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1.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-9, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrence of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (rIgAN) is a growing cause of kidney allograft dysfunction. This study was aimed at investigating factors associated with rIgAN and the subsequent progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: Retrospective study including consecutive patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who received a kidney transplant in our center between 1992 and 2016 and had a renal biopsy by clinical indication. The date of detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) 5 was used as renal outcome. RESULTS: Eighty-six kidney transplants were performed in patients with IgAN, 38 (44%) were from living donors (related n = 26). rIgAN was diagnosed in 23 allografts (27%). Renal function and proteinuria at the end of the follow-up period were worst in the rIgAN patients compared to those without rIgAN (2.2 vs. 1.4 mg/dL, p = 0.014, and 1.16 vs. 0.49 g/day, p = 0.005, respectively). Risk of rIgAN and progression to CKD 5 decreased with patient's age (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98, p = 0.002, and HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.83-0.97, p = 0.008 per year, respectively). Patients with rIgAN had a higher risk of progression to CKD 5 (HR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-35.7, p = 0.025). Full donor-recipient mismatch in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B loci decreased the risk of rIgAN (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.76, p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: rIgAN was an independent risk factor for ESRD after renal allograft. Younger age increased the risk of rIgAN and CKD 5. Conversely, HLA-B mismatching was a potential protective factor for rIgAN of this glomerular disease.

2.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198834

RESUMO

COVID-19 is novel infectious disease with an evolving understanding of its epidemiology and clinical manifestations. Immunocompromised patients often present atypical presentations of viral diseases. Herein we report a case of a COVID-19 infection in a solid organ transplant recipient, in which the first clinical symptoms were of gastrointestinal viral disease and fever, which further progressed to respiratory symptoms in 48h. In these high risk populations, protocols for screening for SARS-Cov2 may be needed to be re-evaluated.

4.
J Nephrol ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The TRANSFORM study demonstrated that an immunosuppression based on a combination of calcineurin inhibitors and de-novo mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) is safe and effective in kidney transplant recipients. However, data that validate this approach in clinical practice are currently missing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of 401 kidney transplant recipients transplanted from June 2013 to December 2016. All patients received tacrolimus with prednisone in combination with either mycophenolate (n = 186) or mTORi (either everolimus or sirolimus, n = 215). A propensity score to receive mTORi was calculated based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) from the following parameters: age and sex of donor and recipient, BMI, previous transplants, diabetes, cPRA, dialysis before transplantation, dialysis vintage, type of donor, ABO-incompatibility, HLA-mismatches, induction and ischemia time. Median follow-up was 2.6 [1.9; 3.7] years. RESULTS: Cox-regression analysis suggests good results for mTORi versus MPA in terms of 1-year biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR, P = 0.063), 1-year graft loss (P = 0.025) and patient survival (P < 0.001). Results observed for BPAR and graft failure were largely attributed to those patients that would have been excluded by the TRANSFORM because of some exclusion criteria (52.9% of the population, P = 0.003 for 1-year BPAR and P = 0.040 for graft loss). In patients who met selection criteria for TRANSFORM, no effect of treatment for BPAR or graft failure was observed, while the beneficial effect on overall survival persisted. CONCLUSIONS: In a real-life setting, a protocol based on de-novo mTORi with tacrolimus and prednisone could be employed as a standard immunosuppressive regimen and was associated with good outcomes.

5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(12): 1719-1732, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. There is evidence showing complement activation in other thrombotic microangiopathies. The aim of this study was to evaluate complement activation in different thrombotic microangiopathies and to monitor treatment response. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Complement activation was assessed by exposing endothelial cells to sera or activated-patient plasma-citrated plasma mixed with a control sera pool (1:1)-to analyze C5b-9 deposits by immunofluorescence. Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (n=34) at different stages of the disease, HELLP syndrome (a pregnancy complication characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) or severe preeclampsia (n=10), and malignant hypertension (n=5) were included. RESULTS: Acute phase atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome-activated plasma induced an increased C5b-9 deposition on endothelial cells. Standard and lower doses of eculizumab inhibited C5b-9 deposition in all patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, except in two who showed partial remission and clinical relapse. Significant fibrin formation was observed together with C5b-9 deposition. Results obtained using activated-plasma samples were more marked and reproducible than those obtained with sera. C5b-9 deposition was also increased with samples from patients with HELLP (all cases) and preeclampsia (90%) at disease onset. This increase was sustained in those with HELLP after 40 days, and levels normalized in patients with both HELLP and preeclampsia after 6-9 months. Complement activation in those with malignant hypertension was at control levels. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed methodology identifies complement overactivation in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome at acute phase and in other diseases such as HELLP syndrome and preeclampsia. Moreover, it is sensitive enough to individually assess the efficiency of the C5 inhibition treatment.

6.
Transplant Proc ; 51(10): 3222-3226, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the best treatment for end-stage renal disease. In this setting, a significant percentage of transplants are not undertaken because of medical and nonmedical reasons of both donors and recipients. However, the impact of these discards in a transplant program has not been identified thoroughly so far. Our objective was to clarify key reasons for exclusion of LDKTs and the consequences for the discarded transplant candidates in the following 5 years. METHODS: Analysis of donors' and recipients' characteristics of 781 couples evaluated in our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013. The consequences of discards in transplant candidates were analyzed in the cohort 2012 to 2013 (n = 106) and followed up until October 2018. RESULTS: In our study group, 402 (51.5%) LDKT couples were successfully donated, and 379 (48.5%) were excluded. Donor and transplant recipient candidates discarded were older at the evaluation (55.07 ± 12.14 years vs 51.73 ± 10.93 years, P < .001; 48.81 ± 14.05 years vs 44.62 ± 13.91 years, P < .001, respectively). The most frequent reason for kidney discard was medical contraindication found in the potential donor (47.5%; low eGFR, diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, high blood pressure, cardiovascular pathology casually found during evaluation, and proteinuria). Of the discarded candidates from 2012 to 2013, 36.8% received a deceased donor kidney transplant, 17% a LDKT with another donor, 7.5% stayed on the waiting list, 18.9% died, 3.8% were excluded from the waiting list, and 14.2% were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, transplantation was not undertaken because of donor pathology. Fifty-three percent of the discarded patients were eventually transplanted, with a 31.4% probability to receive an organ from another living donor.

7.
Transplantation ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is commonly believed that mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) should not be used in high-immunological risk kidney transplant recipients, due to a perceived increased risk of rejection. However, almost all trials that examined the association of optimal-dose mTORi with Calcineurin Inhibitor (CNI) have excluded hypersensitized recipients from enrollment. METHODS: To shed light on this issue, we examined 71 consecutive patients with a baseline cPRA ≥ 50% that underwent kidney transplantation from June 2013 to December 2016 in our Unit. Immunosuppression was based on CNI (tacrolimus), steroids and alternatively Mycophenolic Acid (MPA, n=38) or mTORi (either everolimus or sirolimus, n=33, target trough levels 3-8 ng/ml). RESULTS: Demographic and immunological risk profiles were similar and almost 90% of patients in both groups received induction with lymphocyte-depleting agents. Cox-regression analysis of rejection-free survival revealed better results for mTORi versus MPA in terms of biopsy-proven acute rejection [Hazard Ratio (HR)(Confidence Interval) 0.32 (0.11-0.90), P=0.031 at univariable analysis, and 0.34 (0.11-0.95), P=0.040 at multivariable analysis]. There were no differences in 1-year renal function, Banff chronicity score at 3- and 12-month protocol biopsy and development of de-novo DSAs. Tacrolimus trough levels along the first year were not different between groups (12-month levels were 8.72 ± 2.93 and 7.85 ± 3.07 ng/ml for MPA and mTORi group respectively, P=0.277). CONCLUSIONS: This single-center retrospective cohort analysis suggests that in hypersensitized kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy similar clinical outcomes may be obtained using mTOR inhibitors compared to mycophenolate.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11177, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371743

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) occurs with more aggressiveness in kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population. Immunosuppressive therapy plays a crucial role in the development of post-transplant malignancy. Concretely, cyclosporine A (CsA) has intrinsic pro-oncologic properties, while several studies report a regression of cancer after the introduction of rapamycin (RAPA). However, their effect on the extracellular vesicle (EV) content from CRC cell lines and their relevance in the pre-metastatic niche have not yet been studied. Here, we investigated the effect of RAPA and CsA in EV-miRNAs from metastatic and non-metastatic CRC cell lines and the role of relevant miRNAs transferred into a pre-metastatic niche model. EV-miRNA profiles showed a significant upregulation of miR-6127, miR-6746-5p, and miR-6787-5p under RAPA treatment compared to CsA and untreated conditions in metastatic cell lines that were not observed in non-metastatic cells. From gene expression analysis of transfected lung fibroblasts, we identified 22 shared downregulated genes mostly represented by the histone family involved in chromatin organization, DNA packaging, and cell cycle. These results suggest that EV-miR-6127, miR-6746-5p and miR-6787-5p could be a potential epigenetic mechanism induced by RAPA therapy in the regulation of the pre-metastatic niche of post-transplant colorectal cancer.

9.
Cell Res ; 29(10): 804-819, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444470

RESUMO

In vivo genome editing represents a powerful strategy for both understanding basic biology and treating inherited diseases. However, it remains a challenge to develop universal and efficient in vivo genome-editing tools for tissues that comprise diverse cell types in either a dividing or non-dividing state. Here, we describe a versatile in vivo gene knock-in methodology that enables the targeting of a broad range of mutations and cell types through the insertion of a minigene at an intron of the target gene locus using an intracellularly linearized single homology arm donor. As a proof-of-concept, we focused on a mouse model of premature-aging caused by a dominant point mutation, which is difficult to repair using existing in vivo genome-editing tools. Systemic treatment using our new method ameliorated aging-associated phenotypes and extended animal lifespan, thus highlighting the potential of this methodology for a broad range of in vivo genome-editing applications.

11.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(3): 373-387.e9, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303547

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney organoids recapitulate developmental processes and tissue architecture, but intrinsic limitations, such as lack of vasculature and functionality, have greatly hampered their application. Here we establish a versatile protocol for generating vascularized three-dimensional (3D) kidney organoids. We employ dynamic modulation of WNT signaling to control the relative proportion of proximal versus distal nephron segments, producing a correlative level of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) to define a resident vascular network. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies a subset of nephron progenitor cells as a potential source of renal vasculature. These kidney organoids undergo further structural and functional maturation upon implantation. Using this kidney organoid platform, we establish an in vitro model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), the cystic phenotype of which can be effectively prevented by gene correction or drug treatment. Our studies provide new avenues for studying human kidney development, modeling disease pathogenesis, and performing patient-specific drug validation.

12.
Protein Cell ; 10(7): 485-495, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041783

RESUMO

Identification of the precise molecular pathways involved in oncogene-induced transformation may help us gain a better understanding of tumor initiation and promotion. Here, we demonstrate that SOX2+ foregut epithelial cells are prone to oncogenic transformation upon mutagenic insults, such as KrasG12D and p53 deletion. GFP-based lineage-tracing experiments indicate that SOX2+ cells are the cells-of-origin of esophagus and stomach hyperplasia. Our observations indicate distinct roles for oncogenic KRAS mutation and P53 deletion. p53 homozygous deletion is required for the acquisition of an invasive potential, and KrasG12D expression, but not p53 deletion, suffices for tumor formation. Global gene expression analysis reveals secreting factors upregulated in the hyperplasia induced by oncogenic KRAS and highlights a crucial role for the CXCR2 pathway in driving hyperplasia. Collectively, the array of genetic models presented here demonstrate that stratified epithelial cells are susceptible to oncogenic insults, which may lead to a better understanding of tumor initiation and aid in the design of new cancer therapeutics.

13.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cardiac arrest time (CAT) in donors after brain death (DBD) donors on pancreas transplant outcome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Results from donors after circulatory death report good outcomes despite warm ischemia times up to 57 minutes. Previous cardiac arrest in DBD has been addressed as a potential risk factor, but duration of the CAT has never been evaluated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis including 342 pancreas transplants performed at our center from 2000 to 2016, and evaluated the effect of previous cardiac arrest in DBD (caDBD) on pancreas transplant outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 49 (14.3%) caDBD were accepted for transplantation [median CAT of 5.0 min (IQR 2.5-15.0)]. Anoxic encephalopathy was most frequent and P-PASS higher (16.9 vs 15.6) in caDBD group when compared with other DBD. No differences were found in all other characteristics evaluated.Graft survival was similar between both groups, as was the incidence of early graft failure (EGF). CAT increased the risk for EGF [OR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.01-1.17)], and the duration of CPR discriminated for EGF [AUC of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74-0.98)], with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 75% at a cutoff of 15 minutes. When evaluated separately, caDBD >15 min increased over 5 times the risk for EGF [HR 5.80 (95% CI, 1.82-18.56); P = 0.003], and these presented fewer days on the ICU (1.0 vs 3.0 d). CONCLUSION: CaDBD donors are suitable for routine pancreas transplantation without increasing EGF risk, and in those with longer CAT it may be prudent to postpone donation a few days to allow a thorough evaluation of organ damage following cardiac arrest.

14.
Nat Mater ; 18(4): 397-405, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778227

RESUMO

The generation of organoids is one of the biggest scientific advances in regenerative medicine. Here, by lengthening the time that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) were exposed to a three-dimensional microenvironment, and by applying defined renal inductive signals, we generated kidney organoids that transcriptomically matched second-trimester human fetal kidneys. We validated these results using ex vivo and in vitro assays that model renal development. Furthermore, we developed a transplantation method that utilizes the chick chorioallantoic membrane. This approach created a soft in vivo microenvironment that promoted the growth and differentiation of implanted kidney organoids, as well as providing a vascular component. The stiffness of the in ovo chorioallantoic membrane microenvironment was recapitulated in vitro by fabricating compliant hydrogels. These biomaterials promoted the efficient generation of renal vesicles and nephron structures, demonstrating that a soft environment accelerates the differentiation of hPSC-derived kidney organoids.


Assuntos
Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Rim/citologia , Organoides/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Microambiente Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Transcriptoma
15.
BMC Nephrol ; 19(1): 261, 2018 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (c-aABMR) is an important cause of allograft failure and graft loss in long-term kidney transplants. METHODS: To determine the efficacy and safety of combined therapy with rituximab, plasma exchange (PE) and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), a cohort of patients with transplant glomerulopathy (TG) that met criteria of active cABMR, according to BANFF'17 classification, was identified. RESULTS: We identified 62 patients with active c-aABMR and TG (cg ≥ 1). Twenty-three patients were treated with the combination therapy and, 39 patients did not receive treatment and were considered the control group. There were no significant differences in the graft survival between the two groups. The number of graft losses at 12 and 24 months and the decline of eGFR were not different and independent of the treatment. A decrease of eGFR≥13 ml/min between 6 months before and c-aABMR diagnosis, was an independent risk factor for graft loss at 24 months (OR = 5; P = 0.01). Infections that required hospitalization during the first year after c-aABMR diagnosis were significantly more frequent in treated patients (OR = 4.22; P = 0.013), with a ratio infection/patient-year of 0.65 and 0.20 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with rituximab, PE, and IVIG in kidney transplants with c-aABMR did not improve graft survival and was associated with a significant increase in severe infectious complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Agencia Española de Medicametos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS): 14566/RG 24161. Study code: UTR-INM-2017-01.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/fisiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Troca Plasmática , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Troca Plasmática/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Proteinúria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/efeitos adversos
16.
N Engl J Med ; 379(1): 11-21, 2018 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patisiran, an investigational RNA interference therapeutic agent, specifically inhibits hepatic synthesis of transthyretin. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive intravenous patisiran (0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo once every 3 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score+7 (mNIS+7; range, 0 to 304, with higher scores indicating more impairment) at 18 months. Other assessments included the Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (Norfolk QOL-DN) questionnaire (range, -4 to 136, with higher scores indicating worse quality of life), 10-m walk test (with gait speed measured in meters per second), and modified body-mass index (modified BMI, defined as [weight in kilograms divided by square of height in meters]×albumin level in grams per liter; lower values indicated worse nutritional status). RESULTS: A total of 225 patients underwent randomization (148 to the patisiran group and 77 to the placebo group). The mean (±SD) mNIS+7 at baseline was 80.9±41.5 in the patisiran group and 74.6±37.0 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (±SE) change from baseline was -6.0±1.7 versus 28.0±2.6 (difference, -34.0 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. The mean (±SD) baseline Norfolk QOL-DN score was 59.6±28.2 in the patisiran group and 55.5±24.3 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (±SE) change from baseline was -6.7±1.8 versus 14.4±2.7 (difference, -21.1 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. Patisiran also showed an effect on gait speed and modified BMI. At 18 months, the least-squares mean change from baseline in gait speed was 0.08±0.02 m per second with patisiran versus -0.24±0.04 m per second with placebo (difference, 0.31 m per second; P<0.001), and the least-squares mean change from baseline in the modified BMI was -3.7±9.6 versus -119.4±14.5 (difference, 115.7; P<0.001). Approximately 20% of the patients who received patisiran and 10% of those who received placebo had mild or moderate infusion-related reactions; the overall incidence and types of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, patisiran improved multiple clinical manifestations of hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis. (Funded by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals; APOLLO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01960348 .).


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Terapêutica com RNAi , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/sangue , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polineuropatias/etiologia , Polineuropatias/terapia , Pré-Albumina/análise , Pré-Albumina/genética , Qualidade de Vida , RNA Interferente Pequeno/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Teste de Caminhada
17.
N Engl J Med ; 379(1): 22-31, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis is caused by pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in the gene encoding transthyretin ( TTR) that induce transthyretin misfolding and systemic deposition of amyloid. Progressive amyloid accumulation leads to multiorgan dysfunction and death. Inotersen, a 2'- O-methoxyethyl-modified antisense oligonucleotide, inhibits hepatic production of transthyretin. METHODS: We conducted an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-month, phase 3 trial of inotersen in adults with stage 1 (patient is ambulatory) or stage 2 (patient is ambulatory with assistance) hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of inotersen (300 mg) or placebo. The primary end points were the change in the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score+7 (mNIS+7; range, -22.3 to 346.3, with higher scores indicating poorer function; minimal clinically meaningful change, 2 points) and the change in the score on the patient-reported Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN) questionnaire (range, -4 to 136, with higher scores indicating poorer quality of life). A decrease in scores indicated improvement. RESULTS: A total of 172 patients (112 in the inotersen group and 60 in the placebo group) received at least one dose of a trial regimen, and 139 (81%) completed the intervention period. Both primary efficacy assessments favored inotersen: the difference in the least-squares mean change from baseline to week 66 between the two groups (inotersen minus placebo) was -19.7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -26.4 to -13.0; P<0.001) for the mNIS+7 and -11.7 points (95% CI, -18.3 to -5.1; P<0.001) for the Norfolk QOL-DN score. These improvements were independent of disease stage, mutation type, or the presence of cardiomyopathy. There were five deaths in the inotersen group and none in the placebo group. The most frequent serious adverse events in the inotersen group were glomerulonephritis (in 3 patients [3%]) and thrombocytopenia (in 3 patients [3%]), with one death associated with one of the cases of grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Thereafter, all patients received enhanced monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Inotersen improved the course of neurologic disease and quality of life in patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis. Thrombocytopenia and glomerulonephritis were managed with enhanced monitoring. (Funded by Ionis Pharmaceuticals; NEURO-TTR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01737398 .).


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/terapia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Pré-Albumina/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapêutica com RNAi , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/sangue , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/efeitos adversos , Polineuropatias/etiologia , Polineuropatias/terapia , Pré-Albumina/análise , Pré-Albumina/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente
18.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(11): 2052-2059, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893956

RESUMO

Background: Pancreas outcomes in pancreas after kidney transplantation (PAK) patients have been reported as being inferior to those of patients who receive simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK). The influence of the kidney donor (i.e. living versus deceased) has never been previously addressed. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all pancreas transplants performed in a single centre since 2007 and compared the outcomes between those patients who had previously received a living-donor kidney transplant (pancreas transplantation after living-donor kidney transplantation, PAldK; n = 18) or a deceased-donor kidney transplant (pancreas transplantation after deceased-donor kidney transplantation, PAddK; n = 28), using SPK (n = 139) recipients as a reference. Results: Pancreas survival was similar between all groups, but inferior for PAldK when including only those with a functioning graft at day 90 post-transplantation (P = 0.004). Pancreas acute rejection was significantly increased in PAldK (67%; 1.8 ± 1.4 episodes/graft) when compared with PAddK (25%) and SPK (32%) (P < 0.05) patients. In a multivariate Cox regression model including known risk factors for pancreas rejection, PAldK was the only predictor of acute rejection (hazard ratio 6.82, 95% confidence interval 1.51-30.70, P < 0.05). No association was found between donor-recipient HLA mismatches and graft rejection. Repeated HLA mismatches between kidney and pancreas donors (0 versus 1-6) did not correlate with pancreas graft rejection or survival in either PAK transplantation group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pancreas graft outcomes are worse for PAldK when compared with PAddK and SPK patients.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Pâncreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Transplantation ; 102(7): 1075-1084, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The progression from acute to chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplant recipients is usually not prevented by current therapeutic options. Here, we investigated whether the use of tofacitinib (TOFA), a Janus kinase 3 inhibitor, was capable of preventing the progression of allograft dysfunction in a Fisher-to-Lewis rat model of kidney transplantation. METHODS: Rats were treated from the third week after transplantation to allow the development of rejection. Treatment was based on cyclosporin A, rapamycin or TOFA. Renal function was assessed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transplantation, whereas rat survival, histological lesions, and infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed at 12 weeks. RESULTS: Tofacitinib prolonged graft survival, preserved tubular and glomerular structures and reduced humoral damage characterized by C4d deposition. Tofacitinib was able to reduce donor-specific antibodies. In addition, T and natural killer cell graft infiltration was reduced in TOFA-treated rats. Although rapamycin-treated rats also showed prolonged graft survival, glomerular structures were more affected. Moreover, only TOFA treatment reduced the presence of T, B and natural killer cells in splenic parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS: Tofacitinib is able to reduce the immune response generated in a rat model of kidney graft rejection, providing prolonged graft and recipient survival, better graft function, and less histological lesions.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Complemento C4b/imunologia , Complemento C4b/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cell ; 171(7): 1495-1507.e15, 2017 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224783

RESUMO

Current genome-editing systems generally rely on inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). This may limit their utility in clinical therapies, as unwanted mutations caused by DSBs can have deleterious effects. CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been repurposed to enable target gene activation, allowing regulation of endogenous gene expression without creating DSBs. However, in vivo implementation of this gain-of-function system has proven difficult. Here, we report a robust system for in vivo activation of endogenous target genes through trans-epigenetic remodeling. The system relies on recruitment of Cas9 and transcriptional activation complexes to target loci by modified single guide RNAs. As proof-of-concept, we used this technology to treat mouse models of diabetes, muscular dystrophy, and acute kidney disease. Results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated target gene activation can be achieved in vivo, leading to measurable phenotypes and amelioration of disease symptoms. This establishes new avenues for developing targeted epigenetic therapies against human diseases. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Epigênese Genética , Marcação de Genes/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/terapia , Utrofina/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Distrofina/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ativação Transcricional
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