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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in hospital settings have substantial implications in terms of clinical and economic outcomes. However, due to clinical and methodological heterogeneity, estimates about the attributable economic and clinical effects of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) due to MDR microorganisms (MDR HAI) remain unclear. The objective was to review and synthesize the evidence on the impact of MDR HAI in adults on hospital costs, length of stay, and mortality at discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases to select studies that evaluated the impact of MDR HAI on economic and clinical outcomes. Eligible studies were conducted in adults, in order to ensure homogeneity of populations, used propensity score matched cohorts or included explicit confounding control, and had confirmed antibiotic susceptibility testing. Risk of bias was evaluated, and effects were measured with ratios of means (ROM) for cost and length of stay, and risk ratios (RR) for mortality. A systematic search was performed on 14th March 2019, re-run on the 10th of June 2019 and extended the 3rd of September 2019. Small effect sizes were assessed by examination of funnel plots. Sixteen articles (6,122 patients with MDR HAI and 8,326 patients with non-MDR HAI) were included in the systematic review of which 12 articles assessed cost, 19 articles length of stay, and 14 mortality. Compared to susceptible infections, MDR HAI were associated with increased cost (ROM 1.33, 95%CI [1.15; 1.54]), prolonged length of stay (ROM 1.27, 95%CI [1.18; 1.37]), and excess in-hospital mortality (RR 1.61, 95%CI [1.36; 1.90]) in the random effects models. Risk of publication bias was only found to be significant for mortality, and overall study quality good. CONCLUSIONS: MDR HAI appears to be strongly associated with increases in direct cost, prolonged length of stay and increased mortality. However, further comprehensive studies in this setting are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42019126288).

2.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 18(1): 47-56, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marketing of new and existing drugs with new indications used alone or in combination is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To identify the advantages and disadvantages of indication-based pricing (IBP) systems for such drugs from the standpoint of economic theory, practical applications and international experiences. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published articles and reports using six bibliographic databases: PubMed, ASCO, Scopus, DARE, HTA and NHS EED. We also conducted a search of gray literature in Google Scholar. The same search terms were used as in Towse et al. (The debate on indication-based pricing in the U.S. and five major European countries. OHE Consulting Report, London, 2018). Articles and reports published from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2018 were included. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. There are three main types of IBP: different brands with different prices for each indication, an averaged single price for all indications and a single price with differential discounts. The studies indicate that IBP systems are premised on the idea that charging a different price for different indications reflects the differences in their value and in social willingness to pay for each one and for the investment in R&D based on the indication's incremental clinical benefit. Some argue that a uniform price reduces access and increases the price for lower-value indications, while others contend that if IBP sets prices at the maximum threshold of social willingness to pay for each indication, all surplus is transferred to the producer and consumer surplus is reduced to zero. No practical applications of pure IBP were found. Single pricing for drugs is the most prevalent approach. The system that most closely approximates an IBP model consists of agreements that are generally confidential and linked to risk-sharing agreements. CONCLUSIONS: There are no applications of pure IBP systems and their practical consequences are therefore unknown. More economic theory-based assessments of the pros and cons of IBP and studies different from reviews are needed to capture their intricacies and specificities.

3.
Gac Sanit ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558385

RESUMO

Fifteen years ago, Gaceta Sanitaria published the article entitled "What is an efficient health technology in Spain?" The growing interest in setting the price of new technologies based on the value they provide to health systems and the experience accumulated by the countries in our environment make it opportune to review what constitutes an efficient health intervention in Spain in 2020. Cost-effectiveness analysis continues to be the reference method to maximize social health outcomes with the available resources. The interpretation of its results requires establishing reference values that serve as a guide on what constitutes a reasonable value for the health care system. Efficiency thresholds must be flexible and dynamic, and they need to be updated periodically. Its application should be based on and transparency, and consider other factors that reflect social preferences. Although setting thresholds is down to political decision-makers, in Spain it could be reasonable to use thresholds of 25,000 and 60,000 Euros per QALY. However, currently, in addition to determining exact figures for the threshold, the key question is whether the Spanish National Health System is able and willing to implement a payment model based on value, towards achieving gradual financing decisions and, above all, to improve the predictability, consistency and transparency of the process.

4.
Lancet ; 393(10181): 1595, 2019 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007200
6.
Prog. obstet. ginecol. (Ed. impr.) ; 61(4): 331-335, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174972

RESUMO

Background: We evaluated the effectiveness of a multifaceted strategy to improve the appropriateness of the indications for cesarean delivery in 41 hospitals belonging to the Spanish National Health Service. Methods: We implemented indications for emergency and elective cesareans and analyzed their appropriateness prospectively. We provided staff with feedback and training courses and allocated the necessary resources. The results were published. A pre-post design without a control group was used. Results: The total number of deliveries in both periods was 23,711 and 29,627; of these, 5,380 and 6,371, respectively, were cesarean deliveries. The general cesarean rate decreased by 1.19 percentage points, and the overall appropriateness rate increased by 15.45% (95%CI, 13.78-17.13): 8.65% (95%CI, 6.24-11.07) for elective cesarean and 20.15% (95%CI, 17.93-22.36) for emergency cesareans. Appropriateness improved across all 5 indications for emergency cesarean, ranging from 10.87% (95%CI, 6.85-14.89) for fetal distress to 29.97% (95%CI, 24.49-35.45) for cephalopelvic disproportion. Conclusion: This strategy appears to be effective for increasing the appropriateness of the indications for cesarean delivery and reducing the complications and costs associated with the cesarean deliveries avoided


Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de una estrategia dirigida a mejorar la adecuación de las indicaciones de cesáreas en 41 hospitales del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Métodos: implantación de un protocolo de las indicaciones de cesáreas urgentes y programadas, el análisis prospectivo de su adecuación, retroalimentar a los profesionales, impartir cursos de formación, asignar recursos necesarios y difundir los resultados. Se utilizó un diseño pre-post sin grupo control. Resultados: el número de partos en los periodos pre y post fue 23.711 y 29.627, y el de cesáreas, 5.380 y 6.371, respectivamente. El porcentaje global de cesáreas descendió 1,19, y el de adecuación global aumentó 15,45 (IC 95%: 13,78–17,13); 8,65 (IC 95%: 6,24-11,07) en el conjunto de programadas y, 20,15 (IC 95%:17,93- 22,36) en el conjunto de las urgentes. La mejora en la adecuación se observó en las cinco indicaciones de cesáreas urgentes y osciló entre 10,87 (IC 95%: 6,85–14,89) en el grupo de riesgo de pérdida de bienestar fetal y 29,97 (IC 95%: 24,49-35,45) en el de desproporción pelvifetal. Conclusión: esta estrategia parece ser efectiva para aumentar la adecuación de las indicaciones de cesáreas y reducir las complicaciones y los costes asociados con las cesáreas evitadas


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cesárea , Triagem Multifásica/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise Custo-Benefício
10.
J Health Econ ; 59: 46-59, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673899

RESUMO

Cesarean sections have been associated in the literature with poorer newborn health, particularly with a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity. Most studies suffer, however, from potential omitted variable bias, as they are based on simple comparisons of mothers who give birth vaginally and those who give birth by cesarean section. We try to overcome this limitation and provide credible causal evidence by using variation in the probability of having a c-section that is arguably unrelated to maternal and fetal characteristics: variation by time of day. Previous literature documents that, while nature distributes births and associated problems uniformly, time-dependent variables related to physicians' demand for leisure are significant predictors of unplanned c-sections. Using a sample of public hospitals in Spain, we show that the rate of c-sections is higher during the early hours of the night compared to the rest of the day, while mothers giving birth at the different times are similar in observable characteristics. This exogenous variation provides us with a new instrument for type of birth: time of delivery. Our results suggest that non-medically indicated c-sections have a negative and significant impact on newborn health, as measured by Apgar scores, but that the effect is not severe enough to translate into more extreme outcomes.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191248, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To increase discriminatory accuracy (DA) for emergency cesarean sections (ECSs). STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively collected data on and studied all 6,157 births occurring in 2014 at four public hospitals located in three different autonomous communities of Spain. To identify risk factors (RFs) for ECS, we used likelihood ratios and logistic regression, fitted a classification tree (CTREE), and analyzed a random forest model (RFM). We used the areas under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves (AUCs) to assess their DA. RESULTS: The magnitude of the LR+ for all putative individual RFs and ORs in the logistic regression models was low to moderate. Except for parity, all putative RFs were positively associated with ECS, including hospital fixed-effects and night-shift delivery. The DA of all logistic models ranged from 0.74 to 0.81. The most relevant RFs (pH, induction, and previous C-section) in the CTREEs showed the highest ORs in the logistic models. The DA of the RFM and its most relevant interaction terms was even higher (AUC = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93-0.95). CONCLUSION: Putative fetal, maternal, and contextual RFs alone fail to achieve reasonable DA for ECS. It is the combination of these RFs and the interactions between them at each hospital that make it possible to improve the DA for the type of delivery and tailor interventions through prediction to improve the appropriateness of ECS indications.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Emergências , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
20.
Health Policy ; 120(9): 975-81, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460522

RESUMO

Given that drug innovation has been largely away from breakthroughs, arguing that a new drug recently approved and reaching the market is downright effective, safe and affordable is actually parlous. The soaring costs of an increasing number of new drugs (specially for cancer and rare diseases) threaten to supersede societal absorbing capacity, competing with other health and outside health sector resources. Some health systems are not making headways towards solving the current conundrum of keeping path with the state of the art regulatory mechanisms in delivering cost-effective, equitable and affordable treatments. The way pricing and reimbursement decisions have been made in Spain regarding the recent wave of new drugs against the hepatitis C virus could be one case in point. This paper analyses the path of decision-making and the positioning of the relevant actors in this case, that has set a cumbersome precedent (earmarked fund) for the Spanish National Health Service. It also stresses the need for current decision-making mechanisms on approval, pricing, coverage and reimbursement in Spain to move to a transparent regulatory system, avoiding improvisation and incorporating the highest regulatory standards that other countries have in place.


Assuntos
Controle de Custos , Custos de Medicamentos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Espanha
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