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1.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(4)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer survivors often use multivitamins and other over-the-counter dietary supplements, but evidence is limited regarding their potential associations with mortality. METHODS: This prospective analysis included women and men from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer-free at baseline (1992 or 1993) and diagnosed with colorectal cancer through June 2015. Detailed information on multivitamin use, vitamin C supplements, and vitamin E supplements was self-reported on questionnaires at baseline, in 1997, and every 2 years thereafter. Pre- and postdiagnosis data were available for 3176 and 2006 colorectal cancer survivors, respectively, among whom 2116 (648 from colorectal cancer) and 1256 (242 from colorectal cancer) died. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models examined associations. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Among colorectal cancer survivors, 49.7% and 58.5% reported multivitamin use before and after diagnosis, respectively (vitamin C use before and after diagnosis: 27.8% and 28.1%; vitamin E use before and after diagnosis: 27.5% and 29.4%, respectively). There were no statistically significant associations of pre- or postdiagnosis multivitamin use with all-cause, colorectal cancer-specific, or noncolorectal cancer mortality. Vitamin C was also not associated with any mortality outcomes. However, prediagnosis vitamin E use was associated with a non-statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence intervals = 0.96 to 1.23) and all other noncolorectal cancer mortality (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence intervals = 0.97 to 1.31). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that multivitamin use before or after diagnosis is not associated with mortality in colorectal cancer survivors. However, vitamin E use may be associated with increased risk of mortality and merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias Colorretais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10207, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715570

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with evidence of distinct tumor types that develop through different somatically altered pathways. To better understand the impact of the host genome on somatically mutated genes and pathways, we assessed associations of germline variations with somatic events via two complementary approaches. We first analyzed the association between individual germline genetic variants and the presence of non-silent somatic mutations in genes in 1375 CRC cases with genome-wide SNPs data and a tumor sequencing panel targeting 205 genes. In the second analysis, we tested if germline variants located within previously identified regions of somatic allelic imbalance were associated with overall CRC risk using summary statistics from a recent large scale GWAS (n≃125 k CRC cases and controls). The first analysis revealed that a variant (rs78963230) located within a CNA region associated with TLR3 was also associated with a non-silent mutation within gene FBXW7. In the secondary analysis, the variant rs2302274 located in CDX1/PDGFRB frequently gained/lost in colorectal tumors was associated with overall CRC risk (OR = 0.96, p = 7.50e-7). In summary, we demonstrate that an integrative analysis of somatic and germline variation can lead to new insights about CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas/patologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3254, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668106

RESUMO

Carriers of germline biallelic pathogenic variants in the MUTYH gene have a high risk of colorectal cancer. We test 5649 colorectal cancers to evaluate the discriminatory potential of a tumor mutational signature specific to MUTYH for identifying biallelic carriers and classifying variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). Using a tumor and matched germline targeted multi-gene panel approach, our classifier identifies all biallelic MUTYH carriers and all known non-carriers in an independent test set of 3019 colorectal cancers (accuracy = 100% (95% confidence interval 99.87-100%)). All monoallelic MUTYH carriers are classified with the non-MUTYH carriers. The classifier provides evidence for a pathogenic classification for two VUS and a benign classification for five VUS. Somatic hotspot mutations KRAS p.G12C and PIK3CA p.Q546K are associated with colorectal cancers from biallelic MUTYH carriers compared with non-carriers (p = 2 × 10-23 and p = 6 × 10-11, respectively). Here, we demonstrate the potential application of mutational signatures to tumor sequencing workflows to improve the identification of biallelic MUTYH carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , DNA Glicosilases , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação
4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(8): 1107-1120, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759080

RESUMO

Cancer heterogeneities hold the key to a deeper understanding of cancer etiology and progression and the discovery of more precise cancer therapy. Modern pathological and molecular technologies offer a powerful set of tools to profile tumor heterogeneities at multiple levels in large patient populations, from DNA to RNA, protein and epigenetics, and from tumor tissues to tumor microenvironment and liquid biopsy. When coupled with well-validated epidemiologic methodology and well-characterized epidemiologic resources, the rich tumor pathological and molecular tumor information provide new research opportunities at an unprecedented breadth and depth. This is the research space where Molecular Pathological Epidemiology (MPE) emerged over a decade ago and has been thriving since then. As a truly multidisciplinary field, MPE embraces collaborations from diverse fields including epidemiology, pathology, immunology, genetics, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and data science. Since first convened in 2013, the International MPE Meeting series has grown into a dynamic and dedicated platform for experts from these disciplines to communicate novel findings, discuss new research opportunities and challenges, build professional networks, and educate the next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fifth International MPE meeting, held virtually online, on May 24 and 25, 2021. The meeting consisted of 21 presentations organized into the three main themes, which were recent integrative MPE studies, novel cancer profiling technologies, and new statistical and data science approaches. Looking forward to the near future, the meeting attendees anticipated continuous expansion and fruition of MPE research in many research fronts, particularly immune-epidemiology, mutational signatures, liquid biopsy, and health disparities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Patologia Molecular , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1077-1089, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently known associations between common genetic variants and colorectal cancer explain less than half of its heritability of 25%. As alcohol consumption has a J-shape association with colorectal cancer risk, nondrinking and heavy drinking are both risk factors for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Individual-level data was pooled from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium to compare nondrinkers (≤1 g/day) and heavy drinkers (>28 g/day) with light-to-moderate drinkers (1-28 g/day) in GxE analyses. To improve power, we implemented joint 2df and 3df tests and a novel two-step method that modifies the weighted hypothesis testing framework. We prioritized putative causal variants by predicting allelic effects using support vector machine models. RESULTS: For nondrinking as compared with light-to-moderate drinking, the hybrid two-step approach identified 13 significant SNPs with pairwise r2 > 0.9 in the 10q24.2/COX15 region. When stratified by alcohol intake, the A allele of lead SNP rs2300985 has a dose-response increase in risk of colorectal cancer as compared with the G allele in light-to-moderate drinkers [OR for GA genotype = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.17; OR for AA genotype = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31], but not in nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Among the correlated candidate SNPs in the 10q24.2/COX15 region, rs1318920 was predicted to disrupt an HNF4 transcription factor binding motif. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the association with colorectal cancer in 10q24.2/COX15 observed in genome-wide association study is strongest in nondrinkers. We also identified rs1318920 as the putative causal regulatory variant for the region. IMPACT: The study identifies multifaceted evidence of a possible functional effect for rs1318920.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
6.
Int J Cancer ; 151(3): 348-360, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383926

RESUMO

Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease and it is not well understood whether diabetes is more strongly associated with some tumor molecular subtypes than others. A better understanding of the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes could provide important insights into the biology of this association. We used data on lifestyle and clinical characteristics from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), including 9756 colorectal cancer cases (with tumor marker data) and 9985 controls, to evaluate associations between reported diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes. Tumor markers included BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype. In the multinomial logistic regression model, comparing colorectal cancer cases to cancer-free controls, diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer regardless of subtype. The highest OR estimate was found for BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer, n = 1086 (ORfully adj : 1.67, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.36-2.05), with an attenuated association observed between diabetes and colorectal cancer without BRAF-mutations, n = 7959 (ORfully adj : 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48). In the case only analysis, BRAF-mutation was differentially associated with diabetes (Pdifference  = .03). For the other markers, associations with diabetes were similar across tumor subtypes. In conclusion, our study confirms the established association between diabetes and colorectal cancer risk, and suggests that it particularly increases the risk of BRAF-mutated tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1068-1076, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has a strong epigenetic component that is accompanied by frequent DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations in addition to heritable genetic risk. It is of interest to understand the interrelationship of germline genetics, DNAm, and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation quantitative trait locus (meQTL) analysis in 1,355 people, assessing the pairwise associations between genetic variants and lymphocytes methylation data. In addition, we used penalized regression with cis-genetic variants ± 1 Mb of methylation to identify genome-wide heritable DNAm. We evaluated the association of genetically predicted methylation with colorectal cancer risk based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of over 125,000 cases and controls using the multivariate sMiST as well as univariately via examination of marginal association with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Of the 142 known colorectal cancer GWAS loci, 47 were identified as meQTLs. We identified four novel colorectal cancer-associated loci (NID2, ATXN10, KLHDC10, and CEP41) that reside over 1 Mb outside of known colorectal cancer loci and 10 secondary signals within 1 Mb of known loci. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging information of DNAm regulation into genetic association of colorectal cancer risk reveals novel pathways in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. Our summary statistics-based framework sMiST provides a powerful approach by combining information from the effect through methylation and residual direct effects of the meQTLs on disease risk. Further validation and functional follow-up of these novel pathways are needed. IMPACT: Using genotype, DNAm, and GWAS, we identified four new colorectal cancer risk loci. We studied the landscape of genetic regulation of DNAm via single-SNP and multi-SNP meQTL analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(4): 736-743, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have examined biomarkers of glucose homeostasis or inflammation with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage or grade. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study to examine associations of prediagnosis hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide, and C-reactive protein (CRP) with prostate cancer risk overall and stratified by tumor stage and grade. The study included 390 nonaggressive (T1-2, N0, M0, and Gleason score <8) and 313 aggressive cases (T3-4, or N1, or M1, or Gleason score 8-10) diagnosed after blood draw (1998-2001) and up to 2013, and a random subcohort of 1,303 cancer-free men at blood draw in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: In the multivariable-adjusted model without body mass index, HbA1c was inversely associated with nonaggressive prostate cancer (HR per unit increase, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00; P = 0.04). Analyses stratified by tumor stage and grade separately showed that HbA1c was inversely associated with low-grade prostate cancer (HR per unit increase, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00) and positively associated with high-grade prostate cancer (HR per unit increase, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.30). C-peptide and CRP were not associated with prostate cancer overall or by stage or grade. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that associations of hyperglycemia with prostate cancer may differ by tumor grade and stage. IMPACT: Future studies need to examine prostate cancer by tumor stage and grade, and to better understand the role of hyperglycemia in prostate cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(4): 528-539, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged younger than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3486 cases and 3890 controls aged younger than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per SD of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.20; odds ratio per SD of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615 to 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10 000 men and 21 per 10 000 women among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 127, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996992

RESUMO

Identification of new genetic markers may improve the prediction of colorectal cancer prognosis. Our objective was to examine genome-wide associations of germline genetic variants with disease-specific survival in an analysis of 16,964 cases of colorectal cancer. We analyzed genotype and colorectal cancer-specific survival data from a consortium of 15 studies. Approximately 7.5 million SNPs were examined under the log-additive model using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for clinical factors and principal components. Additionally, we ran secondary analyses stratifying by tumor site and disease stage. We used a genome-wide p-value threshold of 5 × 10-8 to assess statistical significance. No variants were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival in the full case analysis or in the stage-stratified analyses. Three SNPs were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival for cases with tumors located in the distal colon (rs698022, HR = 1.48, CI 1.30-1.69, p = 8.47 × 10-9) and the proximal colon (rs189655236, HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.65-2.77, p = 9.19 × 10-9 and rs144717887, HR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.57-2.58, p = 3.14 × 10-8), whereas no associations were detected for rectal tumors. Findings from this large genome-wide association study highlight the potential for anatomical-site-stratified genome-wide studies to identify germline genetic risk variants associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival. Larger sample sizes and further replication efforts are needed to more fully interpret these findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Cancer ; 150(9): 1447-1454, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888857

RESUMO

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We evaluated genetic variants associated with CRP levels and their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors in association with CRC-specific mortality. Our study included 16 142 CRC cases from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We identified 618 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRP levels from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between SNPs and CRC-specific mortality adjusting for age, sex, genotyping platform/study and principal components. We investigated their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors using likelihood ratio tests. Of 5472 (33.9%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3547 (64.8%) were due to CRC. No variants were associated with CRC-specific mortality after multiple comparison correction. We observed strong evidence of interaction between variant rs1933736 at FRK gene and sex in relation to CRC-specific mortality (corrected Pinteraction  = .0004); women had higher CRC-specific mortality associated with the minor allele (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) whereas an inverse association was observed for men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94). There was no evidence of interactions between CRP-associated SNPs and alcohol, obesity or smoking. Our study observed a significant interaction between sex and a CRP-associated variant in relation to CRC-specific mortality. Future replication of this association and functional annotation of the variant are needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 210-220, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) activates oncogenic signaling pathways and induces inflammation to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We characterized F. nucleatum and its subspecies in colorectal tumors and examined associations with tumor characteristics and colorectal cancer-specific survival. We conducted deep sequencing of nusA, nusG, and bacterial 16s rRNA genes in tumors from 1,994 patients with colorectal cancer and assessed associations between F. nucleatum presence and clinical characteristics, colorectal cancer-specific mortality, and somatic mutations. RESULTS: F. nucleatum, which was present in 10.3% of tumors, was detected in a higher proportion of right-sided and advanced-stage tumors, particularly subspecies animalis. Presence of F. nucleatum was associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.97; P = 0.0004). This association was restricted to nonhypermutated, microsatellite-stable tumors (HR, 2.13; P = 0.0002) and those who received chemotherapy [HR, 1.92; confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.45; P = 0.029). Only F. nucleatum subspecies animalis, the main subspecies detected (65.8%), was associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR, 2.16; P = 0.0016), subspecies vincentii and nucleatum were not (HR, 1.07; P = 0.86). Additional adjustment for tumor stage suggests that the effect of F. nucleatum on mortality is partly driven by a stage shift. Presence of F. nucleatum was associated with microsatellite instable tumors, tumors with POLE exonuclease domain mutations, and ERBB3 mutations, and suggestively associated with TP53 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: F. nucleatum, and particularly subspecies animalis, was associated with a higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality and specific somatic mutated genes. IMPACT: Our findings identify the F. nucleatum subspecies animalis as negatively impacting colorectal cancer mortality, which may occur through a stage shift and its effect on chemoresistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
13.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(5)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738070

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies, but current evidence on smoking in association with survival after CRC diagnosis is limited. Methods: We pooled data from 12 345 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 11 epidemiologic studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of prediagnostic smoking behavior with overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival. Results: Among 12 345 patients with CRC, 4379 (35.5%) died (2515 from CRC) over a median follow-up time of 7.5 years. Smoking was strongly associated with worse survival in stage I-III patients, whereas no association was observed among stage IV patients. Among stage I-III patients, clear dose-response relationships with all survival outcomes were seen for current smokers. For example, current smokers with 40 or more pack-years had statistically significantly worse overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HR] =1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.68 to 2.25; HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.78; and HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.19 to 3.26, respectively). Similar associations with all survival outcomes were observed for former smokers who had quit for less than 10 years, but only a weak association with non-CRC-specific survival was seen among former smokers who had quit for more than 10 years. Conclusions: This large consortium of CRC patient studies provides compelling evidence that smoking is strongly associated with worse survival of stage I-III CRC patients in a clear dose-response manner. The detrimental effect of smoking was primarily related to noncolorectal cancer events, but current heavy smoking also showed an association with CRC-specific survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Fumar/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836419

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA affected CRC risk, stratifying by aspirin use. A two-sample MR analysis was performed using GWAS summary statistics of SA (INTERVAL and EPIC-Norfolk, N = 14,149) and CRC (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO and UK Biobank, 55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). The DACHS study (4410 cases and 3441 controls) was used for replication and stratification of aspirin-use. SNPs proxying SA were selected via three methods: (1) functional SNPs that influence the activity of aspirin-metabolising enzymes; (2) pathway SNPs present in enzymes' coding regions; and (3) genome-wide significant SNPs. We found no association between functional SNPs and SA levels. The pathway and genome-wide SNPs showed no association between SA and CRC risk (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.84-1.27 and OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34, respectively). Results remained unchanged upon aspirin use stratification. We found little evidence to suggest that an SD increase in genetically predicted SA protects against CRC risk in the general population and upon stratification by aspirin use.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ácido Salicílico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6388, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737258

RESUMO

The relationship between dietary factors and liver disease remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the associations of whole grain and dietary fiber intake with liver cancer risk and chronic liver disease mortality. The National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study cohort recruited 485, 717 retired U.S. participants in 1995-1996. Follow-up through 2011 identified 940 incident liver cancer cases and 993 deaths from chronic liver disease. Compared with the lowest, the highest quintile of whole grain intake was associated with lower liver cancer risk (Hazard ratio [HR]Q5 vs. Q1 = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.96) and chronic liver disease mortality (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.35-0.55) in multivariable Cox models. Dietary fiber was also associated with lower liver cancer risk (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.90) and chronic liver disease mortality (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.29-0.48). Fiber from vegetables, beans and grains showed potential protective effect. Here, we show that higher intake of whole grain and dietary fiber are associated with lower risk of liver cancer and liver disease mortality.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(4)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377935

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including BRAF mutation, KRAS mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction. Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers (P trend < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and BRAF. Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; P difference = 2.1 x 10-6). The association was also stronger in tumors that were CIMP positive, MSI high, or KRAS wild type when combined (P difference < .001). Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Genes ras/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metilação , não Fumantes , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes
17.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-11, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353196

RESUMO

Compelling animal studies report increased intestinal permeability, inflammation, and colorectal carcinogenesis with exposure to certain emulsifiers commonly added to processed foods, but human data are lacking. Highly processed food consumption is also associated with obesity and higher risk of chronic diseases. We cross-sectionally examined the association of emulsifier and highly processed food consumption estimated from six 24-h dietary recalls among 588 U.S. men and women over one year, with biomarkers of intestinal permeability and inflammation measured from two fasting blood samples collected six months apart. In multivariable-adjusted generalized linear models, greater emulsifier intake (g/d) was not associated with antibodies to flagellin (P-trend = 0.88), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (P-trend = 0.56), or the combined total thereof (P-trend = 0.65) but was positively associated with an inflammatory biomarker, glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) (P-trend = 0.02). Highly processed food intake (% kcal/d) was associated with higher anti-LPS antibodies (P-trend = 0.001) and total anti-flagellin and anti-LPS antibodies (P-trend = 0.005) but not with other biomarkers, whereas processed food intake expressed as % g/d was associated with higher GlycA (P-trend = 0.02). Our findings suggest that, broadly, highly processed food consumption may be associated with intestinal permeability biomarkers, and both emulsifier and highly processed food intakes may be associated with inflammation. Additional studies are warranted to further evaluate these relationships.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1957947.

18.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041438

RESUMO

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite. Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite. Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27; P = .04). Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(7): 1349-1358, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A positive association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and colorectal cancer survival was reported in observational studies, which are susceptible to unmeasured confounding and reverse causality. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We used individual-level data for 16,918 eligible colorectal cancer cases of European ancestry from 15 studies within the International Survival Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We calculated a genetic-risk score based on 52 CRP-associated genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies. Because of the non-collapsibility of hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models, we used the additive hazards model to calculate hazard differences (HD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival, overall and by stage at diagnosis and tumor location. Analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, genotyping platform, study, and principal components. RESULTS: Of the 5,395 (32%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3,808 (23%) were due to colorectal cancer. Genetically predicted CRP concentration was not associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival (HD, -1.15; 95% CI, -2.76 to 0.47 per 100,000 person-years; P = 0.16). Similarly, no associations were observed in subgroup analyses by stage at diagnosis or tumor location. CONCLUSIONS: Despite adequate power to detect moderate associations, our results did not support a causal effect of circulating CRP concentrations on colorectal cancer-specific survival. IMPACT: Future research evaluating genetically determined levels of other circulating inflammatory biomarkers (i.e., IL6) with colorectal cancer survival outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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