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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502335

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the pathogen responsible for the outbreak of a severe, rapidly developing pneumonia (Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). The virus enzyme, called 3CLpro or main protease (Mpro), is essential for viral replication, making it a most promising target for antiviral drug development. Recently, we adopted the drug repurposing as appropriate strategy to give fast response to global COVID-19 epidemic, by demonstrating that the zonulin octapeptide inhibitor AT1001 (Larazotide acetate) binds Mpro catalytic domain. Thus, in the present study we tried to investigate the antiviral activity of AT1001, along with five derivatives, by cell-based assays. Our results provide with the identification of AT1001 peptide molecular framework for lead optimization step to develop new generations of antiviral agents of SARS-CoV-2 with an improved biological activity, expanding the chance for success in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574636

RESUMO

Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that interfere with aspects of hormonal signaling. Considerable attention has been paid to their biological effects especially in women of childbearing age or during pregnancy as EDCs have been reported to cross the placenta becoming concentrated in the fetus' circulation. Lifestyle habits, daily consumption of packaged foods and use of healthcare/cosmetic products are associated with increased EDCs levels. This cross-sectional research examined the EDCs levels and the lifestyle determinants of EDC exposure in a cohort of reproductive-age women from Northern Italy. Methods: Forty-five women (median age: 36, IQR: 30-38) were evaluated for urinary bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates levels and also studied for EDCs' major determinants of daily exposure; food frequency/dietary, physical activity, smoking habits and weight status. Results: Although 100% of women seemed to have been exposed to common sources of EDCs, they reported a healthy lifestyle. The multivariable model described a positive and significant association between consumption of sauces/dressings in plastic containers and monoethyl phthalate exposure (p = 0.037). Conclusions: Since reproductive age encompasses a critical window for future health and functioning of the "mothers-to-be" and their children, future studies on prenatal dietary BPA and phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure are recommended.

3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113863, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571172

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic, starting from the latest 2019, and caused by SARS-CoV-2 pathogen, led to the hardest health-socio-economic disaster in the last century. Despite the tremendous scientific efforts, mainly focused on the development of vaccines, identification of potent and efficient anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics still represents an unmet need. Remdesivir, an anti-Ebola drug selected from a repurposing campaign, is the only drug approved, so far, for the treatment of the infection. Nevertheless, WHO in later 2020 has recommended against its use in COVID-19. In the present paper, we describe a step-by-step in silico design of a small library of compounds as main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. All the molecules were screened by an enzymatic assay on Mpro and, then, cellular activity was evaluated using Vero cells viral infection model. The cellular screening disclosed compounds 29 and 34 as in-vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication inhibitors at non-toxic concentrations (0.32 < EC50 < 5.98 µM). To rationalize these results, additional in-vitro assays were performed, focusing on papain like protease (PLpro) and spike protein (SP) as potential targets for the synthesized molecules. This pharmacological workflow allowed the identification of compound 29, as a dual acting SARS-CoV-2 proteases inhibitor featuring micromolar inhibitory potency versus Mpro (IC50 = 1.72 µM) and submicromolar potency versus PLpro (IC50 = 0.67 µM), and of compound 34 as a selective SP inhibitor (IC50 = 3.26 µM).

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361114

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) can be divided by lineage into myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). They both are present in mucosal tissues and regulate the immune response by secreting chemokines and cytokines. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by a leaky intestinal barrier and the consequent translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the basolateral side. This results in DCs activation, but the response of pDCs is still poorly characterized. In the present study, we compared mDCs and pDCs responses to LPS administration. We present a broad panel of DCs secreted factors, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Our recent studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin administration, but to date, there is no evidence about quercetin's effects on pDCs. The results of the present study demonstrate that pDCs can respond to LPS and that quercetin exposure modulates soluble factors release through the same molecular pathway used by mDCs (Slpi, Hmox1, and AP-1).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Células Cultivadas , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células Mieloides/citologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Quercetina/administração & dosagem
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361825

RESUMO

Lipid-based nanocarriers (LNs) have made it possible to prolong corneal residence time and improve the ocular bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs. In order to investigate how the LNs interact with the ocular mucosa and reach the posterior eye segment, we have formulated lipid nanocarriers that were designed to bear a traceable fluorescent probe in the present work. The chosen fluorescent probe was obtained by a conjugation reaction between fluoresceinamine and the solid lipid excipient stearic acid, forming a chemically synthesized adduct (ODAF, N-(3',6'-dihydroxy-3-oxospiro [isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H] xanthen]-5-yl)-octadecanamide). The novel formulation (LN-ODAF) has been formulated and characterized in terms of its technological parameters (polydispersity index, mean particle size and zeta potential), while an in vivo study was carried out to assess the ability of LN-ODAF to diffuse through different ocular compartments. LN-ODAF were in nanometric range (112.7 nm ± 0.4), showing a good homogeneity and long-term stability. A TEM (transmission electron microscopy) study corroborated these results of characterization. In vivo results pointed out that after ocular instillation, LN ODAF were concentrated in the cornea (two hours), while at a longer time (from the second hour to the eighth hour), the fluorescent signals extended gradually towards the back of the eye. From the results obtained, LN-ODAF demonstrated a potential use of lipid-based nanoparticles as efficient carriers of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) involved in the management of retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Segmento Posterior do Olho/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Animais , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Segmento Posterior do Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Compostos de Espiro/química
6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 201: 114107, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984828

RESUMO

Bitter acids are a class of prenylated phloroglucinol derivatives present in Humulus lupulus L., known for their multiple healthy properties, nevertheless, research regarding their metabolism and stability is lacking. This study was aimed to elucidate the metabolic stability of hop α- and ß-acids and characterize I and II phase metabolites in vitro and in vivo. For this purpose, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method was developed and validated. Mice liver microsomes were used to assess metabolic stability; in vitro t1/2 and clearance values were calculated, showing a moderate metabolism for α-acids (avgt1/2: 120.01 min, avgCLint 11.96 µL/min/mg), while ß-acids were metabolized faster (avgt1/2: 103.01 min, avgCLint: 13.83 µL/min/mg). I and II phase metabolites were characterized both in in vitro, and in vivo, in mouse plasma and urine after oral administration. A combined full scan/data dependent/precursor ion list-triggered neutral loss (FS/dd-MS2/PIL-tNL) strategy was used to detect unknown and expected metabolites. As a result, 33 compounds were detected, including novel metabolites, such as 9 potential oxidized metabolites of humulones (M6-M14), and 10 glucuronide conjugates of α-acids, comprising 7 glucuronide derivatives of oxidized phase I metabolites (M26-M32). The proposed method extends the current knowledge regarding metabolization of hop α- and ß-acids and could be applied for the comprehension of the metabolic fate of this class of compounds in different species, as well as for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies.


Assuntos
Humulus , Ácidos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais
7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, heart failure, renal failure and peripheral vascular disease. In the last decade, milk-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention for their beneficial cardiovascular properties. METHODS: Here, we combined in vitro chemical assay such as LC-MS/MS analysis of buffalo ice cream, ex vivo vascular studies evaluating endothelial and smooth muscle responses using pressure myograph, and translational assay testing in vivo the vascular actions of PG1 administration in murine models. RESULTS: We demonstrate that a novel buffalo ice-cream-derived pentapeptide "QKEPM", namely PG1, is a stable peptide that can be obtained at higher concentration after gastro-intestinal digestions (GID) of buffalo ice-cream (BIC). It owns potent vascular effect in counteract the effects of angiotensin II-evoked vasoconstriction and high blood pressure levels. Its effects are mediated by the inhibitory effect on AT1 receptor leading to a downregulation of p-ERK½/Rac1-GTP and consequent reduction of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly candidate PG1, as a novel bioactive peptide for the prevention and management of hypertension, thus expanding the armamentarium of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and progression of hypertension and its related cardiovascular complications.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111385, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761606

RESUMO

A large body of evidence suggests that supplementation of butyric acid exerts beneficial intestinal and extra-intestinal effects. Unfortunately, unpleasant sensorial properties and unfavourable physico-chemical properties strongly limit its use in food supplements and foods for medicinal purposes. N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA) is a new butyric acid releaser in solid form with neutral sensorial properties. The aim of this investigation is to provide preliminary information on its pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties through the study of a) in vivo bioavailability of FBA administered by oral gavage to male and female Swiss CD1 mice in comparison with sodium butyrate, b) the influence of digestion on FBA stability through an in vitro simulated oro-gastro-duodenal digestion process, and c) in vitro toxicological profile by means of the Ames Test and Micronucleus Test. The results reveal that FBA is a good butyric acid releaser, being able to increase butyrate serum concentration in a dose and time dependent manner in both male and female mice with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that obtained from sodium butyrate as such. These data are confirmed by investigating the influence of digestion on FBA, which undergoes extensive hydrolysis following oro-gastro-duodenal digestion, especially in duodenal conditions, with a residual concentration of less than 10% of the initial FBA concentration. Finally, in the Ames and Micronucleus Tests, FBA does not show any in vitro genotoxicity as it is non mutagenic in the Ames Test and results to be unable to induce chromosome breaks in the Micronucleus Test. In conclusion, FBA is a new butyric acid releaser that can overcome the disadvantages of butyric acid while maintaining the same pharmacokinetic properties and safety profile, as shown by the results of the preliminary in vitro toxicological studies performed in this investigation.


Assuntos
Butiratos/farmacologia , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ácido Butírico/sangue , Quebra Cromossômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Duodeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111414, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765581

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in adult men. Especially in Europe, increasing attention has been focused on E. angustifolium extracts (EAEs), which are widely used for their positive effects on the symptoms of BPH, although human clinical trials are limited. The aim of this monocentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial is to evaluate if a daily intake of hard, gastric-resistant capsules containing a chemically characterized EAE (500 mg) for 6 months may allow a significant improvement in symptoms in subjects with BPH. This study was conducted in 128 adult men, randomly assigned to receive either EAE food supplement (N = 70) or placebo (N = 58), who underwent four visits (baseline = t0, after 15 days = t1, after 2 months = t2 and after 6 months = t3) in an outpatient setting to evaluate post-void residual (PVR) and prostate volume (PV) by means of prostate ultrasound, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and neutrofile/lymphocyte ratio (N/L), nocturia before the clinical visits and International Prostate Specific Score (IPSS) registered by the physicians. EAE food supplement induced a significant decrease in the PVR and consequently nocturia improving the quality of life as suggested by the decrease of IPSS. No subjects reported adverse effects related to oral intake of EAE food supplement. Moreover, EAE food supplement did not show hepatic or renal toxicity. In conclusion, EAE food supplements can be used in subjects with BPH, to improve their quality of life and general renal function.


Assuntos
Epilobium , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/uso terapêutico , Onagraceae , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530485

RESUMO

Iron deficiency (ID) affects people of all ages in many countries. Due to intestinal blood loss and reduced iron absorption, ID is a threat to IBD patients, women, and children the most. Current therapies can efficiently recover normal serum transferrin saturation and hemoglobin concentration but may cause several side effects, including intestinal inflammation. ID patients may benefit from innovative nutritional supplements that may satisfy iron needs without side effects. There is a growing interest in new iron-rich superfoods, like algae and mushrooms, which combine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with iron richness.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/deficiência , Anemia Ferropriva , Criança , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação , Farmácia , Transferrina
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 195: 113865, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387838

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia and hypertension are comorbid diseases often found in combination. Among different pharmacological approaches the employment of natural multifunctional peptides is an attractive option as side therapy. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics provide valuable information on metabolic changes and can be useful to elucidate peptide pharmacodynamics. In this this work we performed a preliminary investigation on the potential effect of a recently characterized Spirulina platensis peptide named SP6 (GIVAGDVTPI) on the modulation of metabolism in a high fat diet ApoE-/- mice atherosclerotic model. A direct infusion Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (DI-FT-ICR-MS) approach was used to elucidate polar and non-polar metabolites extracted by mice plasma following four weeks SP6 treatment. The method delivered fast analysis time, repeatability, high mass accuracy and resolution for unambiguous molecular formula assignment. Multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA) highlighted a clear class separation, revealing the alteration of numerous metabolites levels belonging to different classes. In particular sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, TCA cycle intermediates, and amino acids, which are key players in the atherosclerotic process and progression, were upregulated in saline alone HFD ApoE-/- group, while were sensibly decreased after treatment with SP6 peptide. These results could open the way to further, large-scale, investigation of SP6 peptide effects in the regulation of atherosclerotic disease development and progression, and show the potential of DI-FT-ICR as fast analytical tool to take snaphshots of metabolic changes before moving to targeted MS-based approaches.


Assuntos
Spirulina , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Análise de Fourier , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Peptídeos
12.
J Proteome Res ; 20(1): 727-739, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274941

RESUMO

d-Amino acids were believed to occur only in bacteria and invertebrates. Today, it is well known that d-amino acids are also present in mammalian tissues in a considerable amount. In particular, high levels of free d-serine (d-Ser) and d-aspartate (d-Asp) are found in the brain. While the functions of d-Ser are well known, many questions remain unanswered regarding the role of d-Asp in the central nervous system. d-Asp is very abundant at the embryonic stage, while it strongly decreases after birth because of the expression of d-aspartate oxidase (Ddo) enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidation of this d-amino acid into oxaloacetate, ammonium, and hydrogen peroxide. Pharmacologically, d-Asp acts as an endogenous agonist of N-methyl d-aspartate and mGlu5 receptors, which are known to control fundamental brain processes, including brain development, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. In this work, we studied a recently generated knockin mouse model (R26ddo/ddo), which was designed to express DDO beginning at the zygotic stage. This strategy enables d-Asp to be almost eliminated in both prenatal and postnatal lives. To understand which biochemical pathways are affected by depletion of d-Asp, in this study, we carried out a metabolomic and lipidomic study of ddo knockin brains at different stages of embryonic and postnatal development, combining nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) techniques. Our study shows that d-Asp deficiency in the brain influences amino acid pathways such as threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, and glutamate. Interestingly, d-Asp is also correlated with metabolites involved in brain development and functions such as choline, creatine, phosphocholine (PCho), glycerophosphocholine (GPCho), sphingolipids, and glycerophospholipids, as well as metabolites involved in brain energy metabolism, such as GPCho, glucose, and lactate.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico , Ácido D-Aspártico , Aminoácidos , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácido D-Aspártico/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
13.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 119: 104818, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221425

RESUMO

Aloe products are increasingly valued as ingredients in food supplements and flavoring agents. In early March 2020, the European Commission drafted a ban on the use of Aloe products that contain hydroxyanthracene derivatives (HADs) in food, following the opinion on concerns about the toxicity of vegetable extracts containing HADs carried out by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Aloe gel preparation is characterized by minimal amounts of HADs, only present as contaminants during extraction, compared to other sold Aloe preparations such as Aloe latex and Aloe whole leaf extract. This review provides a comprehensive account of the toxicological aspects of Aloe gel, and briefly discusses the chemical profile of other Aloe preparations. Unlike these other preparations, pure Aloe gel shows no toxic effects. However, further toxicological studies remain necessary to establish the maximum permissible limit of HAD contaminants in Aloe gel, considering daily doses and maximum duration of treatments. Finally, officially validated analytical methods for determination of HADs are required, in the form of tools for use by Companies and Competent Authorities to ensure the absence of HAD contamination in raw materials or in finished products.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256128

RESUMO

The involvement of GRK2 in cancer cell proliferation and its counter-regulation of p53 have been suggested in breast cancer even if the underlying mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, the possibility to pharmacologically inhibit GRK2 to delay cancer cell proliferation has never been explored. We investigated this possibility by setting up a study that combined in vitro and in vivo models to underpin the crosstalk between GRK2 and p53. To reach this aim, we took advantage of the different expression of p53 in cell lines of thyroid cancer (BHT 101 expressing p53 and FRO cells, which are p53-null) in which we overexpressed or silenced GRK2. The pharmacological inhibition of GRK2 was achieved using the specific inhibitor KRX-C7. The in vivo study was performed in Balb/c nude mice, where we treated BHT-101 or FRO-derived tumors with KRX-C7. In our in vitro model, FRO cells were unaffected by GRK2 expression levels, whereas BHT-101 cells were sensitive, thus suggesting a role for p53. The regulation of p53 by GRK2 is due to phosphorylative events in Thr-55, which induce the degradation of p53. In BHT-101 cells, the pharmacologic inhibition of GRK2 by KRX-C7 increased p53 levels and activated apoptosis through the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. These KRX-C7-mediated events were also confirmed in cancer allograft models in nude mice. In conclusion, our data showed that GRK2 counter-regulates p53 expression in cancer cells through a kinase-dependent activity. Our results further corroborate the anti-proliferative role of GRK2 inhibitors in p53-sensitive tumors and propose GRK2 as a therapeutic target in selected cancers.

15.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353163

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive cancers in the world. Several extracellular factors are involved in its development and metastasis to distant organs. In PC, the protein Annexin A1 (ANXA1) appears to be overexpressed and may be identified as an oncogenic factor, also because it is a component in tumor-deriving extracellular vesicles (EVs). Indeed, these microvesicles are known to nourish the tumor microenvironment. Once we evaluated the autocrine role of ANXA1-containing EVs on PC MIA PaCa-2 cells and their pro-angiogenic action, we investigated the ANXA1 paracrine effect on stromal cells like fibroblasts and endothelial ones. Concerning the analysis of fibroblasts, cell migration/invasion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and the different expression of specific protein markers, all features of the cell switching into myofibroblasts, were assessed after administration of wild type more than ANXA1 Knock-Out EVs. Interestingly, we demonstrated a mechanism by which the ANXA1-EVs complex can stimulate the activation of formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), triggering mesenchymal switches and cell motility on both fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Therefore, we highlighted the importance of ANXA1/EVs-FPR axes in PC progression as a vehicle of intercommunication tumor cells-stroma, suggesting a specific potential prognostic/diagnostic role of ANXA1, whether in soluble form or even if EVs are captured in PC.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Colágeno , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Exossomos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Laminina , Microscopia Confocal , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Proteoglicanas , Cicatrização
16.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1625-1636, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895019

RESUMO

Excessive BK (bradykinin) stimulation is responsible for the exaggerated permeabilization of the endothelium in angioedema. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses have not been investigated. BK receptors are Gq-protein-coupled receptors phosphorylated by GRK2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) with a hitherto unknown biological and pathophysiological significance. In the present study, we sought to identify the functional role of GRK2 in angioedema through the regulation of BK signaling. We found that the accumulation of cytosolic Ca2+ in endothelial cells induced by BK was sensitive to GRK2 activity, as it was significantly augmented by inhibiting the kinase. Accordingly, permeabilization and NO production induced by BK were enhanced, as well. In vivo, mice with reduced GRK2 levels in the endothelium (Tie2-CRE/GRK2fl+/fl-) exhibited an increased response to BK in terms of vascular permeability and extravasation. Finally, patients with reduced GRK2 levels displayed a severe phenotype of angioedema. Taken together, these findings establish GRK2 as a novel pivotal regulator of BK signaling with an essential role in the pathophysiology of vascular permeability and angioedema.


Assuntos
Angioedema/metabolismo , Bradicinina/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Quinase 2 de Receptor Acoplado a Proteína G/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(9)2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872510

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum or Reishi is recognized as the most potent adaptogen present in nature, and its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities are well known. Moreover, lately, there has been an increasing interest from pharmaceutical companies in antiaging G. lucidum-extract-based formulations. Nevertheless, the pharmacological mechanisms of such adaptogenic and regenerative actions remain unclear. The present investigation aimed to explore its molecular and cellular effects in vitro in epidermal keratinocyte cultures by applying liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF) for analysis of ethanol extracts using ganoderic acid-A as a reference compound. The G. lucidum extract showed a keratinocyte proliferation induction accompanied by an increase of cyclic kinase protein expressions, such as CDK2 and CDK6. Furthermore, a noteworthy migration rate increase and activation of tissue remodelling factors, such as matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), were observed. Finally, the extract showed an antioxidant effect, protecting from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity; preventing activation of AKT (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), p53 and p21; and reducing the number of apoptotic cells. Our study paves the path for elucidating pharmacological properties of G. lucidum and its potential development as cosmeceutical skin products, providing the first evidence of its capability to accelerate the healing processes enhancing re-epithelialization and to protect cells from free-radical action.

18.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 182: 114252, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998001

RESUMO

In pancreatic cancer (PC) progression the protein Annexin A1 (ANXA1) has been described as oncogenic factor. Thus, the need to inhibit its action, mainly the extracellular form, has become an appealing cue for the anti-cancer research. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix known to bind several molecules, as growth factors and cytokines, generating a kind of reservoir in the extracellular environment. Here, we started our study by showing the physical calcium-dependent interaction between HS and ANXA1 as both full-length protein and N-terminal portion, Ac2-26 by biophysical techniques. HS is able to inhibit the migration/invasion process of human PC MIA PaCa-2 cells and partially revert their mesenchymal phenotype as reported through the expression of specific protein markers and the growth in colonies and in 3D-spheroids. Furthermore, both on MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, HS blocks the effects of Ac2-26, which enhances the aggressive behavior of PC cells if added alone. These effects appear evident also on endothelial cells whose activation is promoted by Ac2-26 but not in presence of HS. Thus, the interference of the interaction ANXA1-HS on angiogenesis strongly emerges. Moreover, once sequestered by HS, ANXA1 is not more able to bind the formil-peptide receptors (FPRs) preventing the increase of calcium mobilization, peculiar for cell motility. These findings introduce a new important tale in the knowledge about the inhibition of the ANXA1 action in PC development. Further information will be useful to highlight the interaction of HS with the protein, focusing on the characterization of the glycosaminoglycan and on in vivo assays.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110670, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896677

RESUMO

The global diffusion of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) demands the search for safe and effective treatment alternatives to the drugs commonly used, which exert both side and adverse effects. Among plant-based products, the extracts of Epilobium angustifolium L. (EAEs) could improve BPH symptoms thanks to the presence of ellagitannins and their anti-inflammatory metabolites, urolithins. This study focused its attention on a commercial EAE, standardized to contain ≥ 15 % oenothein B, to determine a) the metabolic profile and the chemical degradation induced by digestion, b) in vivo bioavailability after acute and prolonged treatments of CD1 mice, and c) in vitro antioxidant activity. Utilizing RP-HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn analysis, 20 different compounds were identified. Polyphenols suffered from degradation after both orogastric and duodenal digestion processes, suggesting that gastro-resistant coating agents are required to preserve the bioactive components occurring in the EAE phytocomplex from orogastric digestion. In vivo data underlined the presence of urolithins only after the prolonged treatment, confirming that the gut fermentation process requires at least 24 h to produce urolithins. Finally, an increase of Superoxide Dismutase-1 (SOD-1), which represents one of the fundamental endogenous antioxidant defenses, was determined in an EAE pretreated LNCap cell model system, confirming EAE antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Epilobium , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140910, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758747

RESUMO

This paper presents an updated and comprehensive review on the different methods used for detection and quantification of viruses in wastewater treatment systems. The analysis of viability of viruses in wastewater and sludge is another thrust of this review. Recent studies have mostly focused on determining the abundance and diversity of viruses in wastewater influents, in samples from primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment stages, and in final effluents. A few studies have also examined the occurrence and diversity of viruses in raw and digested sludge samples. Recent efforts to improve efficiency of virus detection and quantification methods in the complex wastewater and sludge matrices are highlighted in this review. A summary and a detailed comparison of the pre-treatment methods that have been utilized for wastewater and sludge samples are also presented. The role of metagenomics or sequencing analysis in monitoring wastewater systems to predict disease outbreaks, to conduct public health surveillance, to assess the efficiency of existing treatment systems in virus removal, and to re-evaluate current regulations regarding pathogenic viruses in wastewater is discussed in this paper. Challenges and future perspectives in the detection of viruses, including emerging and newly emerged viruses such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in wastewater systems are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vírus , Águas Residuárias , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
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