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1.
Br J Surg ; 107(9): 1114-1122, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placebo-controlled trials play an important role in the evaluation of healthcare interventions. However, they can be challenging to design and deliver for invasive interventions, including surgery. In-depth understanding of the component parts of the treatment intervention is needed to ascertain what should, and should not, be delivered as part of the placebo. Assessment of risk to patients and strategies to ensure that the placebo effectively mimics the treatment are also required. To date, no guidance exists for the design of invasive placebo interventions. This study aimed to develop a framework to optimize the design and delivery of invasive placebo interventions in RCTs. METHODS: A preliminary framework was developed using published literature to: expand the scope of an existing typology, which facilitates the deconstruction of invasive interventions; and identify placebo optimization strategies. The framework was refined after consultation with key stakeholders in surgical trials, consensus methodology and medical ethics. RESULTS: The resulting DITTO framework consists of five stages: deconstruct treatment intervention into constituent components and co-interventions; identify critical surgical element(s); take out the critical element(s); think risk, feasibility and role of placebo in the trial when considering remaining components; and optimize placebo to ensure effective blinding of patients and trial personnel. CONCLUSION: DITTO considers invasive placebo composition systematically, accounting for risk, feasibility and placebo optimization. Use of the framework can support the design of high-quality RCTs, which are needed to underpin delivery of healthcare interventions.


ANTECEDENTES: Los ensayos controlados con placebo juegan un papel importante en la evaluación de las intervenciones sanitarias. Sin embargo, pueden ser difíciles de diseñar e implementar en el caso de intervenciones invasivas, incluida la cirugía. Se necesita un conocimiento profundo de los componentes de la intervención terapéutica (para determinar qué se debe y qué no se debe administrar como parte del placebo). También se precisa de una evaluación del riesgo para los pacientes y de las estrategias para garantizar que el placebo imite el tratamiento de forma efectiva. Hasta la fecha no existen guías para el diseño de intervenciones invasivas con placebo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un marco para optimizar el diseño y la práctica de intervenciones invasivas con placebo dentro en los ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA). MÉTODOS: Utilizando la literatura publicada, se desarrolló un marco preliminar para i) ampliar el alcance de los modelos existentes para facilitar la deconstrucción de las actuaciones invasivas, y ii) identificar estrategias para optimizar el placebo. El marco se perfeccionó tras consultar con partes interesadas ​​en ensayos quirúrgicos, metodología de consenso y ética médica. RESULTADOS: El marco DITTO resultantes consiste en cinco etapas: Etapa 1: deconstrucción de la intervención de tratamiento en sus componentes esenciales y co-intervenciones; Etapa 2: identificar el(los) elemento(s) quirúrgico(s) básico(s); Etapa 3: eliminar el(los) elemento(s) básico(s); Etapa 4: considerar el riesgo, la viabilidad y el papel del placebo en el ensayo al tener en cuenta los demás componentes; y Etapa 5: optimizar el placebo para garantizar el cegamiento efectivo de los pacientes y del personal del ensayo. CONCLUSIÓN: DITTO considera de forma sistemática la naturaleza invasiva del placebo, teniendo en cuenta el riesgo, la viabilidad y la optimización del placebo. El uso de este marco de referencia puede ayudar al diseño de ECAs de alta calidad, necesarios para afianzar la implementación de intervenciones sanitarias.


Assuntos
Placebos/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Medição de Risco
2.
Child Care Health Dev ; 44(2): 188-194, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health service use may be influenced by multilevel predisposing, enabling, and need factors but is equitable when driven by need. The study's objectives were as follows: (a) to investigate residential context's effect on child health service use and (b) to examine inequity of child health service use by testing for effect measure modification of need factors. METHODS: The sample of 1,451 children was from a prenatal cohort recruited from London, Ontario, between 2002 and 2004, with follow-up until children were toddler/preschooler-aged. Individual-level data were linked by residential address to neighbourhood contextual-level data sourced from Statistics Canada. Multilevel logistic regression modelled factors associated with child health service use. Interaction terms were included in the model to test for effect measure modification of need factors by predisposing and enabling factors. RESULTS: Contextual-level factors were not associated with child health service use. Maternal parity and nativity to Canada modified the effect of the need factor, paediatric health condition, on health service use. Health condition's effect was lowest in children of Canadian-born mothers with one child only (OR = 1.58, p = .04) and highest in children of Canadian-born mothers with three or more children (OR = 3.52, p < .01). Further, its effect was higher in children of Canadian-born mothers compared to children of mothers who migrated to Canada; however, odds ratios were not statistically significant for the latter. CONCLUSIONS: Results may inform future investigation of the potential inequity of health service use for subgroups of children whose mothers are of lower parity and not Canadian-born. An understanding of these inequities may inform future healthcare policy and care for paediatric populations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Paridade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Bone Joint J ; 99-B(1): 107-115, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053265

RESUMO

AIMS: The appropriate management for patients with a degenerative tear of the rotator cuff remains controversial, but operative treatment, particularly arthroscopic surgery, is increasingly being used. Our aim in this paper was to compare the effectiveness of arthroscopic with open repair of the rotator cuff. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 273 patients were recruited to a randomised comparison trial (136 to arthroscopic surgery and 137 to open surgery) from 19 teaching and general hospitals in the United Kingdom. The surgeons used their usual preferred method of repair. The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), two years post-operatively, was the primary outcome measure. Imaging of the shoulder was performed at one year after surgery. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN97804283. RESULTS: The mean OSS improved from 26.3 (standard deviation (sd) 8.2) at baseline, to 41.7 (sd 7.9) two years post-operatively for arthroscopic surgery and from 25.0 (sd 8.0) to 41.5 (sd 7.9) for open surgery. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed no statistical difference between the groups at two years (difference in OSS score -0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.75 to 1.22; p = 0.452). The confidence interval excluded the pre-determined clinically important difference in the OSS of three points. The rate of re-tear was not significantly different between the two groups (46.4% for arthroscopic and 38.6% for open surgery; 95% CI -6.9 to 25.8; p = 0.256). Healed repairs had the most improved OSS. These findings were the same when analysed per-protocol. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence of difference in effectiveness between open and arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears. The rate of re-tear is high in both groups, for all sizes of tear and ages and this adversely affects the outcome. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:107-15.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Gerais , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BJOG ; 123(5): 763-70, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25976430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were: (1) to examine the association between maternal, fetal, and placental phenotypes of preterm delivery and medically indicated early delivery of singletons during the late preterm and early term periods; and (2) to identify the specific maternal, fetal, and placental conditions associated with these early deliveries. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. SAMPLE: Singleton live deliveries, at 34-41 weeks of gestation to women in London and Middlesex. METHODS: We obtained data from a city-wide perinatal database (2002-2011; n = 25 699). We used multinomial logistic regression for multivariable analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The outcome was the occurrence of medically indicated late preterm (34-36 weeks of gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks of gestation) delivery, versus delivery at full term (39-41 weeks of gestation). RESULTS: After controlling for confounding factors, all phenotypes were associated with increased odds of medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery. Within the maternal phenotype, chronic maternal medical conditions were associated with increased odds of medically indicated early term delivery (e.g. for gastrointestinal disease, adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47-2.00; for anaemia, aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.63), but not late preterm delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The aetiology of medically indicated early delivery close to full term is heterogeneous. Patterns of associations suggest slightly different conditions underlying the late preterm and early term phenotypes, with chronic maternal medical conditions being associated with early term delivery but not with late preterm delivery. These results have implications for the prevention of early delivery as well as the identification of high-risk groups among those born early. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: The aetiology of medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery is heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Doenças Fetais/terapia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Doenças Placentárias/terapia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
BJOG ; 122(4): 491-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25414127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the association between biological determinants of preterm birth (infection and inflammation, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia, diabetes mellitus, other) and spontaneous late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: City of London and Middlesex County, Canada. SAMPLE: Singleton live births, delivered at 34-41 weeks to London-Middlesex mothers following spontaneous labour. METHODS: Data were obtained from a city-wide perinatal database on births between 2002 and 2011 (n = 17,678). Multivariable analyses used multinomial logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The outcome of interest was the occurrence of late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth, compared with full term birth (39-41 weeks). RESULTS: After controlling for covariates, there were associations between infection and inflammation and late preterm birth (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.65, 2.60); between placental ischaemia and other hypoxia and late preterm (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.88, 2.61) and early term (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.13, 1.39) birth; between diabetes mellitus and late preterm (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI 2.90, 5.21) and early term (aOR = 2.66, 95% CI 2.19, 3.23) birth; and between other biological determinants (polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios) and late preterm (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI 1.70, 4.64) and early term (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.32, 2.70) birth. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that delivery following spontaneous labour even close to full term may be a result of pathological processes. Because these biological determinants of preterm birth contribute to an adverse intrauterine environment, they have important implications for fetal and neonatal health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Inflamação/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Placentárias/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Br J Surg ; 101(12): 1532-40, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25274220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of patients with varicose veins constitutes a considerable workload and financial burden to the National Health Service. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) compared with conventional surgery as treatment for primary varicose veins. METHODS: Participant cost and utility data were collected alongside the UK CLASS multicentre randomized clinical trial, which compared EVLA, surgery and UGFS. Regression methods were used to estimate the effects of the alternative treatments on costs to the health service and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at 6 months. A Markov model, incorporating available evidence on clinical recurrence rates, was developed to extrapolate the trial data over a 5-year time horizon. RESULTS: Compared with surgery at 6 months, UGFS and EVLA reduced mean costs to the health service by £655 and £160 respectively. When additional overhead costs associated with theatre use were included, these cost savings increased to £902 and £392 respectively. UGFS produced 0·005 fewer QALYs, whereas EVLA produced 0·011 additional QALYs. Extrapolating to 5 years, EVLA was associated with increased costs and QALYs compared with UGFS (costing £3640 per QALY gained), and generated a cost saving (£206-439) and QALY gain (0·078) compared with surgery. Applying a ceiling willingness-to-pay ratio of £20 000 per QALY gained, EVLA had the highest probability (78·7 per cent) of being cost-effective. CONCLUSION: The results suggest, for patients considered eligible for all three treatment options, that EVLA has the highest probability of being cost-effective at accepted thresholds of willingness to pay per QALY.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser/economia , Escleroterapia/economia , Varizes/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada/economia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Endovasculares/economia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Humanos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Escleroterapia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/terapia
7.
Placenta ; 35(8): 582-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24909371

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To elucidate how obstetric conditions are associated with atypical placental weight ratios (PWR)s in infants born: (a) ≥37 weeks gestation; (b) at ≥33 but <37 weeks gestation; and (c) <33 weeks gestation. METHODS: The study included all in-hospital singleton births in London, Ontario between June 1, 2006 and March 31, 2011. PWR was assessed as <10th or >90th percentile by gestational age-specific local population standards. Multivariable analysis was carried out using multinomial logistic regression with blockwise variable entry in order of temporality. RESULTS: Baseline factors and maternal obstetric conditions associated with PWR <10th percentile were: increasing maternal height, overweight and obese body mass indexes (BMI), large for gestational age infants, smoking, and gestational diabetes. Obstetric factors associated with PWR >90th percentile were: underweight, overweight and obese BMIs, smoking, preeclampsia, placenta previa, and placental abruption. In particular, indicators of hypoxia and altered placental function were generally associated with elevated PWR at all gestations. DISCUSSION: An association between obstetric conditions associated with fetal hypoxia and PWR ≥90th percentile was illustrated. CONCLUSIONS: The multivariable findings suggest that the PWR is similarly increased regardless of the etiology of the hypoxia.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Fetal/etiologia , Placentação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
Bone Joint Res ; 3(5): 155-60, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24845913

RESUMO

This protocol describes a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic and open surgery in the management of rotator cuff tears. This trial began in 2007 and was modified in 2010, with the removal of a non-operative arm due to high rates of early crossover to surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:155-60.

9.
Br J Anaesth ; 113(4): 610-7, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24829442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is reasonably strong. We set out to determine use in UK critical care units and to compare patient outcomes between units that do and those that do not use SDD. METHODS: A total of 250 UK general critical care units were surveyed. Case mix, outcomes, and lengths of stay for admissions to SDD units (with and without an i.v. component) and non-SDD units were compared using data from the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme database. RESULTS: A response was received from all the 250 critical care units surveyed. Of these, 13 (5.2%) reported using SDD on some or all admissions, and of these, 3 reported using an i.v. component. Data on 284,690 admissions (April 2008-March 2011) from units reporting to the ICNARC Case Mix Programme (CMP) were included in the analyses. Admissions to SDD (n=196) and non-SDD (n=9) units were a similar case mix with similar infection rates and average lengths of stay in the unit and hospital. There was no difference in risk-adjusted unit or hospital mortality. The rate of unit-acquired infections in blood was significantly lower in SDD units using an i.v. component. CONCLUSIONS: Use of SDD in UK critical care is very low. The rate of unit-acquired infections in blood was significantly lower in SDD units using an i.v. component, but did not translate into a difference in acute hospital mortality or length of stay. There is a need to better understand the barriers to adoption of SDD into clinical practice and such work is underway.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Descontaminação/estatística & dados numéricos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Perioperatória/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
10.
Health Technol Assess ; 17(22): 1-167, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23742987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite promising evidence that laparoscopic fundoplication provides better short-term relief of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) than continued medical management, uncertainty remains about whether benefits are sustained and outweigh risks. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic surgery among people with GORD requiring long-term medication and suitable for both surgical and medical management. DESIGN: Five-year follow-up of a randomised trial (with parallel non-randomised preference groups) comparing a laparoscopic surgery-based policy with a continued medical management policy. Cost-effectiveness was assessed alongside the trial using a NHS perspective for costs and expressing health outcomes in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). SETTING: Follow-up was by annual postal questionnaire and selective hospital case notes review; initial recruitment in 21 UK hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaire responders among the 810 original participants. At entry, all had documented evidence of GORD and symptoms for > 12 months. Questionnaire response rates (years 1-5) were from 89.5% to 68.9%. INTERVENTIONS: Three hundred and fifty-seven participants were recruited to the randomised comparison (178 randomised to surgical management and 179 randomised to continued medical management) and 453 to the preference groups (261 surgical management and 192 medical management). The surgeon chose the type of fundoplication. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: disease-specific outcome measure (the REFLUX questionnaire); secondary: Short Form questionnaire-36 items (SF-36), European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), NHS resource use, reflux medication, complications. RESULTS: The randomised groups were well balanced. By 5 years, 63% in the randomised surgical group and 13% in the randomised medical management group had received a total or partial wrap fundoplication (85% and 3% in the preference groups), with few perioperative complications and no associated deaths. At 1 year (and 5 years) after surgery, 36% (41%) in the randomised surgical group - 15% (26%) of those who had surgery - were taking proton pump inhibitor medication compared with 87% (82%) in the randomised medical group. At each year, differences in the REFLUX score significantly favoured the randomised surgical group (a third of a SD; p< 0.01 at 5 years). SF-36 and EQ-5D scores also favoured surgery, but differences attenuated over time and were generally not statistically significant at 5 years. The worse the symptoms at trial entry, the larger the benefit observed after surgery. Those randomised to medical management who subsequently had surgery had low baseline scores that markedly improved after surgery. Following fundoplication, 3% had surgical treatment for a complication and 4% had subsequent reflux-related operations - most often revision of the wrap. Dysphagia, flatulence and inability to vomit were similar in the two randomised groups. The economic analysis indicated that surgery was the more cost-effective option for this patient group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for surgery in the base case was £7028 per additional QALY; these findings were robust to changes in approaches and assumptions. The probability of surgery being cost-effective at a threshold of £20,000 per additional QALY was > 0.80 for all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: After 5 years, laparoscopic fundoplication continues to provide better relief of GORD symptoms with associated improved health-related quality of life. Complications of surgery were uncommon. Despite being initially more costly, a surgical policy is highly likely to be cost-effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15517081. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 17, No. 22. See the HTA programme website for further project information.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/economia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/economia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundoplicatura/efeitos adversos , Fundoplicatura/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Reino Unido
11.
BMJ ; 346: f1908, 2013 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23599318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the long term clinical effectiveness of laparoscopic fundoplication as an alternative to drug treatment for chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). DESIGN: Five year follow-up of multicentre, pragmatic randomised trial (with parallel non-randomised preference groups). SETTING: Initial recruitment in 21 UK hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Responders to annual questionnaires among 810 original participants. At entry, all had had GORD for >12 months. INTERVENTION: The surgeon chose the type of fundoplication. Medical therapy was reviewed and optimised by a specialist. Subsequent management was at the discretion of the clinician responsible for care, usually in primary care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measure was self reported quality of life score on disease-specific REFLUX questionnaire. Other measures were health status (with SF-36 and EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaires), use of antireflux medication, and complications. RESULTS: By five years, 63% (112/178) of patients randomised to surgery and 13% (24/179) of those randomised to medical management had received a fundoplication (plus 85% (222/261) and 3% (6/192) of those who expressed a preference for surgery and for medical management). Among responders at 5 years, 44% (56/127) of those randomised to surgery were taking antireflux medication versus 82% (98/119) of those randomised to medical management. Differences in the REFLUX score significantly favoured the randomised surgery group (mean difference 8.5 (95% CI 3.9 to 13.1), P<0.001, at five years). SF-36 and EQ-5D scores also favoured surgery, but were not statistically significant at five years. After fundoplication, 3% (12/364) had surgical treatment for a complication and 4% (16) had subsequent reflux-related operations-most often revision of the wrap. Long term rates of dysphagia, flatulence, and inability to vomit were similar in the two randomised groups. CONCLUSIONS: After five years, laparoscopic fundoplication continued to provide better relief of GORD symptoms than medical management. Adverse effects of surgery were uncommon and generally observed soon after surgery. A small proportion had re-operations. There was no evidence of long term adverse symptoms caused by surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15517081.


Assuntos
Fundoplicatura/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundoplicatura/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Bone Joint J ; 95-B(4): 486-92, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23539700

RESUMO

There is conflicting evidence about the merits of mobile bearings in total knee replacement, partly because most randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have not been adequately powered. We report the results of a multicentre RCT of mobile versus fixed bearings. This was part of the knee arthroplasty trial (KAT), where 539 patients were randomly allocated to mobile or fixed bearings and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome measure was the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) plus secondary measures including Short Form-12, EuroQol EQ-5D, costs, cost-effectiveness and need for further surgery. There was no significant difference between the groups pre-operatively: mean OKS was 17.18 (sd 7.60) in the mobile-bearing group and 16.49 (sd 7.40) in the fixed-bearing group. At five years mean OKS was 33.19 (sd 16.68) and 33.65 (sd 9.68), respectively. There was no significant difference between trial groups in OKS at five years (-1.12 (95% confidence interval -2.77 to 0.52) or any of the other outcome measures. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with knee-related re-operations or in total costs. In this appropriately powered RCT, over the first five years after total knee replacement functional outcomes, re-operation rates and healthcare costs appear to be the same irrespective of whether a mobile or fixed bearing is used.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese
13.
Chronic Dis Inj Can ; 32(2): 76-83, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22414304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined the dietary intake of iron, zinc and folate, estimated from both food and supplement sources, in 2019 pregnant women who participated in the Prenatal Health Project (PHP). The PHP recruited pregnant women from ultrasound clinics in London, Ontario, in the years 2002-2005. METHODS: Participants completed a telephone survey, which included a food frequency questionnaire and questions on dietary supplement use. Frequencies of use of dietary supplements were generated. Nutrient intake values were estimated from food and supplement sources, and summed to calculate total daily intake values. RESULTS: Most women took a multivitamin supplement, and many women took folic acid and iron supplements; however, one-fifth of the sample did not take any supplements providing any of the three micronutrients. Despite being of a higher socio-economic status overall, significant proportions of the cohort ranked below the recommended dietary allowance values for iron, zinc, and folate. This suggests there may be other barriers that impact dietary practices. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required on how to better promote supplement use and a healthy diet during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Ontário , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Community Health ; 36(6): 919-24, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21547410

RESUMO

According to hope theory, hope is defined as goal-directed thinking in which people perceive that they can find routes to desired goals and the motivation to use those routes. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between hope and body mass index and hope and self-rated health among women completing a community survey conducted in four rural counties in eastern North Carolina. The survey was administered as part of Hope Works, a participatory, community-led intervention program to improve weight, health and hope among low-income women in rural North Carolina. Survey data from 434 women were analyzed. In multivariate models adjusting for age, race, education and income, higher hope was positively related to self-reported health (OR:0.92; 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) and negatively related to BMI (P < 0.01). These results indicated that women who reported better self-rated health also had higher hope scores and women who were heavier had lower hope scores. While these findings are exploratory, they suggest directions for further research. State-based hope is considered to be a characteristic that is malleable and open to development. Future interventions should examine the importance of hope as a construct to examine in weight loss studies. For example, programs could be designed to increase hope by focusing on goal setting and providing support, information and resources to help women work toward their goals.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Saúde da População Rural , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Trials ; 12: 50, 2011 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21338481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical placebos are controversial. This in-depth study explored the design, acceptability, and feasibility issues relevant to designing a surgical placebo-controlled trial for the evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic lavage for the management of people with osteoarthritis of the knee in the UK. METHODS: Two surgeon focus groups at a UK national meeting for orthopaedic surgeons and one regional surgeon focus group (41 surgeons); plenary discussion at a UK national meeting for orthopaedic anaesthetists (130 anaesthetists); three focus groups with anaesthetists (one national, two regional; 58 anaesthetists); two focus groups with members of the patient organisation Arthritis Care (7 participants); telephone interviews with people on consultant waiting lists from two UK regional centres (15 participants); interviews with Chairs of UK ethics committees (6 individuals); postal surveys of members of the British Association of Surgeons of the Knee (382 surgeons) and members of the British Society of Orthopaedic Anaesthetists (398 anaesthetists); two centre pilot (49 patients assessed). RESULTS: There was widespread acceptance that evaluation of arthroscopic lavage had to be conducted with a placebo control if scientific rigour was not to be compromised. The choice of placebo surgical procedure (three small incisions) proved easier than the method of anaesthesia (general anaesthesia). General anaesthesia, while an excellent mimic, was more intrusive and raised concerns among some stakeholders and caused extensive discussion with local decision-makers when seeking formal approval for the pilot.Patients were willing to participate in a pilot with a placebo arm; although some patients when allocated to surgery became apprehensive about the possibility of receiving placebo, and withdrew. Placebo surgery was undertaken successfully. CONCLUSIONS: Our study illustrated the opposing and often strongly held opinions about surgical placebos, the ethical issues underpinning this controversy, and the challenges that exist even when ethics committee approval has been granted. It showed that a placebo-controlled trial could be conducted in principle, albeit with difficulty. It also highlighted that not only does a placebo-controlled trial in surgery have to be ethically and scientifically acceptable but that it also must be a feasible course of action. The place of placebo-controlled surgical trials more generally is likely to be limited and require specific circumstances to be met. Suggested criteria are presented. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial was assigned ISRCTN02328576 through http://controlled-trials.com/ in June 2006. The first patient was randomised to the pilot in July 2007.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Seleção de Pacientes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Anestesia Geral , Artroscopia/ética , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Projetos Piloto , Efeito Placebo , Irrigação Terapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
16.
Trials ; 11: 117, 2010 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21129208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and markedly increased health care costs. Critically ill patients who require management in an Intensive Care Unit are particularly susceptible to these infections which are associated with a very high mortality. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) may reduce these infections and improve mortality but it has not been widely adopted into practice. We aim to 1. Clarify reasons why clinicians have avoided implementing SDD into clinical practice despite the current best-evidence 2. Describe barriers to SDD implementation and 3. Identify what further evidence is required before full scale clinical implementation would be considered appropriate and feasible. METHODS: We have developed an international 'multi-lens' approach to investigate SDD from several perspectives. In case studies we will identify accounts of implementation of SDD in practice, in terms of the behaviours performed by the full range of individual clinicians, accounts of how SDD was first introduced into the Unit and specific content that may be used to populate the content of behaviour change techniques to be used in an implementation intervention and procedures to consider in order to deliver an implementation trial. In a 4 round Delphi study we will identify the range of stakeholders' beliefs, views and perceived barriers relating to the use of SDD. We will generate hypotheses about key beliefs about SDD and will inform the feasibility of any future randomised controlled trial. In large-scale nationwide postal questionnaire surveys of the state of current practice we will identify the factors predicting acceptability of an effectiveness or implementation trial using, and informed by, the theoretical domains structure. In semi-structured interviews with active international clinical trialists we will assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial and identify challenges and barriers to undertaking research in the field of SDD research. DISCUSSION: We believe these methods will allow us to determine whether clinical implementation trials or further large effectiveness trials are required before full scale implementation into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Theriogenology ; 73(8): 1104-15, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20172598

RESUMO

The objective was to identify an extender and cryoprotectant combination for Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) sperm that yielded high post-thaw sperm quality. Male Indian rhinoceroses (n=6; 7.5-34 yr old) were anesthetized and subjected to a regimented electroejaculation procedure (75-100 mAmps; 4-10 volts; 7-150 stimuli; total of 10 electroejaculation procedures). High quality semen fractions from each ejaculate were divided into four aliquots and a 2 x 2 factorial design used to compare the effect of two sperm extenders (standard equine [EQ] and skim milk-egg-yolk-sugar [SMEY]), and two cryoprotectants (glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]). Cyropreserved samples were thawed and assessed for motility, viability and acrosome integrity over time. Electroejaculate fractions processed for cryopreservation had high sperm concentration (516 x 10(6)/mL) and motility (79%). Post-thaw sperm characteristics were higher (P<0.05) when semen was cryopreserved in EQ versus SMEY. Post-thaw motility of sperm cyropreserved in EQ averaged 50-55% compared to 22-37% in SMEY, with no significant differences in sperm characteristics of samples cyropreserved in glycerol and DMSO. In conclusion, sperm collected from Indian rhinoceroses via electroejaculation were cryopreserved using EQ extender with either glycerol or DMSO; post-thaw quality was adequate for use in assisted reproductive procedures.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Perissodáctilos , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Crioprotetores/efeitos adversos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Gema de Ovo/química , Glicerol/farmacologia , Masculino , Leite/química , Perissodáctilos/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Recuperação Espermática , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia
18.
Health Technol Assess ; 14(5): 1-180, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20113674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the acceptability of a randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic lavage with a placebo-surgical procedure for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee; and to assess the practical feasibility of mounting such a multicentre placebo-controlled trial. DESIGN: Mixed methods study including: focus groups with surgeons and anaesthetists; focus groups and interviews with potential participants; interviews with chairpersons of UK Multicentre Research Ethics Committees (MRECs); surveys of surgeons and anaesthetists; and a two-centre, three-arm pilot. SETTING: UK secondary care. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the British Association of Surgeons of the Knee and members of the British Society of Orthopaedic Anaesthetists took part in the focus groups and surveys. Surgeons and anaesthetists from two regional centres in the UK also contributed to focus groups, as did patients from consultant lists in two UK regional centres, and members of Arthritis Care. Chairpersons of six UK MRECs were interviewed. Participants were eligible for the pilot if they were adults (18 years or older) with radiological evidence of osteoarthritis of the knee who might be considered for arthroscopic lavage, and were fit for general anaesthetic (defined by the American Society of Anaesthesiologists grades 1 and 2), and able to give informed consent. INTERVENTIONS: Participants in the pilot study were randomised to arthrosocopic lavage (with or without debridement at the clinical discretion of the surgeon); placebo surgery; or non-operative management with specialist reassessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The acceptability and feasibility of mounting a placebo-controlled trial for the evaluation of knee arthroscopic lavage. RESULTS: There was broad acceptance across all stakeholder groups of the need to find out more about the effectiveness of arthroscopic lavage. Despite this there was variation in opinion within all the groups about how researchers should approach this and whether or not it would be acceptable to investigate using placebo surgery. Within the health professional groups, there tended to be a split between those who were strongly opposed to the inclusion of a placebo surgery arm and those who were more in favour. For prospective trial participants who had osteoarthritis of the knee, the acceptability of the trial was discussed from a more individual perspective - reflecting on their personal reasons for or against participating. The majority of this group said they would consider taking part. The pilot study showed that, in principle, a placebo-controlled trial could be conducted. It showed that patients were willing to participate in a trial which would involve a placebo-surgical arm and that it was possible to undertake placebo surgery successfully and to blind patients to their allocation - although once patients knew their allocation, some patients allocated to surgery became more concerned about the possibility of undergoing placebo surgery, and withdrew. The experience of the pilot, however, showed that, despite full MREC approval, the study required major discussion and negotiation before local clinical approvals could be obtained. The fact that ethics approval had been granted did not mean that clinicians would automatically accept that the process was ethical. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that, in principle, a placebo-controlled trial of arthroscopic lavage could be conducted in the UK, albeit with difficulty. Against the background of falling use of arthroscopic lavage the decision was, therefore, taken not to proceed to full-scale trial for this procedure. The study showed that for some health professionals the use of placebo surgery can never be justified. It highlighted the importance of the surgeon-anaesthetist relationship in this context and how acceptance of the trial design by both parties is essential to successful participation. It also highlighted the importance of informed consent for trial participants and the strength and influence of individuals' ethical perspectives in addition to collective ethics provided by MRECs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02328576.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Anestesiologia , Artroscopia/economia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Ortopedia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Projetos Piloto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Irrigação Terapêutica/economia , Reino Unido
19.
BMJ ; 339: b3723, 2009 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19837741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that nurse led follow-up programmes are effective and cost effective in improving quality of life after discharge from intensive care. DESIGN: A pragmatic, non-blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Three UK hospitals (two teaching hospitals and one district general hospital). PARTICIPANTS: 286 patients aged >or=18 years were recruited after discharge from intensive care between September 2006 and October 2007. INTERVENTION: Nurse led intensive care follow-up programmes versus standard care. Main outcome measure(s) Health related quality of life (measured with the SF-36 questionnaire) at 12 months after randomisation. A cost effectiveness analysis was also performed. RESULTS: 286 patients were recruited and 192 completed one year follow-up. At 12 months, there was no evidence of a difference in the SF-36 physical component score (mean 42.0 (SD 10.6) v 40.8 (SD 11.9), effect size 1.1 (95% CI -1.9 to 4.2), P=0.46) or the SF-36 mental component score (effect size 0.4 (-3.0 to 3.7), P=0.83). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes or subgroup analyses. Follow-up programmes were significantly more costly than standard care and are unlikely to be considered cost effective. CONCLUSIONS: A nurse led intensive care follow-up programme showed no evidence of being effective or cost effective in improving patients' quality of life in the year after discharge from intensive care. Further work should focus on the roles of early physical rehabilitation, delirium, cognitive dysfunction, and relatives in recovery from critical illness. Intensive care units should review their follow-up programmes in light of these results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 24294750.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Estado Terminal/enfermagem , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Estado Terminal/economia , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Distrito , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
BJOG ; 116(8): 1038-45, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19438495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes of microwave endometrial ablation and thermal balloon ablation for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. DESIGN: A double blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A UK teaching hospital. POPULATION: Three hundred and twenty women requesting endometrial ablation. METHODS: Operative data collection and patient completed postal questionnaires were used to ascertain women's satisfaction with outcome, acceptability of each procedure, changes in menstrual symptoms and health related quality of life and additional treatments received. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were satisfaction and menstrual scores 1 year. Secondary outcomes were operative differences, acceptability of treatment and changes in health related quality of life. RESULTS: Both technologies achieved high levels of satisfaction (-1%, 95% CI (-11, 9)). Menstrual scores were also similar (4%, 95% CI (-7, 19)) Microwave had a significantly shorter operating time, reduced usage of antiemetics and opiate analgesia, increased discharge by 6 hours and fewer device failures. CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments are acceptable to women, with high levels of satisfaction. Microwave is quicker to perform with faster hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação Endometrial/métodos , Menorragia/cirurgia , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Cateterismo/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Técnicas de Ablação Endometrial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Menorragia/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
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