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1.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431165

RESUMO

Covariance components were estimated for growth traits (BW, birth weight; WW, weaning weight; YW, yearling weight), visual scores (BQ, breed quality; CS, conformation; MS, muscling; NS, navel; PS, finishing precocity), hip height (HH), and carcass traits (BF, backfat thickness; LMA, longissimus muscle area) measured at yearling. Genetic gains were obtained and validation models on direct and maternal effects for BW and WW were fitted. Genetic correlations of growth traits with CS, PS, MS, and HH ranged from 0.20 ± 0.01 to 0.94 ± 0.01 and were positive and low with NS (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.20 ± 0.01) and favorable with BQ (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.37 ± 0.02). Null to moderate genetic correlations were obtained between growth and carcass traits. Genetic gains were positive and significant, except for BW. An increase of 0.76 and 0.72 kg is expected for BW and WW, respectively, per unit increase in estimated breeding value (EBV) for direct effect and an additional 0.74 and 1.43, respectively, kg per unit increase in EBV for the maternal effect. Monitoring genetic gains for HH and NS is relevant to maintain an adequate body size and a navel morphological correction, if necessary. Simultaneous selection for growth, morphological, and carcass traits in line with improve maternal performance is a feasible strategy to increase herd productivity.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Fenótipo
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 620847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248929

RESUMO

Ticks cause substantial production losses for beef and dairy cattle. Cattle resistance to ticks is one of the most important factors affecting tick control, but largely neglected due to the challenge of phenotyping. In this study, we evaluate the pooling of tick resistance phenotyped reference populations from multi-country beef cattle breeds to assess the possibility of improving host resistance through multi-trait genomic selection. Data consisted of tick counts or scores assessing the number of female ticks at least 4.5 mm length and derived from seven populations, with breed, country, number of records and genotyped/phenotyped animals being respectively: Angus (AN), Brazil, 2,263, 921/1,156, Hereford (HH), Brazil, 6,615, 1,910/2,802, Brangus (BN), Brazil, 2,441, 851/851, Braford (BO), Brazil, 9,523, 3,062/4,095, Tropical Composite (TC), Australia, 229, 229/229, Brahman (BR), Australia, 675, 675/675, and Nguni (NG), South Africa, 490, 490/490. All populations were genotyped using medium density Illumina SNP BeadChips and imputed to a common high-density panel of 332,468 markers. The mean linkage disequilibrium (LD) between adjacent SNPs varied from 0.24 to 0.37 across populations and so was sufficient to allow genomic breeding values (GEBV) prediction. Correlations of LD phase between breeds were higher between composites and their founder breeds (0.81 to 0.95) and lower between NG and the other breeds (0.27 and 0.35). There was wide range of estimated heritability (0.05 and 0.42) and genetic correlation (-0.01 and 0.87) for tick resistance across the studied populations, with the largest genetic correlation observed between BN and BO. Predictive ability was improved under the old-young validation for three of the seven populations using a multi-trait approach compared to a single trait within-population prediction, while whole and partial data GEBV correlations increased in all cases, with relative improvements ranging from 3% for BO to 64% for TC. Moreover, the multi-trait analysis was useful to correct typical over-dispersion of the GEBV. Results from this study indicate that a joint genomic evaluation of AN, HH, BN, BO and BR can be readily implemented to improve tick resistance of these populations using selection on GEBV. For NG and TC additional phenotyping will be required to obtain accurate GEBV.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , África do Sul , Infestações por Carrapato/genética
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 260, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852073

RESUMO

This study was realized to analyze the combinations of climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables on distribution of breeding values for performance characteristics and scrotal circumference of Brangus cattle. Records of 84,703 Brangus animals, born from 2000 to 2010 distributed in 65 farms in Brazil were used. The characteristics analyzed were average daily gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling (WW and YW), visual scores of conformations (WC and YC), muscle score (WM and YM), precocity score (WP and YS), and size score (WS and YS) at weaning and yearling and scrotal circumference (SC) at yearling. Components of (co)variance estimated through the animal model employing methodology to AIREML. Mean estimates of direct heritability obtained for visual scores at weaning (WC 0.16, WM 0.16, WP 0.19, and WS 0.22) were lower than those obtained at yearling (YC 0.28, YM 0.26, YP 0.24, and YS 0.40). WW had heritability greater than YW (0.27 and 0.12) and a heritability of 0.36 obtained for SC. Canonical, discriminant, and cluster analyses were performed in the SAS® 9.4 program. Three clusters of genetic values averages per farm were formed according to climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables. Brangus animals are from states of RS, PR, SP, MG, GO, MG, and MS. The highest breeding values were strongly related to thermal amplitude and municipality area. Spatial distribution of the breeding value of Brangus animals can help in the development of environmental indices, genetic evaluations, and the choice of animals for certain environments.


Assuntos
Fatores Econômicos , Escroto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , Desmame
4.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 137(5): 449-467, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777136

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a Bayesian genomewide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions associated with growth traits in Hereford and Braford cattle, and to select Tag-SNPs to represent these regions in low-density panels useful for genomic predictions. In addition, we propose candidate genes through functional enrichment analysis associated with growth traits using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Phenotypic data from 126,290 animals and genotypes for 131 sires and 3,545 animals were used. The Tag-SNPs were selected with BayesB (π = 0.995) method to compose low-density panels. The number of Tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ranged between 79 and 103 SNP for the growth traits at weaning and between 78 and 100 SNP for the yearling growth traits. The average proportion of variance explained by Tag-SNP with BayesA was 0.29, 0.23, 0.32 and 0.19 for birthweight (BW), weaning weight (WW205), yearling weight (YW550) and postweaning gain (PWG345), respectively. For Tag-SNP with BayesA method accuracy values ranged from 0.13 to 0.30 for k-means and from 0.30 to 0.65 for random clustering of animals to compose reference and validation groups. Although genomic prediction accuracies were higher with the full marker panel, predictions with low-density panels retained on average 76% of the accuracy obtained with BayesB with full markers for growth traits. The MeSH analysis was able to translate genomic information providing biological meanings of more specific gene products related to the growth traits. The proposed Tag-SNP panels may be useful for future fine mapping studies and for lower-cost commercial genomic prediction applications.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Desmame
5.
J Anim Sci ; 96(7): 2579-2595, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741705

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and bias of direct and blended genomic predictions using different methods and cross-validation techniques for growth traits (weight and weight gains) and visual scores (conformation, precocity, muscling, and size) obtained at weaning and at yearling in Hereford and Braford breeds. Phenotypic data contained 126,290 animals belonging to the Delta G Connection genetic improvement program, and a set of 3,545 animals genotyped with the 50K chip and 131 sires with the 777K. After quality control, 41,045 markers remained for all animals. An animal model was used to estimate (co)variance components and to predict breeding values, which were later used to calculate the deregressed estimated breeding values (DEBV). Animals with genotype and phenotype for the traits studied were divided into 4 or 5 groups by random and k-means clustering cross-validation strategies. The values of accuracy of the direct genomic values (DGV) were moderate to high magnitude for at weaning and at yearling traits, ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 for the k-means and 0.23 to 0.78 for random clustering among all traits. The greatest gain in relation to the pedigree BLUP (PBLUP) was 9.5% with the BayesB method with both the k-means and the random clustering. Blended genomic value accuracies ranged from 0.19 to 0.56 for k-means and from 0.21 to 0.82 for random clustering. The analyses using the historical pedigree and phenotypes contributed additional information to calculate the GEBV, and in general, the largest gains were for the single-step (ssGBLUP) method in bivariate analyses with a mean increase of 43.00% among all traits measured at weaning and of 46.27% for those evaluated at yearling. The accuracy values for the marker effects estimation methods were lower for k-means clustering, indicating that the training set relationship to the selection candidates is a major factor affecting accuracy of genomic predictions. The gains in accuracy obtained with genomic blending methods, mainly ssGBLUP in bivariate analyses, indicate that genomic predictions should be used as a tool to improve genetic gains in relation to the traditional PBLUP selection.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/genética
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