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1.
Nutr Rev ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486663

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Conflicting practice-based dietary recommendations are sometimes given to patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); whereas intake of fiber should increase during remission, it should be avoided during relapse. Moreover, European countries set daily requirements of total fiber and do not specify any types. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review appraised data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of the types of fibers beneficial for patients in the treatment of IBD to guide dietary fiber advice. DATA SOURCES: The PubMED database was searched following PRISMA guidelines. DATA EXTRACTION: RCTs evaluating the effects of any type of fiber on clinical and physiological outcomes in patients with IBD were assessed. Quality assessment of the selected full-text articles was conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. DATA ANALYSIS: Eight studies were included reporting on 5 types of fibers. In 2 RCTs, germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) was shown to lower pro-inflammatory cytokines and clinical disease activity scores. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were demonstrated to lower IBD Questionnaire scores (lower well-being), in contrast to inulin, which decreased disease activity scores. An RCT could not find lower remission rates in the psyllium treatment group, while another RCT reported that administration led to less symptoms in patients. In RCTs, no concrete evidence was found that wheat bran improves disease course. CONCLUSIONS: Although the evidence is sparse, GBF and inulin seem propitious and merit further exploration. Evidence on wheat bran and psyllium is still too limited. Adequately powered long-term human RCTs with objective outcomes are needed to improve dietary advice on types of fiber in IBD.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371860

RESUMO

Identification of low muscle mass becomes increasingly relevant due to its prognostic value in cancer patients. In clinical practice, mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are often used to assess muscle mass. For muscle-mass assessment, computed tomography (CT) is considered as reference standard. We investigated concordance between CT, BIA, and MAMC, diagnostic accuracy of MAMC, and BIA to detect low muscle mass and their relation with the clinical outcome malnutrition provided with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Short Form (PG-SGA SF). This cross-sectional study included adult patients with advanced esophageal and gastrointestinal cancer. BIA, MAMC, and PG-SGA-SF were performed. Routine CT-scans were used to quantify psoas muscle index (PMI) and skeletal muscle area. Good concordance was found between CTPMI and both BIAFFMI (fat free mass index) (ICC 0.73), and BIAASMI (appendicular skeletal muscle index) (ICC 0.69) but not with MAMC (ICC 0.37). BIAFFMI (94%), BIAASMI (86%), and MAMC (86%) showed high specificity but low sensitivity. PG-SGA-SF modestly correlated with all muscle-mass measures (ranging from -0.17 to -0.43). Of all patients with low muscle mass, 62% were also classified with a PG-SGA-SF score of ≥4 points. Although CT remains the first choice, since both BIA and MAMC are easy to perform by dieticians, they have the potential to be used to detect low muscle mass in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Braço/diagnóstico por imagem , Braço/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate nutritional protein and energy intake are required for optimal postoperative recovery. There are limited studies reporting the actual postoperative protein and energy intake within the first week after major abdominal cancer surgery. The main objective of this study was to quantify the protein and energy intake after major abdominal cancer surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study. Nutrition intake was assessed with a nutrition diary. The amount of protein and energy consumed through oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition was recorded and calculated separately. Based on the recommendations of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN), protein and energy intake were considered insufficient when patients received <1.5 g/kg protein and 25 kcal/kg for 2 or more days during the first postoperative week. RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. Mean daily protein and energy intake was 0.61 ± 0.44 g/kg/day and 9.58 ± 3.33 kcal/kg/day within the first postoperative week, respectively. Protein and energy intake were insufficient in 45 [90%] and 41 [82%] of the 50 patients, respectively. Patients with Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complications consumed less daily protein compared with the group of patients without complications and patients with grade I or II complications. CONCLUSION: During the first week after major abdominal cancer surgery, the majority of patients do not consume an adequate amount of protein and energy. Incorporating a registered dietitian into postoperative care and adequate nutrition support after major abdominal cancer surgery should be a standard therapeutic goal to improve nutrition intake.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806061

RESUMO

Diet plays a pivotal role in the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients are keen to know what to eat to reduce symptoms and flares, but dietary guidelines are lacking. To advice patients, an overview of the current evidence on food (group) level is needed. This narrative review studies the effects of food (groups) on the onset and course of IBD and if not available the effects in healthy subjects or animal and in vitro IBD models. Based on this evidence the Groningen anti-inflammatory diet (GrAID) was designed and compared on food (group) level to other existing IBD diets. Although on several foods conflicting results were found, this review provides patients a good overview. Based on this evidence, the GrAID consists of lean meat, eggs, fish, plain dairy (such as milk, yoghurt, kefir and hard cheeses), fruit, vegetables, legumes, wheat, coffee, tea and honey. Red meat, other dairy products and sugar should be limited. Canned and processed foods, alcohol and sweetened beverages should be avoided. This comprehensive review focuses on anti-inflammatory properties of foods providing IBD patients with the best evidence on which foods they should eat or avoid to reduce flares. This was used to design the GrAID.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Dieta/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Animais , Café , Laticínios , Ovos , Fabaceae , Frutas , Mel , Humanos , Carne , Alimentos Marinhos , Chá , Triticum , Verduras
5.
Gut ; 70(7): 1287-1298, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The microbiome directly affects the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in the gut. As microbes thrive on dietary substrates, the question arises whether we can nourish an anti-inflammatory gut ecosystem. We aim to unravel interactions between diet, gut microbiota and their functional ability to induce intestinal inflammation. DESIGN: We investigated the relation between 173 dietary factors and the microbiome of 1425 individuals spanning four cohorts: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and the general population. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed to profile gut microbial composition and function. Dietary intake was assessed through food frequency questionnaires. We performed unsupervised clustering to identify dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Associations between diet and microbial features were explored per cohort, followed by a meta-analysis and heterogeneity estimation. RESULTS: We identified 38 associations between dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Moreover, 61 individual foods and nutrients were associated with 61 species and 249 metabolic pathways in the meta-analysis across healthy individuals and patients with IBS, Crohn's disease and UC (false discovery rate<0.05). Processed foods and animal-derived foods were consistently associated with higher abundances of Firmicutes, Ruminococcus species of the Blautia genus and endotoxin synthesis pathways. The opposite was found for plant foods and fish, which were positively associated with short-chain fatty acid-producing commensals and pathways of nutrient metabolism. CONCLUSION: We identified dietary patterns that consistently correlate with groups of bacteria with shared functional roles in both, health and disease. Moreover, specific foods and nutrients were associated with species known to infer mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects. We propose microbial mechanisms through which the diet affects inflammatory responses in the gut as a rationale for future intervention studies.

6.
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(8): 1305-1315, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is associated with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Up to half of IBD patients believe that diet contributes to flares. However, studies on this topic are sparse and merely focus on specific nutrients, food items or food groups. We aimed to analyse the association between dietary patterns and flare occurrence in two geographically distinct Dutch cohorts. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 724 IBD patients [Northern cohort: n = 486, Southern cohort: n = 238] were included and followed for 2 years. Habitual dietary intake was obtained via semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Principal component analysis [PCA] was conducted on 22 food groups to identify dietary patterns. Flare occurrence was analysed in 427 patients in remission at baseline, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: Compared to the Southern cohort, patients in the Northern cohort were younger at diagnosis, comprised more females, and had lower overall energy intakes [all p < 0.05]. PCA revealed three dietary patterns explaining 28.8% of the total variance. The most pronounced pattern [explaining 11.6%] was characterized by intake of grain products, oils, potatoes, processed meat, red meat, condiments and sauces, and sugar, cakes and confectionery. Of the 427 patients, 106 [24.8%] developed an exacerbation during follow-up. The above dietary pattern was associated with flare occurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.18, p = 0.029), as was female sex [HR: 1.63, 95% CI 1.04-2.55, p = 0.032]. CONCLUSIONS: A dietary pattern, which can be seen as a 'traditional [Dutch]' or "Western' pattern was associated with flare occurrence. Confirmation in prospective studies is needed.

7.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(1): 345-356, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since evidence-based dietary guidelines are lacking for IBD patients, they tend to follow "unguided" dietary habits; potentially leading to nutritional deficiencies and detrimental effects on disease course. Therefore, we compared dietary intake of IBD patients with controls. METHODS: Dietary intake of macronutrients and 25 food groups of 493 patients (207 UC, 286 CD), and 1291 controls was obtained via a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: 38.6% of patients in remission had protein intakes below the recommended 0.8 g/kg and 86.7% with active disease below the recommended 1.2 g/kg. Multinomial logistic regression, corrected for age, gender and BMI, showed that (compared to controls) UC patients consumed more meat and spreads, but less alcohol, breads, coffee and dairy; CD patients consumed more non-alcoholic drinks, potatoes, savoury snacks and sugar and sweets but less alcohol, dairy, nuts, pasta and prepared meals. Patients with active disease consumed more meat, soup and sugar and sweets but less alcohol, coffee, dairy, prepared meals and rice; patients in remission consumed more potatoes and spreads but less alcohol, breads, dairy, nuts, pasta and prepared meals. CONCLUSIONS: Patients avoiding potentially favourable foods and gourmandizing potentially unfavourable foods are of concern. Special attention is needed for protein intake in the treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 16: 2, 2016 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26749195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dairy products are nutrient-rich foods that may contribute to adequate nutrient intakes. However, dairy intake might also be associated with other food sources that influence nutrient intakes. Therefore, we studied the association of dairy, milk and cheese intake with intake of foods and nutrients from (non)dairy sources. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed from 2007 to 2010 through two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls in 1007 children (7-13 years) and 706 adolescents (14-18 years). Participants were divided into non-consumers of a particular dairy product and tertiles according to their dairy intake (lowest, medium and highest intake). P for trend was calculated by linear regression over the median intakes of non-consumers and the tertiles for dairy, milk and cheese. RESULTS: In children, higher dairy consumption was associated with higher intakes of fruits (54.8 g ± 22.3; p < 0.0001), vegetables (25.0 g ± 14.6; p = 0.001) and cereals (18.5 g ± 20.7; p = 0.01) and with lower consumption of non-alcoholic beverages (-281 g ± 101; p = 0.01): soft drinks (-159 g ± 28.2; p < 0.0001) and fruit juices (-40.5 ± 14.8; p = 0.01). Results were comparable for milk consumption. In adolescents, similar results were found for milk and dairy consumption, except for the associations with higher fruits and vegetable intake. In children and adolescents, higher cheese consumption was associated with higher vegetable and non-alcoholic beverages consumption; and lower meat consumption (-7.8 g ± 4.8; p = 0.05) in children. Higher cheese consumption was also associated with higher intakes of saturated fat (8.5 g ± 0.9), trans-fatty acids (0.48 g ± 0.06), sodium (614 mg ± 59.3) and several vitamins and minerals . CONCLUSIONS: Higher milk and dairy consumption were associated with lower non-alcoholic beverages consumption, and higher cereal, fruit and vegetable consumption in children, which was also reflected in the nutrient intakes. These findings confirm that the consumption of milk and dairy products might be a marker for healthier eating habits.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Criança , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Países Baixos
9.
BMJ Open ; 5(5): e007456, 2015 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To enhance the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands, so-called care groups with three to 250 general practitioners emerged to organise and coordinate diabetes care. This introduced a new quality management level in addition to the quality management of separate general practices. We hypothesised that this new level of quality management might be associated with the aggregate performance indicators on the patient level. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between quality management at the care group level and its aggregate performance indicators. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: All Dutch care groups (n=97). PARTICIPANTS: 23 care groups provided aggregate register-based performance indicators of all their practices as well as data on quality management measured with a questionnaire filled out by 1 or 2 of their quality managers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: The association between quality management, overall and in 6 domains ('organisation of care', 'multidisciplinary teamwork', 'patient centredness', 'performance management', 'quality improvement policy' and 'management strategies') on the one hand and 3 process indicators (the percentages of patients with at least 1 measurement of glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile and systolic blood pressure), and 3 intermediate outcome indicators (the percentages of patients with glycated haemoglobin below 53 mmol/mol (7%); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol below 2.5 mmol/L; and systolic blood pressure below 140 mm Hg) by weighted univariable linear regression. RESULTS: The domain 'management strategies' was significantly associated with the percentage of patients with a glycated haemoglobin <53 mmol/mol (ß 0.28 (0.09; 0.46) p=0.01) after correction for multiple testing. The other domains as well as overall quality management were not associated with aggregate process or outcome indicators. CONCLUSIONS: This first exploratory study on quality management showed weak or no associations between quality management of diabetes care groups and their performance. It remains uncertain whether this second layer on quality management adds to better quality of care.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Países Baixos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 497, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, most Dutch general practitioners started working under the umbrella of diabetes care groups, responsible for the organisation and coordination of diabetes care. The quality management of these new organisations receives growing interest, although its association with quality of diabetes care is yet unclear. The best way to measure quality management is unknown and it has not yet been studied at the level of outpatient clinics or care groups. We aimed to assess quality management of type 2 diabetes care in care groups and outpatient clinics. RESULTS: Quality management was measured with online questionnaires, containing six domains (see below). They were divided into 28 subdomains, with 59 (care groups) and 57 (outpatient clinics) questions respectively. The mean score of the domains reflects the overall score (0-100%) of an organisation. Two quality managers of all Dutch care groups and outpatient clinics were invited to fill out the questionnaire.Sixty care groups (response rate 61.9%) showed a mean score of 59.6% (CI 57.1-62.1%). The average score in 52 outpatient clinics (response rate 50.0%) was 61.9% (CI 57.5-66.8%).Mean scores on the six domains for care groups and outpatient clinics respectively were: 'organisation of care' 71.9% (CI 68.8-74.9%), 76.8% (CI 72.8-80.7%); 'multidisciplinary teamwork' 67.1% (CI 62.4-71.9%), 71.5% (CI 65.3-77.8%); 'patient centeredness' 46.7% (CI 42.6-50.7%), 62.5% (CI 57.7-67.2%); 'performance management' 63.3% (CI 61.2-65.3%), 50.9% (CI 44.2-57.5%); 'quality improvement policy' 52.6% (CI 49.2-56.1%), 50.9% (CI 44.6-57.3%); and 'management strategies' 56.0% (CI 51.4-60.7%), 59.0% (CI 52.8-65.2%). On subdomains, care groups scored highest on 'care program' (83.3%) and 'measured outcomes' (98.3%) and lowest on 'patient safety' (15.1%) and 'patient involvement' (17.7%). Outpatient clinics scored high on the presence of a 'diabetic foot team' (81.6%) and the support in 'self-management' (81.0%) and low on 'patient involvement' (26.8%) and 'inspection of medical file' (28.0%). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide assessment reveals that the level of quality management in diabetes care varies between several subdomains in both diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Processos Grupais , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Países Baixos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 13: 129, 2013 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23561032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the organisation of diabetes care is changing. As a result general practices and diabetes teams in hospitals are becoming part of new organisations in which multidisciplinary care programs are implemented. In the Netherlands, 97 diabetes care groups and 104 outpatient clinics are working with a diabetes care program. Both types of organisations aim to improve the quality of diabetes care. Therefore, it is essential to understand the comprehensive elements needed for optimal quality management at organisational level. This study aims to assess the current level of diabetes quality management in both care groups and outpatient clinics and its improvement after providing feedback on their quality management system and tailored support. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a before-after study with a one-year follow-up comparing the levels of quality management before and after an intervention to improve diabetes quality management. To assess the status of quality management, online questionnaires were developed based on current literature. They consist of six domains: organisation of care, multidisciplinary teamwork, patient centeredness, performance management, quality improvement policy and management strategies. Based on the questionnaires, respondents will receive feedback on their score in a radar diagram and an elucidating table. They will also be granted access to an online toolbox with instruments that proved to be effective in quality of care improvement and with practical examples. If requested, personal support in implementing these tools will be available. After one year quality management will be measured again using the same questionnaire. DISCUSSION: This study will reveal a nationwide picture of quality management in diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics in the Netherlands and evaluate the effect of offering tailored support. The operationalisation of quality management on organisational level may be of interest for other countries as well.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Seguimentos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Países Baixos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
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