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1.
Med Care ; 60(3): 219-226, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Administrative claims are commonly relied upon to identify hypoglycemia. We assessed validity of 14 International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code assignments to identify medication-related hypoglycemia leading to acute care encounters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A multisite, retrospective medical record review study was conducted in a sample of Medicare beneficiaries prescribed outpatient diabetes medications and who received hospital care between January 1, 2016 and September 30, 2017. Diagnosis codes were validated with structured medical record review using prespecified criteria (clinical presentation, blood glucose values, and treatments for hypoglycemia). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) were calculated and adjusted using sampling weights to correct for partial verification bias. RESULTS: Among 990 encounters (496 cases, 494 controls), hypoglycemia codes demonstrated moderate PPV (69.2%; 95% confidence interval: 65.0-73.0) and moderate sensitivity (83.9%; 95% confidence interval: 70.0-95.5). Codes performed better at identifying hypoglycemic events among emergency department/observation encounters compared with hospitalizations (PPV 92.9%, sensitivity 100.0% vs. PPV 53.7%, sensitivity 71.0%). Accuracy varied by diagnosis position, especially for hospitalizations, with PPV of 95.6% versus 46.5% with hypoglycemia in primary versus secondary positions. Use of adverse event/poisoning codes did not improve accuracy; reliance on these codes alone would have missed 97% of true hypoglycemic events. CONCLUSIONS: Accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes in administrative claims to identify medication-related hypoglycemia varied substantially by encounter type and diagnosis position. Consideration should be given to the trade-off between PPV and sensitivity when selecting codes, encounter types, and diagnosis positions to identify hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(12): 544-551, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: CMS measures and reports hospital performance to drive quality improvement (QI), but information on actions that hospitals have taken in response to quality measurement is lacking. We aimed to develop national estimates of QI actions undertaken by hospitals and to explore their relationship to performance on CMS quality measures. STUDY DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of acute care hospitals in 2016 (n = 1313 respondents; 64% response rate). METHODS: We assessed 23 possible QI changes. Using multivariate linear regression, we estimated the relationship between reported QI changes and performance on composite measures derived from 26 Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program measures (scaled 0-100), controlling for case mix and facility characteristics. RESULTS: Hospitals reported implementing a mean of 17 QI changes (median [interquartile range], 17 [15-20]). Large hospitals reported significantly higher adoption rates than small hospitals for 18 QI changes. Most hospitals that reported making QI changes (63%-96% for the 23 changes) responded that the specific change made helped improve performance. In multivariate regression analyses, adoption of 92% of QI changes (90th percentile among hospitals), compared with adoption of 50% of QI changes (10th percentile), was associated with a 2.3-point higher overall performance score (95% CI, 0.7-4.0) and higher process (8.7 points; 95% CI, 5.7-11.7) and patient experience (3.0 points; 95% CI, 0.1-5.9) composite scores. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals reported widespread adoption of QI changes in response to CMS quality measurement and reporting. Higher QI adoption rates were associated with modestly higher process, patient experience, and overall performance composite scores.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
3.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(11): 3273-3284, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HHQRP) uses performance measurement to spur improvements in home health agencies' (HHAs') quality of care. We examined quality improvement (QI) activities HHAs reported making to improve on HHQRP quality measures, and whether reported QI activities were associated with better measure performance. METHODS: We used responses (N = 1052) from a Web- and mail-based survey of a stratified random sample of HHAs included in CMS Home Health Compare in October 2019. We estimated national adoption rates for 27 possible QI activities related to organizational culture, health information technology, care process redesign, provider incentives, provider training, changes to staffing responsibilities, performance monitoring, and measure-specific QI initiatives and technical assistance. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the associations between HHA characteristics and QI adoption, and between QI adoption and CMS Home Health Quality of Patient Care Star Rating. RESULTS: HHAs reported implementing an average of 16 QI activities (interquartile range 11-19 activities). Larger HHA size was associated with adopting 1.6 additional QI activities (p < 0.001). HHAs with higher proportions of disabled, black, or Hispanic patients adopted QI activities at similar or higher rates as other HHAs. Of the 27 QI activities, 23 were considered helpful by more than 80% of adopting HHAs. Compared with adopting 44% of QI activities (10th percentile among HHAs), adopting 89% of QI activities (90th percentile) was associated with a 0.4-star higher Star Rating (95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6). CONCLUSIONS: HHAs report implementing a significant number of QI activities in response to CMS measurement programs; implementation of a greater number of activities is associated with better performance on publicly reported measures. To guide future HHA QI investments, work is needed to identify the optimal combination of QI activities and the specific QI activities that yield the greatest performance improvements.


Assuntos
Agências de Assistência Domiciliar , Medicare/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Agências de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Agências de Assistência Domiciliar/normas , Humanos , Informática Médica , Motivação , Cultura Organizacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(22): 825-829, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081687

RESUMO

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the ESRD Networks†,§ through analysis of data, dissemination of best practices, and creation of educational materials. ESRD NCC analyzed deaths reported to the Consolidated Renal Operations in a Web-Enabled Network (CROWNWeb), a system that facilitates the collection of data and maintenance of information about ESRD patients on chronic dialysis or receiving a kidney transplant who are treated in Medicare-certified dialysis facilities and kidney transplant centers in the United States. Excess death estimates were obtained by comparing observed and predicted monthly numbers of deaths during February 1-August 31, 2020; predicted deaths were modeled based on data from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2019. The analysis estimated 8.7-12.9 excess deaths per 1,000 ESRD patients, or a total of 6,953-10,316 excess deaths in a population of 798,611 ESRD patients during February 1-August 31, 2020. These findings suggest that deaths among ESRD patients during the early phase of the pandemic exceeded those that would have been expected based on previous years' data. Geographic and temporal patterns of excess mortality, including those among persons with ESRD, should be considered during planning and implementation of interventions, such as COVID-19 vaccination, infection control guidance, and patient education. These findings underscore the importance of data-driven technical assistance and further analyses of the causes and patterns of excess deaths in ESRD patients.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Mortalidade/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(9): 1979-1987, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home Quality Initiative aims to improve quality through performance measurement. We describe quality improvement (QI) changes that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) reported making in response to CMS performance measurements and whether reported QI changes were associated with better performance on CMS performance measures. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey. SETTING: A total of 15,475 SNFs that reported quality performance on Nursing Home Compare in 2016. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,182 SNFs (58% of random sample of 2,045 SNFs). MEASUREMENTS: Adoption of 22 possible QI changes, grouped into seven categories (organizational culture, health information technology, care process redesign, provider incentives, changes to staffing responsibilities, performance monitoring, and measure-specific QI initiatives and technical assistance); performance on the CMS Nursing Home Compare Five-Star Quality Rating System's quality measure rating. RESULTS: SNFs reported making an average of 13 QI changes (interquartile range = 11-16 changes). SNFs mostly commonly reported becoming a learning organization (87%) and providing training to staff on QI strategies (87%). After controlling for patient and facility characteristics, larger SNFs were more likely to obtain assistance on measure reporting from QI organizations and use provider champions than smaller SNFs by 14 and 11 percentage points, respectively. Rural SNFs and SNFs with higher proportions of disabled, black, or Hispanic residents adopted QI changes at similar rates as other SNFs. Of the 22 QI changes, 20 were considered at least somewhat helpful by more than 80% of adopting SNFs. Implementation of all 22 QI changes (vs no changes) was associated with a .48-star higher quality measure rating (95% confidence interval = .003-.98 stars; P = .05). CONCLUSION: In response to CMS measurement programs, SNFs reported making substantial QI investments that were associated with better performance on CMS quality measures. To guide future SNF investments in QI, work is needed to identify the QI changes that yield the greatest performance improvements.


Assuntos
Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(7): 951-964, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess performance of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) code assignments for identifying bleeding events resulting in emergency department visits and hospitalizations among outpatient Medicare beneficiaries prescribed anticoagulants. METHODS: Performance of 206 ICD-10-CM code assignments indicative of bleeding, five anticoagulant adverse effect/poisoning codes, and five coagulopathy codes (according to Medicare Parts A and B claims) as assessed among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries prescribed anticoagulants between October 1, 2015 and September 30, 2016 (according to Part D claims). Structured medical record review was the gold standard for validating the presence of anticoagulant-related bleeding. Sensitivity was adjusted to correct for partial verification bias due to sampling design. RESULTS: Based on the study sample of 1166 records (583 cases, 583 controls), 57 of 206 codes yielded the optimal performance for anticoagulant-related bleeding (diagnostic odds ratio, 51; positive predictive value (PPV), 75.7% [95% CI, 72.0%-79.1%]; adjusted sensitivity, 70.0% [95% CI, 63.2%-77.7%]). Codes for intracranial bleeding demonstrated the highest PPV (85.0%) and adjusted sensitivity (91.0%). Bleeding codes in the primary position demonstrated high PPV (86.9%), but low adjusted sensitivity (36.0%). The adjusted sensitivity improved to 69.5% when codes in a secondary position were added. Only one adverse effect/poisoning code was used, appearing in 7.8% of cases and controls (PPV, 71.4% and adjusted sensitivity, 6.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Performance of ICD-10-CM code assignments for bleeding among patients prescribed anticoagulants varied by bleed type and code position. Adverse effect/poisoning codes were not commonly used and would have missed over 90% of anticoagulant-related bleeding cases.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/normas , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacoepidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Patient Saf ; 13(4): 249-254, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25719815

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We summarize the development and initial implementation of a survey tool to assess medication safety in small rural hospitals. SUMMARY: As part of an ongoing rural hospital medication safety improvement program, we developed a survey tool in all 13 critical access hospitals (CAHs) in Florida. The survey was compiled from existing medication safety assessments and standards, clinical practice guidelines, and published literature. Survey items were selected based on considerations regarding practicality and relevance to the CAH setting.The final survey instrument included 134 items representing 17 medication safety domains. Overall hospital scores ranged from 41% to 95%, with a median of 59%. Most hospitals showed large variation in scores across domains, with 5 hospitals having at least 1 domain with scores less than 10%. Highest scores across all facilities were seen for safety procedures concerning high-alert or look-alike medications and the assembly of emergency carts. The lowest median scores included availability and consistent use of standardized order sets and the effective implementation of medication safety committees. Most hospitals used the survey results to identify and prioritize quality improvement activities. CONCLUSIONS: The survey can be used to conduct a short medication safety assessment specific to a limited number of areas and services in CAHs. It showed good ability to discriminate medication safety levels across participating sites and highlighted opportunities for improvement. It may need modification if case mix or services differ in other states or if the status quo of medication safety in CAHs or related standards advance. The described process of survey development might be helpful to support such modifications.


Assuntos
Erros de Medicação/ética , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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