated to the Pd site, and the resulting adsorbed butyl combines with OH* to give the desired 1-butanol. These results demonstrate that DRC analysis provides a powerful approach for optimizing catalytic process conditions, and that highly selectivity oxidation can sometimes be achieved by using a mixture of O2 and H2O as the oxidant. This was further demonstrated by DRC analysis of a second microkinetic model based on a related but hypothetical catalyst, where the activation energies for two of the steps were modified.

13.
Chem Rec ; 14(5): 759-74, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25155869

RESUMO

Single-crystal adsorption calorimetry (SCAC) measures the energetics of gas-surface interactions in a direct way and can be applied to a broad range of well-defined model surfaces. In this Personal Account we review some of the recent advances in understanding the interaction of gaseous molecules with single-crystal surfaces and well-defined supported metallic nanoparticles by this powerful technique. SCAC was applied on single-crystal surfaces to determine formation enthalpies of adsorbed molecular fragments typically formed during heterogeneously catalyzed reactions involving hydrocarbons. On supported metal nanoparticles, the binding energies of gaseous species were determined by SCAC as a function of the particle size. The reported data provide valuable information for ongoing research in many fields of heterogeneous catalysis and materials science. In addition, direct calorimetric measurements serve as benchmarks for the improvement of computational approaches to understanding surface chemistry.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(11): 4137-40, 2014 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24601613

RESUMO

The bond energy of molecular fragments to metal surfaces is of great fundamental importance, especially for understanding catalytic reactivity. Thus, the energies of adsorbed intermediates are routinely calculated to understand and even predict the activity of catalytic materials. By correlating our recent calorimetry measurements of the adiabatic bond dissociation enthalpies of three oxygen-bound molecular fragments [-OH, -OCH3, and -O(O)CH] to the Pt(111) surface, it is found that these RO-Pt(111) bond enthalpies vary linearly with the RO-H bond enthalpies in the corresponding gas-phase molecules (water, methanol, and formic acid), with a slope of 1.00. This parallels the known trend for organometallic complexes, thus highlighting the local character of chemical bonding, even on extended metal surfaces. This allows prediction of bond enthalpies for many other molecular fragments to metal surfaces, and the energetics of important catalytic reactions.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(10): 3964-71, 2014 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24512006

RESUMO

Carboxylates adsorbed on solid surfaces are important in many technological applications, ranging from heterogeneous catalysis and surface organo-functionalization to medical implants. We report here the first experimentally determined enthalpy of formation of any surface bound carboxylate on any surface, formate on Pt(111). This was accomplished by studying the dissociative adsorption of formic acid on oxygen-presaturated (O-sat) Pt(111) to make adsorbed monodentate and bidentate formates using single-crystal adsorption calorimetry. The integral heat of molecular adsorption of formic acid on clean Pt(111) at 100 K is 62.5 kJ/mol at 0.25 monolayer (ML). On O-sat Pt(111), the integral heat of the dissociative adsorption of formic acid to make monodentate formate (HCOOmon,ad) plus the water-hydroxyl complex ((H2O-OH)ad) was found to be 76 kJ/mol at 3/8 ML and 100-150 K. Similarly, its integral heat of dissociative adsorption to make bidentate formate (HCOObi,ad) plus (H2O-OH)ad was 106 kJ/mol at 3/8 ML and 150 K. These heats give the standard enthalpies of formation of adsorbed monodentate and bidentate formate on Pt(111) to be -354 ± 5 and -384 ± 5 kJ/mol, respectively, and their net bond enthalpies to the Pt(111) surface to be 224 ± 13 and 254 ± 13 kJ/mol, respectively. Coverage-dependent enthalpies of formation were used to estimate the enthalpy of the elementary reaction HCOOHad → HCOObi,ad + Had to be -4 kJ/mol at zero coverage and +24 kJ/mol at 3/8 ML.

16.
Faraday Discuss ; 162: 9-30, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24015573

RESUMO

Many catalysts consist of metal nanoparticles anchored to the surfaces of oxide supports. These are key elements in technologies for the clean production and use of fuels and chemicals. We show here that the chemical reactivity of the surface metal atoms on these nanoparticles is closely related to their chemical potential: the higher their chemical potential, the more strongly they bond to small adsorbates. Controlling their chemical potential by tuning the structural details of the material can thus be used to tune their reactivity. As their chemical potential increases, this also makes the metal surface less noble, effectively pushing its behavior upwards and to the left in the periodic table. Also, when the metal atoms are in a nanoparticle with higher chemical potential, they experience a larger thermodynamic driving force to sinter. Calorimetric measurements of metal vapor adsorption energies onto clean oxide surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum show that the chemical potential increases with decreasing particle size below 6 nm, and, for a given size, decreases with the adhesion energy between the metal and its support, Eadh. The structural factors that control the metal/oxide adhesion energy are thus also keys for tuning catalytic performance. For a given oxide, Eadh increases with (deltaHsub,M--deltaHf,MOx)/OmegaM2/3 for the metal, where deltaHsub,M is its heat of sublimation, deltaHf,MOx is the standard heat of formation of that metal's most stable oxide (per mole of metal), and OmegaM is the atomic volume of the bulk solid metal. The value deltaHsub,M--deltaHf,MOx equals the heat of formation of that metal's oxide from a gaseous metal atom plus O2(g), so it reflects the strength of the chemical bonds which that metal atom can make to oxygen, and OmegaM2/3 simply normalizes this energy to the area per metal atom, since Eadh is the adhesion energy per unit area. For a given metal, Eadh to different clean oxide surfaces increases as: MgO(100) approximately TiO2(110) < or = alpha-Al2O3(0001) < CeO2-x(111) < or = Fe3O4(111). Oxygen vacancies also increase Eadh, but surface hydroxyl groups appear to decrease Eadh, even though they increase the initial heat of metal adsorption.

17.
Nano Lett ; 13(10): 4957-62, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24000792

RESUMO

A triphasic catalytic system (Pt/TiO2-SiO2) with an "islands in the sea" configuration was fabricated by controlling the selectivity of SiO2 deposition onto the surface of TiO2 versus the surface of Pt nanoparticles. The Pt surface was exposed, while the nanoparticles were supported on TiO2 and isolated from each other by SiO2 to achieve both significantly improved sinter resistance up to 700 °C and outstanding activity after high-temperature calcination. This work not only demonstrates the feasibility of using a new triphasic system with uncovered catalyst to maximize the thermal stability and catalytic activity but also offers a general approach to the synthesis of high-performance catalytic systems with tunable compositions.


Assuntos
Catálise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Titânio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Platina/química , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Acc Chem Res ; 46(8): 1671-2, 2013 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23957601
19.
Chem Rev ; 113(6): 3859-62, 2013 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23758508
20.
Acc Chem Res ; 46(8): 1712-9, 2013 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23607711

RESUMO

Transition metal nanoparticles on the surfaces of oxide and carbon support materials form the basis for most solid catalysts and electrocatalysts, and have important industrial applications such as fuel production, fuels, and pollution prevention. In this Account, I review my laboratory group's research toward the basic understanding of the effects of particle size and support material on catalytic properties. I focus on studies of well-defined model metal nanoparticle catalysts supported on single-crystalline oxide surfaces. My group structurally characterized such catalysts using a variety of ultrahigh vacuum surface science techniques. We then measured the energies of metal atoms in these supported nanoparticles, using adsorption calorimetry tools that we developed. These metal adsorption energies increase with increasing size of the nanoparticles, until their diameter exceeds about 6 nm. Below 6 nm, the nature of the oxide support surface reaches also greatly affects the metal adsorption energies. Using both adsorption calorimetry and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), we measured the energy of adsorbed catalytic intermediates on metal nanoparticles supported on single crystal oxide surfaces, as a function of particle size. The studies reveal correlations between a number of characteristics. These include the size- and support-dependent energies of metal surface atoms in supported metal nanoparticles, their rates of sintering, how strongly they bind small adsorbates, and their catalytic activity. The data are consistent with the following model: the more weakly the surface metal atom is attached to the nanomaterial, the more strongly it binds small adsorbates. Its strength of attachment to the nanomaterial is dominated by the number of metal-metal bonds which bind it there, but also by the strength of metal/oxide interfacial bonding. This same combination of bond strengths controls sintering rates as well: the less stable a surface metal atom is in the nanomaterial, the greater is the thermodynamic driving force for it to sinter, and the faster is its sintering rate. These correlations provide key insights into how and why specific structural properties of catalyst nanomaterials dictate their catalytic properties. For example, they explain why supported Au catalysts must contain Au nanoparticles smaller than about 6 nm to have high activity for combustion and selective oxidation reactions. Only below about 6 nm are the Au atoms so weakly attached to the catalyst that they bind oxygen sufficiently strongly to enable the activation of O2. By characterizing this interplay between industrially important rates (of net catalytic reactions, of elementary steps in the catalytic mechanism, and of sintering) and their thermodynamic driving forces, we can achieve a deeper fundamental understanding of supported metal nanoparticle catalysts. This understanding may facilitate development of better catalytic nanomaterials for clean, sustainable energy technologies.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Elementos de Transição/química , Catálise , Óxidos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica
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