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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591066

RESUMO

Pneumonia is a leading killer of children younger than 5 years despite high vaccination coverage, improved nutrition, and widespread implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses algorithm. Assessing the effect of interventions on childhood pneumonia is challenging because the choice of case definition and surveillance approach can affect the identification of pneumonia substantially. In anticipation of an intervention trial aimed to reduce childhood pneumonia by lowering household air pollution, we created a working group to provide recommendations regarding study design and implementation. We suggest to, first, select a standard case definition that combines acute (≤14 days) respiratory symptoms and signs and general danger signs with ancillary tests (such as chest imaging and pulse oximetry) to improve pneumonia identification; second, to prioritise active hospital-based pneumonia surveillance over passive case finding or home-based surveillance to reduce the risk of non-differential misclassification of pneumonia and, as a result, a reduced effect size in a randomised trial; and, lastly, to consider longitudinal follow-up of children younger than 1 year, as this age group has the highest incidence of severe pneumonia.

2.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002937, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of urate in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has been extensively investigated in observational studies; however, the extent of any causal effect remains unclear, making it difficult to evaluate its clinical relevance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) together with a Bayesian analysis of tree-structured phenotypic model (TreeWAS) was performed to examine disease outcomes related to genetically determined serum urate levels in 339,256 unrelated White British individuals (54% female) in the UK Biobank who were aged 40-69 years (mean age, 56.87; SD, 7.99) when recruited from 2006 to 2010. Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to replicate significant findings using various genome-wide association study (GWAS) consortia data. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine possible pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits of the genetic variants used as instruments for urate. PheWAS analysis, examining the association with 1,431 disease outcomes, identified 13 distinct phecodes representing 4 disease groups (inflammatory polyarthropathies, hypertensive disease, circulatory disease, and metabolic disorders) and 9 disease outcomes (gout, gouty arthropathy, pyogenic arthritis, essential hypertension, coronary atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, chronic ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and hypercholesterolemia) that were associated with genetically determined serum urate levels after multiple testing correction (p < 3.35 × 10-4). TreeWAS analysis, examining 10,750 ICD-10 diagnostic terms, identified more sub-phenotypes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (e.g., angina pectoris, heart failure, cerebral infarction). MR analysis successfully replicated the association with gout, hypertension, heart diseases, and blood lipid levels but indicated the existence of genetic pleiotropy. Sensitivity analyses support an inference that pleiotropic effects of genetic variants on urate and metabolic traits contribute to the observational associations with CVDs. The main limitations of this study relate to possible bias from pleiotropic effects of the considered genetic variants and possible misclassification of cases for mild disease that did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSION: In this study, high serum urate levels were found to be associated with increased risk of different types of cardiac events. The finding of genetic pleiotropy indicates the existence of common upstream pathological elements influencing both urate and metabolic traits, and this may suggest new opportunities and challenges for developing drugs targeting a common mediator that would be beneficial for both the treatment of gout and the prevention of cardiovascular comorbidities.

3.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595655

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently completed the first phase of a RSV surveillance pilot study in fourteen countries (two to three in each WHO region) building on the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). This active surveillance strategy had several objectives including understanding RSV-related health burden in a variety of settings. A range of approaches can be used to estimate disease burden; most approaches could not be applied by participating countries in the WHO surveillance pilot. This article provides the recommendations made by WHO for strengthening and expanding the scope of the RSV surveillance in the next phase to enable burden estimation.

5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119312552, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The retina may provide readily accessible imaging biomarkers of global cardiovascular health. Increasing evidence suggests variation in retinal vascular traits is highly heritable. This study aimed to identify the genetic determinants of retinal vascular traits. Approach and Results: We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for quantitative retinal vascular traits derived using semi-automatic image analysis of digital retinal photographs from the GoDARTS (Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside; N=1736) and ORCADES (Orkney Complex Disease Study; N=1358) cohorts. We identified a novel genome-wide significant locus at 19q13 (ACTN4/CAPN12) for retinal venular tortuosity (TortV), and one at 13q34 (COL4A2) for retinal arteriolar tortuosity (TortA); these 2 loci were subsequently confirmed in 3 independent cohorts (Ntotal=1413). In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, the lead single-nucleotide polymorphism in ACTN4/CAPN12 was rs1808382 (ßs.d.=-0.109; SE=0.015; P=2.39×10-13) and in COL4A2 was rs7991229 (ßs.d.=0.103; SE=0.015; P=4.66×10-12). Notably, the ACTN4/CAPN12 locus associated with TortV is also associated with coronary artery disease, heart rate, and atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic determinants of retinal vascular tortuosity are also linked to cardiovascular health. These findings provide a molecular pathophysiological foundation for the use of retinal vascular traits as biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral pathogen associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs), with significant childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Estimates reporting RSV-associated ALRI (RSV-ALRI) severity in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are lacking, thus warranting the need to summarize the available data. We identified relevant studies to summarize the findings and conducted a meta-analysis of available data on RSV-associated ALRI hospitalizations in children aged <5 years, comparing those with underlying CHD to those without CHD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of existing relevant literature and identified studies reporting hospitalization of children aged <5 years with RSV-ALRI with underlying or no CHD. We summarized the data and conducted (where possible) a random-effects meta-analysis to compare the 2 groups. RESULTS: We included 18 studies that met our strict eligibility criteria. The risk of severe RSV-ALRI (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.8), the rate of hospitalization (incidence rate ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9-4.1), and the case-fatality ratio (risk ratio [RR], 16.5; 95% CI, 13.7-19.8) associated with RSV-ALRI was higher among children with underlying CHD as compared to those without no CHD. The risk of admission to the intensive care unit (RR, 3.9; 95% CI, 3.4-4.5), need for supplemental oxygen therapy (RR, 3.4; 95% CI, .5-21.1), and need for mechanical ventilation (RR, 4.1; 95% CI, 2.1-8.0) was also higher among children with underlying CHD. CONCLUSION: This is the most detailed review to show more-severe RSV-ALRI among children aged <5 years with underlying CHD, especially hemodynamically significant underlying CHD, as compared those without CHD, supporting a need for improved RSV prophylactics and treatments that also have efficacy in children older than 1 year.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1944-1946, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic variants may influence pathways of tumor progression common to multiple cancer types. Here, we investigated the association between survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis and 128 common genetic variants previously associated with prognosis in genome-wide association studies in different cancer types. METHODS: We studied survival outcomes in a large well-documented, prospective, population-based cohort (5,675 patients with colorectal cancer) with up to 20 years' follow-up. RESULTS: None of the 128 variants were significantly associated with overall or colorectal cancer-specific survival (P < 5 × 10-4, Bonferroni-corrected threshold). We observed suggestive evidence (P < 0.05) for eight variants (rs17026425, rs17057166, rs6854845, rs1728400, rs17693104, rs202280, rs6797464, and rs823920) in all colorectal cancer and two variants (rs17026425 and rs6854845) in rectal cancer that were concordant with previous reports. CONCLUSIONS: Given good statistical power (>0.80 for 75% of variants), this study indicates that most previously reported variants associated with cancer survival have limited influence on colorectal cancer prognosis. IMPACT: Although small effects cannot be excluded, clinically meaningful germline influences on patients with colorectal cancer as a group are unlikely.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(38): 19064-19070, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481615

RESUMO

Britain and Ireland are known to show population genetic structure; however, large swathes of Scotland, in particular, have yet to be described. Delineating the structure and ancestry of these populations will allow variant discovery efforts to focus efficiently on areas not represented in existing cohorts. Thus, we assembled genotype data for 2,554 individuals from across the entire archipelago with geographically restricted ancestry, and performed population structure analyses and comparisons to ancient DNA. Extensive geographic structuring is revealed, from broad scales such as a NE to SW divide in mainland Scotland, through to the finest scale observed to date: across 3 km in the Northern Isles. Many genetic boundaries are consistent with Dark Age kingdoms of Gaels, Picts, Britons, and Norse. Populations in the Hebrides, the Highlands, Argyll, Donegal, and the Isle of Man show characteristics of isolation. We document a pole of Norwegian ancestry in the north of the archipelago (reaching 23 to 28% in Shetland) which complements previously described poles of Germanic ancestry in the east, and "Celtic" to the west. This modern genetic structure suggests a northwestern British or Irish source population for the ancient Gaels that contributed to the founding of Iceland. As rarer variants, often with larger effect sizes, become the focus of complex trait genetics, more diverse rural cohorts may be required to optimize discoveries in British and Irish populations and their considerable global diaspora.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent across the globe. Existing studies suggest that a low vitamin D level is associated with more than 130 outcomes. Exploring the causal role of vitamin D in health outcomes could support or question vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: We carried out a systematic literature review of previous Mendelian-randomization studies on vitamin D. We then implemented a Mendelian Randomization-Phenome Wide Association Study (MR-PheWAS) analysis on data from 339 256 individuals of White British origin from UK Biobank. We first ran a PheWAS analysis to test the associations between a 25(OH)D polygenic risk score and 920 disease outcomes, and then nine phenotypes (i.e. systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, risk of hypertension, T2D, ischaemic heart disease, body mass index, depression, non-vertebral fracture and all-cause mortality) that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria for further analysis were examined by multiple MR analytical approaches to explore causality. RESULTS: The PheWAS analysis did not identify any health outcome associated with the 25(OH)D polygenic risk score. Although a selection of nine outcomes were reported in previous Mendelian-randomization studies or umbrella reviews to be associated with vitamin D, our MR analysis, with substantial study power (>80% power to detect an association with an odds ratio >1.2 for per standard deviation increase of log-transformed 25[OH]D), was unable to support an interpretation of causal association. CONCLUSIONS: We investigated the putative causal effects of vitamin D on multiple health outcomes in a White population. We did not support a causal effect on any of the disease outcomes tested. However, we cannot exclude small causal effects or effects on outcomes that we did not have enough power to explore due to the small number of cases.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospital admission for respiratory disease among infants aged <1 year. Clinical practice guidelines can benefit patients by reducing the performance of unnecessary tests, hospital admissions, and treatment with lack of a supportive evidence base. This review aimed to identify current clinical practice guidelines worldwide, appraise their methodological quality, and discuss variability across guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. METHODS: A systematic literature review of electronic databases EMBASE, Global Health, and Medline was performed. Manual searches of the gray literature, national pediatric society websites, and guideline-focused databases were performed, and select international experts were contacted to identify additional guidelines. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation assessment tool was used by 2 independent reviewers to appraise each guideline. RESULTS: Thirty-two clinical practice guidelines met the selection criteria. Quality assessment revealed significant shortcomings in a number of guidelines, including lack of systematic processes in formulating guidelines, failure to state conflicts of interest, and lack of consultation with families of affected children. There was widespread agreement about a number of aspects, such as avoidance of the use of unnecessary diagnostic tests, risk factors for severe disease, indicators for hospital admission, discharge criteria, and nosocomial infection control. However, there was variability, even within areas of consensus, over specific recommendations, such as variable thresholds for oxygen therapy. Guidelines showed significant variability in recommendations for the pharmacological management of bronchiolitis, with conflicting recommendations over whether use of nebulized epinephrine, hypertonic saline, or bronchodilators should be routinely trialled. CONCLUSIONS: Future guidelines should aim to be compliant with international standards for clinical guidelines to improve their quality and clarity and to promote their adoption into practice. Variable recommendations between guidelines may reflect the evolving evidence base for bronchiolitis management, and platforms should be created to understand this variability and promote evidence-based recommendations.

11.
JMIR Med Inform ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PheCode system was built upon the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) for phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) in the electronic health record (EHR). OBJECTIVE: Here, we present our work on the development and evaluation of maps from ICD-10 and ICD-10-CM codes to PheCodes. METHODS: We mapped ICD-10 and ICD-10-CM codes to PheCodes using a number of methods and resources, such as concept relationships and explicit mappings from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI), Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), and National Library of Medicine (NLM). We assessed the coverage of the maps in two databases: Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) using ICD-10-CM and the UK Biobank (UKBB) using ICD-10. We assessed the fidelity of the ICD-10-CM map in comparison to the gold-standard ICD-9-CM→PheCode map by investigating phenotype reproducibility and conducting a PheWAS. RESULTS: We mapped >75% of ICD-10-CM and ICD-10 codes to PheCodes. Of the unique codes observed in the VUMC (ICD-10-CM) and UKBB (ICD-10) cohorts, >90% were mapped to PheCodes. We observed 70-75% reproducibility for chronic diseases and <10% for an acute disease. A PheWAS with a lipoprotein(a) (LPA) genetic variant, rs10455872, using the ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM maps replicated two genotype-phenotype associations with similar effect sizes: coronary atherosclerosis (ICD-9-CM: P < .001, OR = 1.60 vs. ICD-10-CM: P < .001, OR = 1.60) and with chronic ischemic heart disease (ICD-9-CM: P < .001, OR = 1.5 vs. ICD-10-CM: P < .001, OR = 1.47). CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces the initial "beta" versions of ICD-10 and ICD-10-CM to PheCode maps that will enable researchers to leverage accumulated ICD-10 and ICD-10-CM data for high-throughput PheWAS in the EHR.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infection is a common cause for hospitalization and hospital deaths in young children globally. There is urgent need to generate evidence to inform immunization policies when RSV vaccines become available. The WHO piloted a RSV surveillance strategy that leverages the existing capacities of the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) to better understand RSV seasonality, high-risk groups, validate case definitions, and develop laboratory and surveillance standards for RSV. METHODS: The RSV sentinel surveillance strategy was piloted in 14 countries. Patients across all age groups presenting to sentinel hospitals and clinics were screened all year-round using extended severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) case definitions for hospital and primary care settings, respectively. Respiratory specimens were tested for RSV at the National Influenza Centre (NIC) using standardized molecular diagnostics that had been validated by an External Quality Assurance program. The WHO FluMart data platform was adapted to receive case-based RSV data and visualize interactive visualization outputs. RESULTS: Laboratory standards for detecting RSV by RT-PCR were developed. A review assessed the feasibility and the low incremental costs for RSV surveillance. Several challenges were addressed related to case definitions, sampling strategies, the need to focus surveillance on young children, and the data required for burden estimation. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of any significant adverse impact on the functioning of GISRS which is primarily intended for virologic and epidemiological surveillance of influenza.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent wheeze and asthma in childhood are commons causes of chronic respiratory morbidity globally. We aimed to explore the association between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in early life and subsequent respiratory sequelae up to age 12 years. METHODS: We estimated the strength of association by 3 control groups and 3 follow-up age groups, with data from studies published between January 1995 and May 2018. We also estimated associations by diagnostic criteria, age at infection, and high-risk population. RESULTS: Overall, we included 41 studies. A statistically significant association was observed between early life RSV infection and subsequent childhood recurrent wheeze, in comparison to those who were healthy or those without respiratory symptoms: OR 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50-3.71) for 0 to <36 months follow-up age; OR 2.60 (95% CI, 1.67-4.04) for 36-72 months; and OR 2.14 (95% CI, 1.33-3.45) for 73-144 months. For the subsequent development of asthma, a statistically significant association was observed only in relation to those aged 73-144 months at follow-up: OR 2.95 (95% CI, 1.96-4.46). CONCLUSIONS: Further studies using standardized definitions and from diverse settings are needed to elucidate the role of confounders and provide more robust estimates.

14.
Med Hypotheses ; 130: 109263, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383331

RESUMO

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which the body uses ketones derived from breakdown of fatty acids as the primary mitochondrial fuel source instead of glucose. In recent years an accumulation of evidence for the beneficial effects of the ketotic state on the brain have heightened interest in its potential for use in neurological conditions. The ketogenic diet (KD) induces ketosis and is an effective treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. There is significant comorbidity between epilepsy and bipolar disorder (BD) and both conditions are treated by anti-convulsant drugs. In addition, reports on bipolar disease online fora have highlighted subjective mood stabilization effects associated with the KD. These KD reported effects could be explained if there was a disorder in the conversion of pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA (and subsequent impairment of oxidative phosphorylation) which was bypassed by ketones providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. This is consistent with growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causal role in BD and explains the reported TCA cycle dysfunction and elevated pyruvate levels in BD. Reduced levels of ATP affects the normal operation of the Na, K-ATPase in the brain with differing levels of reduction either leading to reduced neuronal action potential and inhibition of neurotransmitter release (consistent with the depressed state in BD) or increased neuronal resting potential and hyper-excitability (consistent with a [hypo]manic mood state). We hypothesize that the mitochondrial dysfunction is due to a disorder of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) and/or Mitochondrial Carrier Protein (MCP) shuttle which moves intracellular pyruvate into mitochondria. The resultant reduction in ATP generation could explain mood instability and cycling in BD (through mechanisms such as those delineated by Mallakh and Peters). This proposed novel causal pathway could explain mood de-stabilization in BD and the reported positive effects of KD. If true, this hypothesis would suggest that there should be increased research attention to PDC (and in particular the E1 alpha subunit) as potential therapeutic targets and further study of a possible role of KD in BD to improve mood stability. Experimental approaches, such as through a clinical trial of KD on mood stabilization in BD, are required to further investigate this hypothesis.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(9): 2427-2432, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271446

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have thus far identified 130 genetic variants linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk (r2 < 0.2). Given their implication in disease causation, and thus plausible biologically effects on cancer-relevant biological pathways, we investigated whether these variants are associated with CRC prognosis and also whether they might provide predictive value for survival outcome. We conducted the analysis in a well-characterized population-based study of 5,675 patients after CRC diagnosis in Scotland. None of the genetic risk variants were associated with either overall survival (OS) or CRC-specific survival. Next, we combined the variants in a polygenic risk score, but again we observed no association between survival outcome and overall genetic susceptibility to CRC risk-as defined by common genetic variants (OS: hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.96-1.05). Furthermore, we found no incremental increase in the discriminative performance when adding these genetic variants to the baseline CRC-survival predictive model of age, sex and stage at diagnosis. Given that our study is well-powered (>0.88) to detect effects on survival for 74% of the variants, we conclude that effects of common variants associated with CRC risk which have been identified to date are unlikely to have clinically relevant effect on survival outcomes for patients diagnosed with CRC.

16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(8): e1031-e1045, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and metapneumovirus are the most common viruses associated with acute lower respiratory infections in young children (<5 years) and older people (≥65 years). A global report of the monthly activity of these viruses is needed to inform public health strategies and programmes for their control. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we compiled data from a systematic literature review of studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2017; online datasets; and unpublished research data. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported laboratory-confirmed incidence data of human infection of influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, or metapneumovirus, or a combination of these, for at least 12 consecutive months (or 52 weeks equivalent); stable testing practice throughout all years reported; virus results among residents in well-defined geographical locations; and aggregated virus results at least on a monthly basis. Data were extracted through a three-stage process, from which we calculated monthly annual average percentage (AAP) as the relative strength of virus activity. We defined duration of epidemics as the minimum number of months to account for 75% of annual positive samples, with each component month defined as an epidemic month. Furthermore, we modelled monthly AAP of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus using site-specific temperature and relative humidity for the prediction of local average epidemic months. We also predicted global epidemic months of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus on a 5° by 5° grid. The systematic review in this study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018091628. FINDINGS: We initally identified 37 335 eligible studies. Of 21 065 studies remaining after exclusion of duplicates, 1081 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 185 were identified as eligible. We included 246 sites for influenza virus, 183 sites for respiratory syncytial virus, 83 sites for parainfluenza virus, and 65 sites for metapneumovirus. Influenza virus had clear seasonal epidemics in winter months in most temperate sites but timing of epidemics was more variable and less seasonal with decreasing distance from the equator. Unlike influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus had clear seasonal epidemics in both temperate and tropical regions, starting in late summer months in the tropics of each hemisphere, reaching most temperate sites in winter months. In most temperate sites, influenza virus epidemics occurred later than respiratory syncytial virus (by 0·3 months [95% CI -0·3 to 0·9]) while no clear temporal order was observed in the tropics. Parainfluenza virus epidemics were found mostly in spring and early summer months in each hemisphere. Metapneumovirus epidemics occurred in late winter and spring in most temperate sites but the timing of epidemics was more diverse in the tropics. Influenza virus epidemics had shorter duration (3·8 months [3·6 to 4·0]) in temperate sites and longer duration (5·2 months [4·9 to 5·5]) in the tropics. Duration of epidemics was similar across all sites for respiratory syncytial virus (4·6 months [4·3 to 4·8]), as it was for metapneumovirus (4·8 months [4·4 to 5·1]). By comparison, parainfluenza virus had longer duration of epidemics (6·3 months [6·0 to 6·7]). Our model had good predictability in the average epidemic months of influenza virus in temperate regions and respiratory syncytial virus in both temperate and tropical regions. Through leave-one-out cross validation, the overall prediction error in the onset of epidemics was within 1 month (influenza virus -0·2 months [-0·6 to 0·1]; respiratory syncytial virus 0·1 months [-0·2 to 0·4]). INTERPRETATION: This study is the first to provide global representations of month-by-month activity of influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and metapneumovirus. Our model is helpful in predicting the local onset month of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. The seasonality information has important implications for health services planning, the timing of respiratory syncytial virus passive prophylaxis, and the strategy of influenza virus and future respiratory syncytial virus vaccination. FUNDING: European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative Respiratory Syncytial Virus Consortium in Europe (RESCEU).

17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(7): e002384, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipids are increasingly involved in cardiovascular risk prediction as potential proarrhythmic influencers. However, knowledge is limited about the specific mechanisms connecting lipid alterations with atrial conduction. METHODS: To shed light on this issue, we conducted a broad assessment of 151 sphingo- and phospholipids, measured using mass spectrometry, for association with atrial conduction, measured by P wave duration (PWD) from standard electrocardiograms, in the MICROS study (Microisolates in South Tyrol) (n=839). Causal pathways involving lipidomics, body mass index (BMI), and PWD were assessed using 2-sample Mendelian randomization analyses based on published genome-wide association studies of lipidomics (n=4034) and BMI (n=734 481), and genetic association analysis of PWD in 5 population-based studies (n=24 236). RESULTS: We identified an association with relative phosphatidylcholine 38:3 (%PC 38:3) concentration, which was replicated in the ORCADES (Orkney Complex Disease Study; n=951), with a pooled association across studies of 2.59 (95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P=1.1×10-4) ms PWD per mol% increase. While being independent of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels, the %PC 38:3-PWD association was mediated by BMI. Results supported a causal effect of BMI on both PWD ( P=8.3×10-5) and %PC 38:3 ( P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Increased %PC 38:3 levels are consistently associated with longer PWD, partly because of the confounding effect of BMI. The causal effect of BMI on PWD reinforces evidence of BMI's involvement into atrial electrical activity.

20.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
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