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1.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166241

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the risk posed by attachment type in the development of anxiety or depression symptomatology in Mexican adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was case-control study in which anxiety and depression symptomatology levels were compared according to the attachment type reported by 3,666 participants. FINDINGS: It was found that insecure attachment is a risk factor (p≤.001) for the development of severe levels of depression (OR = 2.12, CI 95%: 1.66-2.70) and anxiety symptomatology (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.30-1.77). Findings are discussed based on their implications for psychiatric nursing practice. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study enable nurses to consider the empirical validity of attachment theory for studying psychosocial aspects of mental health and to design intervention strategies that promote secure attachment in populations without psychiatric diagnoses to prevent anxiety and depression symptomatology.

2.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 49(3): 154-161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the psychometric properties, internal structure, and relationship with anthropometric indicators of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) among Mexican university students according to the measurement invariance approach. METHODS: An instrumental study was carried out to assess the psychometric properties, validity, and reliability of the BSQ. The analysis of the measurement invariance was performed using the Least Squares Estimation, and weighted by adjusted variance and polychoric correlations after assessing different measurement models for BSQ in each group. The scores of the final version were correlated with anthropometric indicators by the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: As regards the dimensional analysis, all of the previous models for BSQ have favourable adjustment rates, although those with a single factor show more robust evidence. The configural invariance was accepted; suggesting that the one-dimensional structure is common for both men and women. However, 16-item factorial loadings were statistically different between the groups. Hence, they were discarded and an 18-item version (BSQ-18) was obtained, which is considered invariant as regards gender. In addition, there is a direct relationship between the scores of the BSQ-18 version and the body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percentage. Satisfactory indicators were found as regards stability. CONCLUSIONS: The BSQ-18 can be used with men and women, and has high reliability indicators to be conducted in clinical settings to assess eating disorders and obesity among university students.

3.
Enferm Clin ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the anthropometric indicator that is most strongly associated with the percentage of body fat and self-regulation of eating behaviour and physical activity among young university students. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,869 Mexican university students, of which 53.9% were women. Standard procedures for anthropometry were followed, including weight, height and waist circumference. This data was used for calculating Body Mass Index (BMI), A Body Shape Index, waist-to-height ratio, Body Roundness Index and Conicity index. The self-regulation of eating habits scale and the self-regulation of physical activity scale were used. Mean with standard deviation, percentages and Pearson correlation coefficient were estimated. RESULTS: The group of men shown a higher prevalence of excess weight compared to the women. Inverse correlations between most anthropometric indices and self-regulation of eating behaviour and physical activity were found. However, in all cases the correlations were weak. The percentage of fat had a medium frequency of association with Conicity index and high with BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and Body Roundness Index, where the BMI showed the highest correlation coefficient CONCLUSIONS: The BMI shows the highest magnitude of association with percentage of body fat in university students among the indicators analysed. Therefore it is suggested that nurses use BMI to determine obesity because it is easy to calculate.

4.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 154-161, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149821

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar las propiedades psicométricas, estructura interna y relación con indicadores antropométricos del Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) en universitarios mexicanos, partiendo de un enfoque de la invarianza de medición. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio instrumental, orientado a la evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas, validez y fiabilidad, del BSQ. Se realizó análisis de invarianza de la medición por el método de estimación mínimos cuadrados ponderados con varianza ajustada y correlaciones policóricas, previa evaluación de diferentes modelos de medición del BSQ en cada grupo. Las puntuaciones de la versión final se correlacionaron con indicadores antropométricos mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: En el análisis dimensional, todos los modelos previos del BSQ presentan índices de ajuste favorables, aunque aquellos de un solo factor presente son los que tienen evidencia más robusta. Se aceptó la invarianza configural, lo que indica que la estructura unidimensional es común a varones y mujeres. Sin embargo, las cargas factoriales de 16 ítems fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre los grupos, por lo que se descartaron y se obtuvo una versión de 18 ítems (BSQ-18), que se considera invariante respecto al sexo. Además, hay relación directa entre las puntuaciones de la versión del BSQ-18 y el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de cintura y el porcentaje de grasa. En cuanto a la fiabilidad, se hallaron indicadores satisfactorios. Conclusiones: El BSQ-18 es aplicable tanto a varones como a mujeres y tiene indicadores de fiabilidad elevados que posibilitan su uso en entornos clínicos para la evaluación en el abordaje de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria y obesidad en jóvenes universitarios.


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyse the psychometric properties, internal structure, and relationship with anthropometric indicators of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) among Mexican university students according to the measurement invariance approach. Methods: An instrumental study was carried out to assess the psychometric properties, validity, and reliability of the BSQ. The analysis of the measurement invariance was performed using the Least Squares Estimation, and weighted by adjusted variance and polychoric correlations after assessing different measurement models for BSQ in each group. The scores of the final version were correlated with anthropometric indicators by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: As regards the dimensional analysis, all of the previous models for BSQ have favourable adjustment rates, although those with a single factor show more robust evidence. The configural invariance was accepted; suggesting that the one-dimensional structure is common for both men and women. However, 16-item factorial loadings were statistically different between the groups. Hence, they were discarded and an 18-item version (BSQ-18) was obtained, which is considered invariant as regards gender. In addition, there is a direct relationship between the scores of the BSQ-18 version and the body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percentage. Satisfactory indicators were found as regards stability. Conclusions: The BSQ-18 can be used with men and women, and has high reliability indicators to be conducted in clinical settings to assess eating disorders and obesity among university students

5.
Span J Psychol ; 23: e26, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662375

RESUMO

Gestational stress is associated with many maternal and child complications, however, this association must be taken with care, since there are studies that find inconsistent results between stress measures and maternal complications. It is believed that the lack of convergence is due to the way in which gestational stress is evaluated.The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument based on a bio-psycho-social model of gestational stress. The design and validation process of the inventory was divided into four phases: (a) Construction of the items bank and content validity, (b) construct validity, (c) inventory reliability and (d) convergent and discriminant validity with psychometric instruments that have been used in other investigations to evaluate gestational stress.A valid and reliable Stressors and Modulators of Gestational Stress Inventory (SMGSI) conformed by two scales was developed: (a) Gestational stressors, which is formed by two factors, the psychological stressors and social stressors with a variance of 48.5% and 51.8% and a reliability of .79 and .67, respectively; and (b) gestational stress modulators integrated by 8 items that explain 55.2% of the variance and with a reliability of .92. In conclusion, a valid and reliable tool was obtained that measures gestational stress from a bio-psycho-social perspective. This inventory allows for the identification of allostatic and pantostatic stress, making it useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent maternal and childhood complications that are associated with chronic gestational stress.

6.
Span. j. psychol ; 23: e26.1-e26.15, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196601

RESUMO

Gestational stress is associated with many maternal and child complications, however, this association must be taken with care, since there are studies that find inconsistent results between stress measures and maternal complications. It is believed that the lack of convergence is due to the way in which gestational stress is evaluated. The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument based on a bio-psycho-social model of gestational stress. The design and validation process of the inventory was divided into four phases: (a) Construction of the items bank and content validity, (b) construct validity, (c) inventory reliability and (d) convergent and discriminant validity with psychometric instruments that have been used in other investigations to evaluate gestational stress. A valid and reliable Stressors and Modulators of Gestational Stress Inventory (SMGSI) conformed by two scales was developed: (a) Gestational stressors, which is formed by two factors, the psychological stressors and social stressors with a variance of 48.5% and 51.8% and a reliability of .79 and .67, respectively; and (b) gestational stress modulators integrated by 8 items that explain 55.2% of the variance and with a reliability of .92. In conclusion, a valid and reliable tool was obtained that measures gestational stress from a bio-psycho-social perspective. This inventory allows for the identification of allostatic and pantostatic stress, making it useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent maternal and childhood complications that are associated with chronic gestational stress


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Liberabit ; 25(2): 267-285, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143228

RESUMO

Objetivos: realizar el análisis de la estructura interna de la versión en español de la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff (PWBS-E) en estudiantes universitarios (n = 1700; 54.75% mujeres; Medad = 19.23) de una institución pública en Veracruz, México. Método: La estructura interna de la PWBS-E fue evaluada mediante el análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA), el modelamiento de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorio (ESEM) y el análisis factorial exploratorio (EFA). La confiabilidad del constructo fue estimada con el coeficiente α y de las puntuaciones con el coeficiente α. Resultados: indicaron que una estructura unidimensional y breve (19 ítems) posee mayor respaldo empírico. Además, se evidenció la existencia de un factor de método asociado a ítems invertidos en los modelos multidimensionales. En cuanto a la confiabilidad, se hallaron indicadores aceptables en ambos niveles (constructo y puntuaciones). Conclusiones: se discuten los hallazgos y las implicancias prácticas de la versión breve de la PWBS-E en universitarios


Objectives: This paper aimed to analyze the internal structure of the Spanish version of the Ryff ’s psychological well-being scale (PWBS-E) among college students (n = 1700, 54.75% females, Mage = 19.23) who attend a public institution located in Veracruz, Mexico. Method: The internal structure of the PWBS-E was assessed using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), while the reliability of the construct was estimated with the ù coefficient and the reliability of the scores, with the α coefficient. Results: Suggested that a short and unidimensional structure (19 items) provides greater empirical support. In addition, a method factor associated with inverted items in multidimensional models was evidenced. Regarding the reliability, acceptable indicators were found in both levels (construct and scores). Conclusions: This paper addresses both the findings and practical implications of the short version of the PWBS-E among college students.

8.
Univ. salud ; 21(3): 261-269, Sep.-Dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1043547

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La migración es un proceso que implica cambios para el migrante, estos se ven reflejados en las actividades y prácticas que se realizan en el lugar receptor, y muchas veces no son las mismas de la cultura de procedencia, sin embargo las va adquiriendo de forma paulatina y gradual, hasta ser partícipe de ellas, alterando su cohesión familiar y propiciando el proceso de aculturación. Dichos cambios pueden tener efectos en la salud del migrante. Objetivo: Identificar los efectos que tiene la migración en la salud del migrante y su papel mediador de la cohesión familiar y la aculturación. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática (metodología PRISMA) en la base de datos PubMed de artículos completos, utilizando como palabras clave: migrante, aculturación, cohesión familiar. Resultados: La elevada cohesión familiar es un factor protector de la salud, porque fortalece la identidad y pertenencia cultural del inmigrante, mientras que la aculturación trae consigo ciertas conductas desfavorables para la salud, relacionadas con la necesidad de ser aceptado y de participar en las actividades y prácticas del lugar receptor. Conclusiones: El fortalecimiento de la cohesión familiar puede ser una estrategia para mejorar la condición de salud de las personas que migran.


Abstract Introduction: Migration is a process that implies changes for the migrant, these are reflected in the activities and practices that are carried out in the receiving place, and often they are different from the place of origin. However these activities are acquired gradually, and by participating in them, they alter family cohesion and promote the acculturation process. Such changes may have an effect on the health of the migrant. Objective: To identify the effects that migration has on the health of the migrant and the mediating role of family cohesion and acculturation. Materials and methods: A systematic search (PRISMA methodology) was carried out in the PubMed database of complete articles, using as keywords: Migrant, acculturation, family cohesion. Results: High family cohesion is a protective health factor, because it strengthens the identity and cultural belonging of the immigrant. Acculturation brings certain unfavorable behaviors for health, related to the need to be accepted and to participate in activities and practices of the receiving place. Conclusions: Strengthening family cohesion can be a strategy to improve the health condition of people who migrate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Migração Humana , Saúde , Aculturação
9.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 35(3): e2221, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1156404

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Los estilos de vida saludables son prioritarios para la prevención de enfermedades crónicas, sin embargo hay carencia de instrumentos validados para su medición. Objetivo: Analizar las propiedades psicométricas en jóvenes estudiantes universitarias mexicanas a partir de la traducción de la Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students. Métodos: Estudio instrumental donde participaron 530 mujeres estudiantes de dos universidades públicas mexicanas. En la fase inicial, se realizó traducción de la escala, revisión de expertos, piloteo y retrotraducción. Luego de un análisis factorial confirmatorio fallido, se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio a través del método de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados robustos con rotación oblicua Promin, se consideraron dos criterios en la retención de ítems: ítems con carga factorial mayor que 0,32 e índices de simplicidad factorial por ítem conservando los que mostraron magnitud moderada (≥ 0,75). Resultados: Se realizaron tres análisis factoriales exploratorios, en los primeros dos se descartaron 24 ítems: cuatro por presentar cargas factoriales bajas y 20 por elevada complejidad factorial (índices de simplicidad factorial < 0,75). En el tercer análisis factorial exploratorio con los 14 ítems restantes se encontraron cuatro factores que explican 64,444 % de la varianza de las puntuaciones denominados consumo de sustancias, apreciación por la vida, relaciones interpersonales y patrones de alimentación, estudio y descanso, mostrando además un ajuste adecuado. Se estimaron coeficientes de confiabilidad de magnitud adecuada. Conclusiones: La adaptación del Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students arroja una escala breve de 14 ítems que valoran cuatro dimensiones de los estilos de vida teóricamente coherentes y vinculadas a la aparición de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Healthy lifestyles are a priority for the prevention of chronic diseases; however, there is a lack of toolsvalidated for their measurement. Objective: To analyze the psychometric properties in young Mexican university students based on the translation of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students. Methods: Instrumental study with the participation of 530 female students from two Mexican public universities. In the initial phase, we performed the scale translation, expert review, piloting and back-translation. After a failed confirmatory factor analysis, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out using the robust unweighted least squares method with Promin oblique rotation, two criteria were considered in item retention: items with factor load greater than 0.32 and factor simplicity rates per item, keeping those that showed moderate magnitude (≥0.75). Results: Three exploratory factor analyzes were carried out, 24 items were discarded in the first two: four due to low factor loads and 20 due to high factor complexity (factor simplicity indexes lower than 0.75). In the third exploratory factor analysis with the remaining 14 items, four factors were found that explain 64.44% of the variance of the so-called scores: substance use, life appreciation, interpersonal relationships, and eating patterns, study and rest, showing, in addition, an appropriate adjustment. Reliability coefficients of adequate magnitude were estimated. Conclusions: The adaptation of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students yields a brief scale of 14 items that assess four dimensions of theoretically coherent lifestyles and linked to the occurrence of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

10.
Univ. salud ; 21(2): 132-140, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1004851

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Alfabetización en Salud (AS) es un término que proviene del inglés health literacy, se refiere al conjunto de habilidades sociales y cognitivas que determinan la capacidad de una persona para acceder, entender y utilizar la información de forma que le permita mantener un buen estado de salud. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre AS y las conductas de autocuidado en personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y analítico llevado a cabo en dos centros de salud de atención primaria de la ciudad de Xalapa, Veracruz, México entre agosto-noviembre de 2016. La AS se midió con el European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU-Q47) y las conductas de autocuidado con el Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities (SDSCA) de Toobert y Glasgow. Se eligieron 90 personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que acudían a consulta. La participación fue voluntaria y previa firma de consentimiento informado. Resultados: El autocuidado de la dieta mostró asociación con la AS en su dimensión de promoción de la salud (p=0,018). Conclusiones: La AS se relaciona con las conductas de autocuidado, en específico de la dieta; a medida que aumenta la AS mejora el autocuidado.


Abstract Introduction: Health literacy refers to the set of social and cognitive skills that define the person's ability to access, understand and utilize information in such a way that a healthy condition can be maintained. Objective: To determine the association between AS and self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional and analytical study carried out in two primary health care centers in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz-Mexico, from August to November 2016. The AS was measured through the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU-Q47) and the self-care behaviors were assessed using the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities (SDSCA) by Toobert and Glasgow. We chose 90 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended consultation at the health care centers. Although their participation was voluntary, participants were required to sign the informed consent form. Results: Diet self-care was associated with AS, in a health promotion context (p=0.018). Conclusions: AS is directly related to self-care behaviors, specifically to diet.


Assuntos
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autocuidado , Educação em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde
11.
Salud UNINORTE ; 35(2): 221-237, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115903

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar si existe relación entre los estilos de apego, la ansiedad y la depresión en adultos con la presencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en Oaxaca de Juárez (México) con una muestra no probabilística de 3684 adultos. Se identificaron como casos las personas con alguna enfermedad crónica no transmisible previamente diagnosticada (n = 464), y los controles fueron sujetos aparentemente sanos (n = 3.220). Se utilizaron el Cartes: Modéles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR), el Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II y el Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck. Resultados. Quienes presentan alguna ECNT tienen mayor edad y menor escolaridad que quienes no presentan alguna ECNT. De similar manera, sus puntuaciones en apego preocupado, apego rechazante, ansiedad y depresión son mayores. Se encontraron correlaciones positivas entre los apegos inseguros (preocupado y rechazante) y la ansiedad y la depresión, mientras que con el apego seguro las correlaciones fueron negativas. Se identificaron como factores asociados a enfermedades crónica no transmisibles el apego rechazante, la ansiedad y la edad. Conclusiones. El apego rechazante es factor de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, y dado que el apego se desarrolla en la infancia, puede tener implicaciones para la prevención.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine whether there is a relationship between attachment styles, anxiety and depression in adults with the presence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs). Materials and methods. A case-control study was conducted in Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico with a non-probabilistic sample of 3,684 adults. People with a previously diagnosed non-communicable chronic disease (n = 464) were identified as cases, and the control subjects were apparently healthy (n = 3,220). The Cartes: Modéles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR), the Beck-II Depression Inventory and the Beck's Anxiety inventory were used. Results. Subjects with CNCDs are older and less-schooled than those without CNCDs. In a similar way, their scores on preoccupied attachment, rejection attachment, anxiety and depression are greater. Positive correlations were found between insecure attachments (preoccupied and rejection) and anxiety and depression, while with the secure attachment correlations were negative. Rejection attachment, anxiety, and age were identified as factors associated with chronic non-communicable diseases. Conclusion. Rejection attachment is a risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases, and since attachment is developed in childhood, there may be implications for prevention.

12.
Univ. salud ; 20(3): 227-235, sep.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979532

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Existe controversia sobre la relación entre las creencias y la realización de la autoexploración mamaria en las mujeres y se carece de estudios que muestren la influencia que las parejas pueden tener en dicha práctica. Objetivo: Identificar si existe asociación entre el autoexamen de mama, los estilos de vida, las creencias en salud y las relaciones de pareja en estudiantes universitarias. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 284 mujeres estudiantes de la Universidad Veracruzana. Se aplicó el cuestionario de Creencias en salud hacia el autoexamen de mama y un cuestionario de datos personales. Resultados: La media de edad fue 20,32 años. Solo 19,7% de las estudiantes reportaron realizar el autoexamen de mama de manera mensual. Las mujeres que no tenían pareja mostraron mayores barreras hacia el autoexamen y menores beneficios percibidos. La edad favoreció la realización del autoexamen de mama, mientras que las barreras percibidas lo limitaron. Por su parte, tener pareja se asoció con menores barreras y mayores beneficios percibidos hacia el autoexamen. Conclusiones: Existe baja realización del autoexamen en las estudiantes a pesar del conocimiento que poseen del mismo. Tener pareja disminuye las barreras percibidas hacia la realización del autoexamen de mama.


Abstract Introduction: There is controversy about the relationship between beliefs and the realization of breast self-examination in women and there is a lack of studies which show the influence that couples can have in that practice. Objective: To identify whether there is an association between breast self-examination, lifestyles, health beliefs, and partner relationships in university students. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 284 women students from the University of Veracruz. The Health beliefs questionnaire was applied to breast self-examination and a personal data questionnaire. Results: The average age was 20.32. Only 19.7% of the students reported the realization of breast self-examination monthly. Women who did not have a couple showed greater barriers to self-examination and lower perceived benefits. Age favored the realization of breast self-examination, while the perceived barriers limited it. On the other hand, having a couple was associated with lower barriers and increased benefits to self-examination. Conclusions: There is low self-examination in the students despite their knowledge. Having a couple decreases the perceived barriers to conducting breast self-examination.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autoexame de Mama , Prevenção Primária , Autocuidado , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida
13.
Av. enferm ; 36(2): 153-160, maio-ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-973959

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Iniciar la lactancia tempranamente es crucial para aprovechar el periodo sensitivo del recién nacido y la cascada hormonal materna inmediata al posparto, que en conjunto favorecen la continuidad de la lactancia durante el desarrollo del niño. Sin embargo, existen factores que pueden afectar la realización de la lactancia materna inmediata (LMI) con consecuencias que afectan la salud. Objetivo: Determinar si existe relación entre la LMI y las características del control prenatal, del parto y de tipo socioeconómico. Método: Estudio de casos y controles. Se aplicaron encuestas a mujeres con hijos entre 6 y 24 meses de edad. El muestreo fue no probabilistico. Se compararon las medias a través de la t de student, se buscaron asociaciones a través de correlación de Spearman y Odds ratio. Resultados: Las semanas de gestación (SDG) tuvieron una media inferior en el grupo de mujeres que realizaron LMI (p = 0,023). Las mujeres con mayores ingresos económicos tuvieron menor realización de LMI [Rho= -0,28 (p < 0,05)] y a menos SDG aumenta la práctica de LMI [Rho= -0,35 (p < 0,05)]. Nacer con más de 38 SDG se relaciona con menor realización de LMI [OR = 0,16 (IC 0,04-0,064)]. Conclusión: Mientras que el menor ingreso económico y escolaridad de la madre se relacionan con menor práctica de LMI, cuando el parto se da antes de las 38 SDG la probabilidad aumenta.


Resumo Introdução: Iniciar o aleitamento materno precocemente e crucial para aproveitar o periodo sensitivo do recem-nascido e a cascata hormonal materna imediata apos o parto, que juntos favorecem a continuidade do aleitamento materno durante o desenvolvimento da crianca. No entanto, existem fatores que podem afetar o desempenho do aleitamento materno imediato (AMI) com consequencias negativas para a saude. Objetivo: Determinar se existe uma relacao entre ami, fatores natais, controle pre-natal e características socioeconomicas. Método: Estudo de caso e controle. Foram aplicados questionarios a mulheres com filhos entre 6 e 24 meses de idade. A amostragem foi a conveniencia. Estimaram-se as medias atraves de t de Student e os coeficientes de correlacao de Spearman e Odds ratio. Resultados: As semanas de gestacao (SDG) tiveram uma media inferior no grupo de mulheres que fizeram AMI p = 0,023. Mulheres com rendimentos mais elevados tiveram menor propensao a AMI [Rho = -0,28 (p < 0,05)]; a menos SDG aumenta a probabilidade de AMI [Rho = -0,35 (p < 0,05)]. Nascimento antes de 38 SDG promove a AMI [OR = 0,16 (IC 0,04-0,064)]. Conclusões: Enquanto o menor nivel economico e escolaridade da mae estao relacionados a menor pratica de ami, quando o parto ocorre antes de 38 SDG, essa probabilidade aumenta.


Abstract Introduction: Early initiation of breastfeeding is crucial to take advantage of the sensitive period of the newborn and the maternal hormonal cascade immediately after birth, which together stimulate the continuity of breastfeeding during the child's development. However, there are factors that may affect the practice of immediate breastfeeding (IB) with negative consequences for health. Objective: To Establish whether there is a relationship between IB, birth, prenatal care and socio-demographic factors. Method: A case-control study was conducted. Surveys were applied to women with children aged 6 to 24 months. Convenience sampling was used. The averages were calculated under t Student´s test, the Spearman correlation coefficients and odds ratio. Results: The gestation weeks (GW) had a lower average in the group of women who practiced IB (p = 0.023). Women with higher incomes were less likely to IB [Rho = -0.28 (p < 0.05)]; unless GW increases the likelihood of IB [Rho =-0.35 (p < 0.05)] It was found that birth before 38 GW favors the practice of IB [or = 0.16 (ci 0.04 to 0.64)]. Conclusion: even considering that mothers' low economic and educational level by mothers are related to less IB practice, when the birth occurs before 38 GW this probability increases.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Demografia , Enfermeiras Obstétricas
14.
Univ. psychol ; 17(2): 30-38, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979493

RESUMO

Resumen Uno de los instrumentos con mayor evidencia empírica y versatilidad para el estudio de las emociones y la motivación es el Sistema Internacional de Imágenes Afectivas (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). Sin embargo, no ha sido probado en población mexicana. Por esta razón el presente estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar los valores normativos en valencia, arousal y dominancia para los conjuntos 13, 14, 19 y 20 del IAPS en población mexicana, e identificar las diferencias con países de América (Colombia y Estados Unidos). Participaron 408 estudiantes quienes evaluaron 238 imágenes del IAPS a través del Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Los resultados mostraron que la distribución de las imágenes en el espacio afectivo bidimensional (valencia-arousal) adoptan la forma esperada de boomerang, coincidiendo con lo encontrado en otras poblaciones. Sin embargo, en población mexicana es más fuerte la relación entre valencia apetitiva y arousal que entre valencia aversiva y arousal. En conclusión, los valores normativos de los conjuntos 13, 14, 19 y 20 pueden ser utilizados en población mexicana para el estudio objetivo de las emociones.


Abstract The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is an instrument to the study of emotions and motivation with a high empirical evidence and versatility. However, it has not been tested in Mexican population, for that reason the aim of this study was to determine the normative values of valence, arousal and dominance for the IAPS sets of pictures 13, 14, 19 and 20 in Mexican population. Participants were 408 students who assessed 238 images of the IAPS through the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). The results showed that the pictures distribution on the two-dimensional affective space (valence-arousal); take a boomerang form, which is consistent with the findings in other populations. Nevertheless, in the Mexican population there was a stronger relationship between appetitive valence and arousal than the one observe in aversive valence and arousal. In conclusion the normative values in the IAPS sets of pictures 13, 14, 19 and 20 can be used in the study of emotions in Mexican people.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento , Testes Psicológicos , Emoções
15.
Liberabit ; 23(1): 110-122, ene.- jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-990148

RESUMO

La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es un grave problema de salud pública con muchos elementos que podrían estar interactuando en su evolución, entre ellos el autocuidado y el apoyo social. Sin embargo, se carece de evidencia sobre la asociación entre estos dos elementos, por lo que el presente estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la relación entre el autocuidado médico, nutricional y de actividad física, el apoyo social percibido y la duración de la enfermedad. Se realizó un estudio transversal con 126 personas con diabetes con una media de edad de 55 (±10.4) años. Se aplicó el resumen de cuidados propios de la diabetes y la encuesta de apoyo social MOS (por su nombre en inglés "Medical Outcome Study"). Se encontró que el apoyo social, específicamente el apoyo instrumental, puede generar efectos negativos al limitar las conductas de autocuidado que realiza una persona. Con estos hallazgos se puede concluir que no siempre el apoyo social resulta benéfico para las personas. Tener mayor apoyo instrumental genera dependencia y no se asume la responsabilidad sobre la alimentación.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with many elements, such as self-care and social support, that could be interacting with its evolution. Nevertheless, there is no evidence of association between these two elements. Thus, this study aims to determine the relationship between medical, nutritional and physical activity self-care, perceived social support and duration of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 people with diabetes with a mean age of 55 (±10.4) years old. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey were applied. Social support, specifically the instrumental one, may generate negative effects by limiting self-care behavior of a person. Based on these findings, it is possible to conclude that social support does not always turn out to be beneficial for people: having more instrumental support generates dependency and no responsibility on the diet.

16.
Liberabit ; 23(1): 123-135, ene.- jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-990149

RESUMO

El objetivo del presente estudio predictivo fue analizar el grado de influencia de la satisfacción con los estudios (SE) sobre la procrastinación académica (PA). Fueron evaluados 148 estudiantes de Psicología (111 mujeres) entre 18 y 32 años (M = 22.41) con la Escala Breve de Satisfacción con los Estudios y la Escala de Procrastinación Académica. Luego de análisis preliminares enfocados en la confiabilidad de las puntuaciones (± > .70) y las correlaciones entre dimensiones, fue realizado un análisis de regresión para determinar cuánta variabilidad en los puntajes de las dimensiones de la PA es explicada a partir de las variaciones en la SE. Para ello, fue empleado un método que utiliza las correlaciones bivariadas corregidas por atenuación y brinda intervalos de confianza bajo un enfoque bootstrap de los estadísticos asociados. Todos los análisis fueron valorados desde un enfoque de magnitud del efecto. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la SE sobre la PA no fue significativa. Estos hallazgos brindan nuevas rutas para implementar estudios a fin de comprender la conducta procrastinadora en el ámbito universitario.


The aim of this predictive study was to analyze the degree of influence of study satisfaction (SS) on academic procrastination (AP). One hundred forty-eight (148) psychology students (111 women) between 18 and 32 years old (M = 22.41) were evaluated using the Brief Scale of Study Satisfaction and the Academic Procrastination Scale. After preliminary analyses focused on the scores reliability (± > .70) and correlations between dimensions, a regression analysis was performed to determine how much of the variability in the AP dimensions scores is explained by the variations in the SS. For that purpose, a method that uses bivariate correlations corrected for attenuation and provides confidence intervals under a bootstrap approach of the associated statistics was applied. All analyses were assessed from an effect size approach. The results indicate that the influence of SS on AP was not significant. These findings provide new ways to implement studies in order to understand the procrastinating behavior in the university setting.

17.
Eat Weight Disord ; 22(2): 311-319, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is characterized, among other features, by overeating, reduced physical activity and an abnormal accumulation of body fat. These features are thought to result, at least in part, from the individual's inability to self-regulate their eating and physical activity behaviors (E&PaB). Self-regulation of the E&PaB is a three-step sequential process: self-observation, self-evaluation and self-reaction. However, it is yet unclear whether deficient self-regulation of E&PaB could predispose, facilitate and/or consolidate obesity. Unraveling this issue is fundamental in order to more precisely define the role of self-regulation of E&PaB in the management of obesity. METHODS: This research was focused on the question of whether or not self-regulation of E&PaB is related to obesity in female undergraduate students. This population segment seems especially vulnerable to developing obesity since they undergo a significant shift of their E&PaB upon their university enrollment. To address this question, a cross-sectional study with 108 female undergraduate students with normal weight (n = 80) or obesity (n = 28) was performed, in which self-regulation of eating habits and physical activity was measured by two validated scales and a personal data questionnaire. RESULTS: Female undergraduate students displaying lower E&PaB self-reactions were consistently overweight or obese. In addition, a multivariate analysis identified high levels of self-reaction towards eating habits related to a minor presence of overweight issues or obesity. CONCLUSION: Self-regulation should be an essential component in the strategies for obesity prevention as an integral approach that must include orientation about healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. In addition, further studies on the effect of self-regulation in the treatment of the obesity are needed.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Autocontrole , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 25(2): 309-316, 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-154867

RESUMO

Las estrategias de promoción de la salud resaltan la importancia de la actividad física para el bienestar y la prevención de enfermedades, sin embargo, esta información que se pone a disposición de las personas pocas veces tiene impacto en sus hábitos. Consolidar hábitos de actividad física saludables requiere, además de conocimientos, una dotación de herramientas para observarse, evaluarse y emprender y mantener acciones para el alcance de sus objetivos. Los jóvenes son uno de los grupos de riesgo más importantes para el desarrollo de obesidad por encontrarse en una etapa de consolidación de sus hábitos. Por lo anterior el objetivo de este estudio fue diseñar y validar un instrumento para medir autorregulación de la actividad física en estudiantes universitarios mexicanos. Fueron redactados 51 ítems, posteriormente sometidos a evaluación por cuatro jueces expertos. Se efectuaron dos aplicaciones del instrumento con un total de 424 participantes. Se realizó un análisis factorial de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados con rotación Promax. Se descartaron los ítems que tuvieron carga factorial inferior a .40 o comunalidad inferior a .30. Se obtuvo un instrumento de 12 ítems agrupados en tres factores que explicaron 49.4% de la varianza: autorreación, autoobservación y autoevaluación. El alfa de Cronbach mostró un adecuado coeficiente de confiabilidad para la prueba (α = .846). La presente Escala es una herramienta válida y confiable para medir la autorregulación de la actividad física en estudiantes universitarios mexicanos y puede ser empleada para elaborar diagnósticos y evaluar intervenciones para mejorar la actividad física (AU)


Strategies for health promotion underscore the importance of physical activity for wellness and disease prevention. However, the information made available to people seldom has an impact on their habits. Consolidating healthy physical activity habits requires, in addition to knowledge, the provision of tools to observe, assess and initiate and maintain actions to achieve its goals. Young people are one of the most important risk groups in the development of obesity because they are still in at the stage of consolidating their habits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate an instrument to measure self-regulation in physical activity in Mexican university students. Initially 51 items were drafted, which were later evaluated by four experts. Two applications of the instrument were conducted with a total of 424 participants. Factorial analysis of non-weighted least squares with Promax rotation was performed. Factor loading under 0.40 or commonality below 0.30 were discarded. A 12 item instrument grouped in three factors was obtained which explained 49.4% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Finally, using Cronbach's alpha test, the instrument had a high reliability coefficient (α = .846). This scale is a valid and reliable tool for measuring self-regulation of the physical activity habits of Mexican college students and can be used to develop diagnostics and evaluate interventions to improve physical activity habits (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , /métodos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Análise de Dados/métodos , Análise de Dados/prevenção & controle , Análise de Variância , Nível de Saúde , Análise Fatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 65(1): 44-50, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26320305

RESUMO

Healthy eating habits promote wellness and prevent disease, however, despite the intention to change a bad habit, people often fail in theirattempts. This is due, since the performance of a change requires self-regulation skills that allow to observe, to evaluate and to take an action, in a constant motivation during the all the process; not only theknowledge about proper nutrition. The objective of this study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluate the level of self-regulation for eating habits in college students.62 items were written and evaluated by four expert judges. Two applications of the instrument were performed to 487 subjects. An unweighted least squares factor analysis whit direct Oblimin rotation was performed. The items saturated in more than one factor were discarded, as well as those who had a loading factor less than 0.40 or commonality less than 0.30. It was obtained an instrument integrated by 14 items grouped into three factors, which explained the 46.9% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Cronbach's alpha yielded a high reliability coefficient (α = 0.874).The results show that the scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure of self-regulation of eating habits in college students. Its applications include the diagnostic of a population and the evaluation of interventions aimed to improving nutrition based on the assumption that the processes of change require sustained self-regulation skills in people protective effect against increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Autoeficácia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 65(1): 44-50, mar. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-752714

RESUMO

Los hábitos alimentarios saludables promueven el bienestar y previenen enfermedades, sin embargo, pese a la intencionalidad de cambio de hábitos nocivos, las personas con frecuencia fracasan en sus intentos. Lo anterior debido a que el cambio, además de conocimientos sobre una adecuada alimentación, requiere capacidades de autorregulación que permitan observarse, evaluarse y emprender acciones con una constante motivación durante el proceso. El objetivo de este estudio fue diseñar y validar un instrumento para evaluarel nivel de autorregulación de hábitos alimentarios en estudiantes universitarios.Fueron redactados 62 ítems, posteriormente sometidos a evaluación por cuatro jueces expertos. Se efectuaron dos aplicaciones del instrumento con un total de 487 participantes. Se realizó un análisis factorial de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados con rotación a través del método Oblimin directo. Se descartaron los ítems que tuvieron carga factorial inferior a 0.40 o comunalidad inferior a 0.30.Se obtuvo un instrumento de 14 ítems agrupados en tres factores que explicaron 46.9% de la varianza: autorreación, autoobservación y autoevaluación. A través del alfa de Cronbach se obtuvo un coeficiente de confiabilidad muy alto (α = 0.874).Los resultados muestran que la escala constituye una herramienta válida y confiable para medir la autorregulación de hábitos alimentarios en estudiantes universitarios. Sus aplicaciones incluyen la obtención de diagnósticos y la evaluación de intervenciones enfocadas a la mejora de la alimentación, partiendo del supuesto de que los procesos de cambio sostenido requieren de capacidades de autorregulación en las personas.


Healthy eating habits promote wellness and prevent disease, however, despite the intention to change a bad habit, people often fail in theirattempts. This is due, since the performance of a change requires self-regulation skills that allow to observe, to evaluate and to take an action, in a constant motivation during the all the process; not only theknowledge about proper nutrition.The objective of this study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluatethe level of self-regulation for eating habits in college students.62 items were written and evaluated by four expert judges. Two applications of the instrument were performed to 487 subjects. An unweighted least squares factor analysis whit direct Oblimin rotation was performed. The items saturated in more than one factor were discarded, as well as those who had a loading factor less than 0.40 or commonality less than 0.30. It was obtained an instrument integrated by 14 itemsgrouped into three factors, which explained the 46.9% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Cronbach’s alpha yielded a high reliability coefficient (α = 0.874).The results show that the scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure of self-regulation of eating habits in college students. Its applications include the diagnostic of a population and the evaluation of interventions aimed toimproving nutrition based on the assumption that the processes of change require sustained self-regulation skills in people.protective effect against increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Autoeficácia , Estudantes , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Universidades
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