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1.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening birth defect that often co-occurs with non-hernia-related anomalies (CDH+). While copy number variant (CNV) analysis is often employed as a diagnostic test for CDH+, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has not been universally adopted. METHODS: We analysed a clinical database of ~12 000 test results to determine the diagnostic yields of ES in CDH+ and to identify new phenotypic expansions. RESULTS: Among the 76 cases with an indication of CDH+, a molecular diagnosis was made in 28 cases for a diagnostic yield of 37% (28/76). A provisional diagnosis was made in seven other cases (9%; 7/76). Four individuals had a diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome caused by frameshift variants in KMT2D. Putatively deleterious variants in ALG12 and EP300 were each found in two individuals, supporting their role in CDH development. We also identified individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in FOXP1 and SMARCA4, and compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in BRCA2. The role of these genes in CDH development is supported by the expression of their mouse homologs in the developing diaphragm, their high CDH-specific pathogenicity scores generated using a previously validated algorithm for genome-scale knowledge synthesis and previously published case reports. CONCLUSION: We conclude that ES should be ordered in cases of CDH+ when a specific diagnosis is not suspected and CNV analyses are negative. Our results also provide evidence in favour of phenotypic expansions involving CDH for genes associated with ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Fanconi anaemia, Coffin-Siris syndrome and FOXP1-related disorders.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(3): 916-922, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369125

RESUMO

ALX4 is a homeobox gene expressed in the mesenchyme of developing bone and is known to play an important role in the regulation of osteogenesis. Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) is a phenotype of delayed intramembranous ossification of calvarial bones due to variants of ALX4. The contrasting phenotype of premature ossification of sutures is observed with heterozygous loss-of-function variants of TWIST1, which is an important regulator of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we describe an individual with a large cranium defect, with dominant transmission from the mother, both carrying disease causing heterozygous variants in ALX4 and TWIST1. The distinct phenotype of absent superior and posterior calvarium in the child and his mother was in sharp contrast to the other affected maternal relatives with a recognizable ALX4-related EPF phenotype. This report demonstrates comorbid disorders of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and EPF in a mother and her child, resulting in severe skull defects reminiscent of calvarial abnormalities observed with bilallelic ALX4 variants. To our knowledge this is the first instance of ALX4 and TWIST1 variants acting synergistically to cause a unique phenotype influencing skull ossification.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2058-2069, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380191

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by recurrent, chromosome-specific, low copy repeat (LCR)-mediated copy-number losses of chromosome 22q11. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia has been involved in the clinical care of individuals with what is now known as 22q11.2DS since our initial report of the association with DiGeorge syndrome in 1982. We reviewed the medical records on our continuously growing longitudinal cohort of 1,421 patients with molecularly confirmed 22q11.2DS from 1992 to 2018. Most individuals are Caucasian and older than 8 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 3.9 years. The majority of patients (85%) had typical LCR22A-LCR22D deletions, and only 7% of these typical deletions were inherited from a parent harboring the deletion constitutionally. However, 6% of individuals harbored other nested deletions that would not be identified by traditional 22q11.2 FISH, thus requiring an orthogonal technology to diagnose. Major medical problems included immune dysfunction or allergies (77%), palatal abnormalities (67%), congenital heart disease (64%), gastrointestinal difficulties (65%), endocrine dysfunction (>50%), scoliosis (50%), renal anomalies (16%), and airway abnormalities. Median full-scale intelligence quotient was 76, with no significant difference between individuals with and without congenital heart disease or hypocalcemia. Characteristic dysmorphic facial features were present in most individuals, but dermatoglyphic patterns of our cohort are similar to normal controls. This is the largest longitudinal study of patients with 22q11.2DS, helping to further describe the condition and aid in diagnosis and management. Further surveillance will likely elucidate additional clinically relevant findings as they age.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Comorbidade , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mortalidade , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Transição para Assistência do Adulto
5.
J Pediatr Genet ; 7(4): 164-173, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430034

RESUMO

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by dysmorphic facies, congenital heart defects, intellectual/developmental disability, and increased risk for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In this report, we describe a stillborn girl with WHS and a large CDH. A literature review revealed 15 cases of WHS with CDH, which overlap a 2.3-Mb CDH critical region. We applied a machine-learning algorithm that integrates large-scale genomic knowledge to genes within the 4p16.3 CDH critical region and identified FGFRL1 , CTBP1 , NSD2 , FGFR3 , CPLX1 , MAEA , CTBP1-AS2 , and ZNF141 as genes whose haploinsufficiency may contribute to the development of CDH.

6.
Genome Res ; 28(8): 1228-1242, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907612

RESUMO

Alu elements, the short interspersed element numbering more than 1 million copies per human genome, can mediate the formation of copy number variants (CNVs) between substrate pairs. These Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangements (AAMRs) can result in pathogenic variants that cause diseases. To investigate the impact of AAMR on gene variation and human health, we first characterized Alus that are involved in mediating CNVs (CNV-Alus) and observed that these Alus tend to be evolutionarily younger. We then computationally generated, with the assistance of a supercomputer, a test data set consisting of 78 million Alu pairs and predicted ∼18% of them are potentially susceptible to AAMR. We further determined the relative risk of AAMR in 12,074 OMIM genes using the count of predicted CNV-Alu pairs and experimentally validated the predictions with 89 samples selected by correlating predicted hotspots with a database of CNVs identified by clinical chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) on the genomes of approximately 54,000 subjects. We fine-mapped 47 duplications, 40 deletions, and two complex rearrangements and examined a total of 52 breakpoint junctions of simple CNVs. Overall, 94% of the candidate breakpoints were at least partially Alu mediated. We successfully predicted all (100%) of Alu pairs that mediated deletions (n = 21) and achieved an 87% positive predictive value overall when including AAMR-generated deletions and duplications. We provided a tool, AluAluCNVpredictor, for assessing AAMR hotspots and their role in human disease. These results demonstrate the utility of our predictive model and provide insights into the genomic features and molecular mechanisms underlying AAMR.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência
7.
Genetics ; 208(1): 273-282, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109180

RESUMO

Aggression is a complex social behavior that is widespread in nature. To date, only a limited number of genes that affect aggression have been identified, in large part because the complexity of the phenotype makes screening difficult and time-consuming regardless of the species that is studied. We discovered that aggressive group-housed Drosophila melanogaster males inflict damage on each other's wings, and show that wing damage negatively affects their ability to fly and mate. Using this wing-damage phenotype, we screened males from ∼1400 chemically mutagenized strains and found ∼40 mutant strains with substantial wing damage. Five of these mutants also had increased aggressive behavior. To identify the causal mutation in one of our top aggressive strains, we used whole-genome sequencing and genomic duplication rescue strategies. We identified a novel mutation in the voltage-gated potassium channel Shaker (Sh) and show that a nearby previously identified Sh mutation also results in increased aggression. This simple screen can be used to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying aggression.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Animal , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fenótipo , Asas de Animais/patologia , Animais , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica/métodos , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
Cell ; 168(5): 830-842.e7, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235197

RESUMO

De novo copy number variants (dnCNVs) arising at multiple loci in a personal genome have usually been considered to reflect cancer somatic genomic instabilities. We describe a multiple dnCNV (MdnCNV) phenomenon in which individuals with genomic disorders carry five to ten constitutional dnCNVs. These CNVs originate from independent formation incidences, are predominantly tandem duplications or complex gains, exhibit breakpoint junction features reminiscent of replicative repair, and show increased de novo point mutations flanking the rearrangement junctions. The active CNV mutation shower appears to be restricted to a transient perizygotic period. We propose that a defect in the CNV formation process is responsible for the "CNV-mutator state," and this state is dampened after early embryogenesis. The constitutional MdnCNV phenomenon resembles chromosomal instability in various cancers. Investigations of this phenomenon may provide unique access to understanding genomic disorders, structural variant mutagenesis, human evolution, and cancer biology.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/embriologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Duplicação Cromossômica , Replicação do DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Gametogênese , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 13, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26838676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide data are increasingly important in the clinical evaluation of human disease. However, the large number of variants observed in individual patients challenges the efficiency and accuracy of diagnostic review. Recent work has shown that systematic integration of clinical phenotype data with genotype information can improve diagnostic workflows and prioritization of filtered rare variants. We have developed visually interactive, analytically transparent analysis software that leverages existing disease catalogs, such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM) and the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), to integrate patient phenotype and variant data into ranked diagnostic alternatives. METHODS: Our tool, "OMIM Explorer" ( http://www.omimexplorer.com ), extends the biomedical application of semantic similarity methods beyond those reported in previous studies. The tool also provides a simple interface for translating free-text clinical notes into HPO terms, enabling clinical providers and geneticists to contribute phenotypes to the diagnostic process. The visual approach uses semantic similarity with multidimensional scaling to collapse high-dimensional phenotype and genotype data from an individual into a graphical format that contextualizes the patient within a low-dimensional disease map. The map proposes a differential diagnosis and algorithmically suggests potential alternatives for phenotype queries--in essence, generating a computationally assisted differential diagnosis informed by the individual's personal genome. Visual interactivity allows the user to filter and update variant rankings by interacting with intermediate results. The tool also implements an adaptive approach for disease gene discovery based on patient phenotypes. RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed pilot cohort data from the Baylor Miraca Genetics Laboratory, demonstrating performance of the tool and workflow in the re-analysis of clinical exomes. Our tool assigned to clinically reported variants a median rank of 2, placing causal variants in the top 1 % of filtered candidates across the 47 cohort cases with reported molecular diagnoses of exome variants in OMIM Morbidmap genes. Our tool outperformed Phen-Gen, eXtasy, PhenIX, PHIVE, and hiPHIVE in the prioritization of these clinically reported variants. CONCLUSIONS: Our integrative paradigm can improve efficiency and, potentially, the quality of genomic medicine by more effectively utilizing available phenotype information, catalog data, and genomic knowledge.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software
11.
Hum Mutat ; 37(3): 231-234, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26670213

RESUMO

As the amount of human genomic sequence available from personal genomes and exomes has increased, so too has the observation of genomic positions having two or more alternative alleles, so-called multiallelic sites. For portions of the haploid genome that are present in more than one copy, including segmental duplications, variation at such multisite variant positions becomes even more complex. Despite the frequency of multiallelic variants, a number of commonly used resources and tools in genomic research and diagnostics do not support these multiallelic variants all together or require special modifications. Here, we explore the frequency of multiallelic sites in large samples with whole exome sequencing and discuss potential outcomes of failing to account for multiple variant alleles. We also briefly discuss some commonly utilized resources that fully support multiallelic sites.


Assuntos
Alelos , Exoma/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos
12.
PLoS Genet ; 11(12): e1005686, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26641089

RESUMO

Many loci in the human genome harbor complex genomic structures that can result in susceptibility to genomic rearrangements leading to various genomic disorders. Nephronophthisis 1 (NPHP1, MIM# 256100) is an autosomal recessive disorder that can be caused by defects of NPHP1; the gene maps within the human 2q13 region where low copy repeats (LCRs) are abundant. Loss of function of NPHP1 is responsible for approximately 85% of the NPHP1 cases-about 80% of such individuals carry a large recurrent homozygous NPHP1 deletion that occurs via nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between two flanking directly oriented ~45 kb LCRs. Published data revealed a non-pathogenic inversion polymorphism involving the NPHP1 gene flanked by two inverted ~358 kb LCRs. Using optical mapping and array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified three potential novel structural variant (SV) haplotypes at the NPHP1 locus that may protect a haploid genome from the NPHP1 deletion. Inter-species comparative genomic analyses among primate genomes revealed massive genomic changes during evolution. The aggregated data suggest that dynamic genomic rearrangements occurred historically within the NPHP1 locus and generated SV haplotypes observed in the human population today, which may confer differential susceptibility to genomic instability and the NPHP1 deletion within a personal genome. Our study documents diverse SV haplotypes at a complex LCR-laden human genomic region. Comparative analyses provide a model for how this complex region arose during primate evolution, and studies among humans suggest that intra-species polymorphism may potentially modulate an individual's susceptibility to acquiring disease-associated alleles.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Doenças Renais Císticas/congênito , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Alelos , Animais , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Dosagem de Genes , Rearranjo Gênico , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Haplótipos , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/patologia , Primatas
13.
Neuron ; 88(3): 499-513, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26539891

RESUMO

Development of the human nervous system involves complex interactions among fundamental cellular processes and requires a multitude of genes, many of which remain to be associated with human disease. We applied whole exome sequencing to 128 mostly consanguineous families with neurogenetic disorders that often included brain malformations. Rare variant analyses for both single nucleotide variant (SNV) and copy number variant (CNV) alleles allowed for identification of 45 novel variants in 43 known disease genes, 41 candidate genes, and CNVs in 10 families, with an overall potential molecular cause identified in >85% of families studied. Among the candidate genes identified, we found PRUNE, VARS, and DHX37 in multiple families and homozygous loss-of-function variants in AGBL2, SLC18A2, SMARCA1, UBQLN1, and CPLX1. Neuroimaging and in silico analysis of functional and expression proximity between candidate and known disease genes allowed for further understanding of genetic networks underlying specific types of brain malformations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
14.
Science ; 349(6249): 742-7, 2015 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26273056

RESUMO

Most spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) result from replication-fork breakage. Break-induced replication (BIR), a genome rearrangement-prone repair mechanism that requires the Pol32/POLD3 subunit of eukaryotic DNA Polδ, was proposed to repair broken forks, but how genome destabilization is avoided was unknown. We show that broken fork repair initially uses error-prone Pol32-dependent synthesis, but that mutagenic synthesis is limited to within a few kilobases from the break by Mus81 endonuclease and a converging fork. Mus81 suppresses template switches between both homologous sequences and diverged human Alu repetitive elements, highlighting its importance for stability of highly repetitive genomes. We propose that lack of a timely converging fork or Mus81 may propel genome instability observed in cancer.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Instabilidade Genômica , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Elementos Alu , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Endonucleases/genética , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
15.
Genome Med ; 7(1): 54, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26195989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides its growing importance in clinical diagnostics and understanding the genetic basis of Mendelian and complex diseases, whole exome sequencing (WES) is a rich source of additional information of potential clinical utility for physicians, patients and their families. We analyzed the frequency and nature of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) considered secondary findings and recessive disease allele carrier status in the exomes of 8554 individuals from a large, randomly sampled cohort study and 2514 patients from a study of presumed Mendelian disease having undergone WES. METHODS: We used the same sequencing platform and data processing pipeline to analyze all samples and characterized the distributions of reported pathogenic (ClinVar, Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)) and predicted deleterious variants in the pre-specified American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) secondary findings and recessive disease genes in different ethnic groups. RESULTS: In the 56 ACMG secondary findings genes, the average number of predicted deleterious variants per individual was 0.74, and the mean number of ClinVar reported pathogenic variants was 0.06. We observed an average of 10 deleterious and 0.78 ClinVar reported pathogenic variants per individual in 1423 autosomal recessive disease genes. By repeatedly sampling pairs of exomes, 0.5 % of the randomly generated couples were at 25 % risk of having an affected offspring for an autosomal recessive disorder based on the ClinVar variants. CONCLUSIONS: By investigating reported pathogenic and novel, predicted deleterious variants we estimated the lower and upper limits of the population fraction for which exome sequencing may reveal additional medically relevant information. We suggest that the observed wide range for the lower and upper limits of these frequency numbers will be gradually reduced due to improvement in classification databases and prediction algorithms.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(14): 4061-77, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25908615

RESUMO

Alu repetitive elements are known to be major contributors to genome instability by generating Alu-mediated copy-number variants (CNVs). Most of the reported Alu-mediated CNVs are simple deletions and duplications, and the mechanism underlying Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangement has been attributed to non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Chromosome 17 at the p13.3 genomic region lacks extensive low-copy repeat architecture; however, it is highly enriched for Alu repetitive elements, with a fraction of 30% of total sequence annotated in the human reference genome, compared with the 10% genome-wide and 18% on chromosome 17. We conducted mechanistic studies of the 17p13.3 CNVs by performing high-density oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, specifically interrogating the 17p13.3 region with ∼150 bp per probe density; CNV breakpoint junctions were mapped to nucleotide resolution by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Studied rearrangements include 5 interstitial deletions, 14 tandem duplications, 7 terminal deletions and 13 complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs). Within the 17p13.3 region, Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangements were identified in 80% of the interstitial deletions, 46% of the tandem duplications and 50% of the CGRs, indicating that this mechanism was a major contributor for formation of breakpoint junctions. Our studies suggest that Alu repetitive elements facilitate formation of non-recurrent CNVs, CGRs and other structural aberrations of chromosome 17 at p13.3. The common observation of Alu-mediated rearrangement in CGRs and breakpoint junction sequences analysis further demonstrates that this type of mechanism is unlikely attributed to NAHR, but rather may be due to a recombination-coupled DNA replicative repair process.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Instabilidade Genômica , Genômica , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Deleção de Sequência
17.
Trends Genet ; 31(7): 382-92, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25910407

RESUMO

Nearly all of the genetic material among cells within an organism is identical. However, single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions/deletions (indels), copy-number variants (CNVs), and other structural variants (SVs) continually accumulate as cells divide during development. This process results in an organism composed of countless cells, each with its own unique personal genome. Thus, every human is undoubtedly mosaic. Mosaic mutations can go unnoticed, underlie genetic disease or normal human variation, and may be transmitted to the next generation as constitutional variants. We review the influence of the developmental timing of mutations, the mechanisms by which they arise, methods for detecting mosaic variants, and the risk of passing these mutations on to the next generation.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo , Animais , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Mutagênese Insercional , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 43(4): 2188-98, 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25613453

RESUMO

Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), occurring between low-copy repeats (LCRs) >10 kb in size and sharing >97% DNA sequence identity, is responsible for the majority of recurrent genomic rearrangements in the human genome. Recent studies have shown that transposable elements (TEs) can also mediate recurrent deletions and translocations, indicating the features of substrates that mediate NAHR may be significantly less stringent than previously believed. Using >4 kb length and >95% sequence identity criteria, we analyzed of the genome-wide distribution of long interspersed element (LINE) retrotransposon and their potential to mediate NAHR. We identified 17 005 directly oriented LINE pairs located <10 Mbp from each other as potential NAHR substrates, placing 82.8% of the human genome at risk of LINE-LINE-mediated instability. Cross-referencing these regions with CNVs in the Baylor College of Medicine clinical chromosomal microarray database of 36 285 patients, we identified 516 CNVs potentially mediated by LINEs. Using long-range PCR of five different genomic regions in a total of 44 patients, we confirmed that the CNV breakpoints in each patient map within the LINE elements. To additionally assess the scale of LINE-LINE/NAHR phenomenon in the human genome, we tested DNA samples from six healthy individuals on a custom aCGH microarray targeting LINE elements predicted to mediate CNVs and identified 25 LINE-LINE rearrangements. Our data indicate that LINE-LINE-mediated NAHR is widespread and under-recognized, and is an important mechanism of structural rearrangement contributing to human genomic variability.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Recombinação Homóloga , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Algoritmos , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
19.
Genome Med ; 7(1): 4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25632303

RESUMO

Variant interpretation is a central challenge in genomic medicine. A recent study demonstrates the power of Bayesian statistical approaches to improve interpretation of variants in the context of specific genes and syndromes. Such Bayesian approaches combine frequency (in the form of observed genetic variation in cases and controls) with biological annotations to determine a probability of pathogenicity. These Bayesian approaches complement other efforts to catalog human variation. See related Research; 10.1186/s13073-014-0120-4.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(4): 345-59, 2014 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25242496

RESUMO

Most new mutations are observed to arise in fathers, and increasing paternal age positively correlates with the risk of new variants. Interestingly, new mutations in X-linked recessive disease show elevated familial recurrence rates. In male offspring, these mutations must be inherited from mothers. We previously developed a simulation model to consider parental mosaicism as a source of transmitted mutations. In this paper, we extend and formalize the model to provide analytical results and flexible formulas. The results implicate parent of origin and parental mosaicism as central variables in recurrence risk. Consistent with empirical data, our model predicts that more transmitted mutations arise in fathers and that this tendency increases as fathers age. Notably, the lack of expansion later in the male germline determines relatively lower variance in the proportion of mutants, which decreases with paternal age. Subsequently, observation of a transmitted mutation has less impact on the expected risk for future offspring. Conversely, for the female germline, which arrests after clonal expansion in early development, variance in the mutant proportion is higher, and observation of a transmitted mutation dramatically increases the expected risk of recurrence in another pregnancy. Parental somatic mosaicism considerably elevates risk for both parents. These findings have important implications for genetic counseling and for understanding patterns of recurrence in transmission genetics. We provide a convenient online tool and source code implementing our analytical results. These tools permit varying the underlying parameters that influence recurrence risk and could be useful for analyzing risk in diverse family structures.


Assuntos
Gametogênese/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Modelos Teóricos , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Pai , Feminino , Genômica , Células Germinativas/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Gravidez , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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