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1.
Epigenomics ; 9(10): 1299-1315, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877596

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize the sperm methylome in semen samples from 19 donors with proven fertility. MATERIALS & METHODS: Bisulfite-converted sperm DNA was hybridized on the HumanMethylation450 Infinium BeadChip platform. CpG fluorescence intensities were extracted and converted to ß-values. RESULTS: The sperm methylome is highly homogeneous and hypomethylated. Genes with hypomethylated promoters are ontologically associated to biological functions related to spermatogenesis and embryogenesis. Sex chromosomes are the most hypomethylated chromosomes, supporting data that indicated their essential role in spermatogenesis. A total of 94 genes are resistant to demethylation, being strong candidates for transgenerational inheritance. CONCLUSION: Spermatozoa carry a homogeneous methylation profile that is a footprint of past events (spermatogenesis), is designed to facilitate future events (embryogenesis) and has a possible influence in the adult life (transgenerational effects).


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides/citologia
2.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 33(6): 709-719, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692602

RESUMO

The influence of aberrant sperm DNA methylation on the reproductive capacity of couples has been postulated as a cause of infertility. This study compared the DNA methylation of spermatozoa of 19 fertile donors and 42 infertile patients using the Illumina 450K array. Clustering analysis of methylation data arranged fertile and infertile patients into two groups. Bivariate clustering analysis identified a differential distribution of samples according to the characteristics of seminogram and age, suggesting a possible link between these parameters and specific methylation profiles. The study identified 696 differentially methylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG) associated with 501 genes between fertile donors and infertile patients. Ontological enrichment analysis revealed 13 processes related to spermatogenesis. Data filtering identified a set of 17 differentially methylated genes, some of which had functions relating to spermatogenesis. A significant association was identified between RPS6KA2 hypermethylation and advanced age (P = 0.016); APCS hypermethylation and oligozoospermia (P = 0.041); JAM3/NCAPD3 hypermethylation and numerical chromosome sperm anomalies (P = 0.048); and ANK2 hypermethylation and lower pregnancy rate (P = 0.040). This description of a set of differentially methylated genes provides a framework for further investigation into the influence of such variation in male fertility in larger patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Oligospermia/genética , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reprodução , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 165B(6): 472-8, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24980697

RESUMO

The phenotype overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) & intellectual disabilities (ID) is mirrored at the genetic level, with common genes being reported mutated in variety of developmental disabilities. However despite widespread genetic screening for mutations, in approximately 40-60% of childhood developmental disorders the genetic cause remains unknown. Several genome-wide linkage screens in ASD have identified a locus mapping to distal 8q. We have recently identified a novel brain-specific imprinted cluster at this location, which contains the reciprocally expressed maternal KCNK9 and paternally expressed non-coding PEG13 transcripts, the latter located within an intron of TRAPPC9. Interestingly, mutations of KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 have been reported in Birk-Barel mental retardation and non-syndromic familial forms of ID, respectively. Here, we report a genetic screen for KCNK9 coding mutations and potential epigenetic aberrations that could result in deregulated imprinting in a cohort of 120 ID, 86 ASD and 86 Tourette syndrome patients. Fifteen of the ID patients had clinical characteristics overlapping with Birk-Barel syndrome. Sequencing of the two coding exons of KCNK9 failed to identify pathologic mutations, with only one variant, rs2615374, being present with allele frequencies similar to those described in dbSNP database. DNA methylation profiling of the KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 promoters, the maternally methylated PEG13 DMR and a long-range enhancer region were normal in all patients. Our findings suggest that mutations of KCNK9 or epigenetic disturbances within the PEG13 imprinted cluster do not significantly contribute to the cause of the developmental disabilities tested in this study.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Testes Genéticos , Impressão Genômica/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Síndrome de Tourette/genética , Epigênese Genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 7(1): 5, 2014 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24667089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic imprinting is the epigenetic marking of genes that results in parent-of-origin monoallelic expression. Most imprinted domains are associated with differentially DNA methylated regions (DMRs) that originate in the gametes, and are maintained in somatic tissues after fertilization. This allelic methylation profile is associated with a plethora of histone tail modifications that orchestrates higher order chromatin interactions. The mouse chromosome 15 imprinted cluster contains multiple brain-specific maternally expressed transcripts including Ago2, Chrac1, Trappc9 and Kcnk9 and a paternally expressed gene, Peg13. The promoter of Peg13 is methylated on the maternal allele and is the sole DMR within the locus. To determine the extent of imprinting within the human orthologous region on chromosome 8q24, a region associated with autosomal recessive intellectual disability, Birk-Barel mental retardation and dysmorphism syndrome, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of allelic expression and DNA methylation of genes mapping within an approximately 2 Mb region around TRAPPC9. RESULTS: Utilizing allele-specific RT-PCR, bisulphite sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture (3C) we show the reciprocal expression of the novel, paternally expressed, PEG13 non-coding RNA and maternally expressed KCNK9 genes in brain, and the biallelic expression of flanking transcripts in a range of tissues. We identify a tandem-repeat region overlapping the PEG13 transcript that is methylated on the maternal allele, which binds CTCF-cohesin in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and possesses enhancer-blocker activity. Using 3C, we identify mutually exclusive approximately 58 and 500 kb chromatin loops in adult frontal cortex between a novel brain-specific enhancer, marked by H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, with the KCNK9 and PEG13 promoters which we propose regulates brain-specific expression. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterised the molecular mechanism responsible for reciprocal allelic expression of the PEG13 and KCNK9 transcripts. Therefore, our observations may have important implications for identifying the cause of intellectual disabilities associated with the 8q24 locus.

5.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 30(9): 1125-31, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23955684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find out whether the MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism is a risk factor for male infertility in the Spanish population. To determine if a pattern of sperm DNA hypomethylation at the paternally imprinted loci H19-ICR and/or IG-DMR is related to the MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and/or CTCFL mutations. METHODS: One hundred and seven samples from individuals who sought consultation for fertility problems and twenty-five semen samples from sperm donors were analyzed. The MTHFR rs1801133 SNP was analyzed in all samples by the PCR-RFLP method. We compared the distribution of the genotypes between control and infertile populations and among the groups of patients with altered seminal parameters. In those patients with the most severe hypomethylation pattern (n = 12) we also analyzed the CTCFL protein-coding exons by sequencing. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes among the control and infertile populations. Moreover, none of the genotypes were associated, neither to the characteristics of the seminogram, nor to the presence of sperm DNA hypomethylation. We did not identify frameshift, nonsense or missense mutations of the CTCFL gene. CONCLUSIONS: The MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism is not associated with male infertility in the Spanish population. Neither the MTHFR polymorphism, nor CTCFL mutations explain a pattern of sperm hypomethylation at paternally imprinting loci.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/patologia
6.
Nature ; 499(7459): 471-5, 2013 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23823723

RESUMO

Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hominidae/genética , África , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Animais de Zoológico/genética , Ásia Sudeste , Evolução Molecular , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma/genética , Gorilla gorilla/classificação , Gorilla gorilla/genética , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Endogamia , Pan paniscus/classificação , Pan paniscus/genética , Pan troglodytes/classificação , Pan troglodytes/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Densidade Demográfica
7.
Biol Reprod ; 89(3): 50, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23884645

RESUMO

For the past three decades, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have revolutionized infertility treatments. The use of ART is thought to be safe. However, early investigations suggested that children born as a result of ART had higher risk of diseases with epigenetic etiologies, including imprinting disorders caused by a lack of maternal methylation at imprinting control elements. In addition, large epidemiology studies have highlighted an increased risk of obstetric complications, including severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in babies conceived using ART. It is plausible that the increased frequency of IUGR may be due to abnormal imprinting because these transcripts are key for normal fetal growth and development. To address this, we have collected a large cohort of placenta and cord blood samples from ART conceptions and compared the imprinting status with appropriate non-ART population. Using a custom DNA methylation array that simultaneously quantifies 25 imprinted differentially methylated regions, we observed similar epigenetic profiles between groups. A multiplex Sequenom iPLEX allelic expression assay revealed monoallelic expression for 11 imprinted transcripts in our placenta cohort. We also observe appropriate gestational age-dependent methylation dynamics at retrotransposable elements and promoters associated with growth genes in ART placental biopsies. This study confirms that children conceived by ART do not show variability in imprinted regulation and that loss-of-imprinting is not commonly associated with nonsyndromic IUGR or prematurity.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Impressão Genômica , Instabilidade Genômica , Idade Gestacional , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/genética , Infertilidade/terapia , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez Múltipla/genética , Gravidez Múltipla/metabolismo , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 41(4): 2171-9, 2013 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295672

RESUMO

Paternal duplications of chromosome 6q24, a region that contains the imprinted PLAGL1 and HYMAI transcripts, are associated with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. A common feature of imprinted genes is that they tend to cluster together, presumably as a result of sharing common cis-acting regulatory elements. To determine the extent of this imprinted cluster in human and mouse, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of allelic expression and DNA methylation of the genes mapping within an ∼1.4-Mb region flanking PLAGL1/Plagl1. We confirm that all nine neighbouring genes are biallelically expressed in both species. In human we identify two novel paternally expressed PLAGL1 coding transcripts that originate from unique promoter regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for CTCF and the cohesin subunits RAD21 and SMC3 reveals evolutionarily conserved binding sites within unmethylated regions ∼5 kb downstream of the PLAGL1 differentially methylated region and within the PLAGL1 3' untranslated region (UTR). Higher-order chromatin looping occurs between these regions in both expressing and non-expressing tissues, forming a non-allelic chromatin loop around the PLAGL1/Plagl1 gene. In placenta and brain tissues, we identify an additional interaction between the PLAGL1 P3/P4 promoters and the unmethylated element downstream of the PLAGL1 differentially methylated region that we propose facilitates imprinted expression of these alternative isoforms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Impressão Genômica , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Epigenetics ; 7(10): 1115-24, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22885410

RESUMO

The topic of imprinting defects present in the sperm of infertile patients has been addressed by several reports in the last few years. However, whether methylation abnormalities at one or few CpGs within an imprinted locus are pathological is a matter of debate. Moreover, whether imprinting anomalies in sperm could interfere with fertility treatment outcomes is still unknown. In this report we analyze the sperm DNA methylation profile of H19-ICR, KvDMR, SNRPN-ICR, IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR by pyrosequencing in 107 infertile men series and a control population of 30 proven fertile males. DNA methylation was statistically evaluated from two points of view: first, the methylation of each CpG was analyzed in the control population and the mean, standard deviation and range were determined and compared with infertile population data; second, in order to define altered methylation patterns for each region, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed by which individuals were grouped in different clusters according to the degree of similarity of their methylation pattern. Two pieces of data supported the results obtained in the multi-variate analysis: the classification of the vast majority of control individuals in clusters with normal methylation patterns and the significant differences in methylation levels found between individuals within the normal and abnormal clusters. Individuals included in normal and abnormal methylation clusters were compared according to seminal parameters as well as to the outcome of assisted reproduction.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Impressão Genômica , Infertilidade Masculina , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Sêmen/citologia , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Proteínas Centrais de snRNP/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 7(6): e38907, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22723905

RESUMO

Genomic imprinting is a complex epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control that utilizes DNA methylation and histone modifications to bring about parent-of-origin specific monoallelic expression in mammals. Genes subject to imprinting are often organised in clusters associated with large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), some of which have cis-regulatory functions. Here we have undertaken a detailed allelic expression analysis of an imprinted domain on mouse proximal chromosome 10 comprising the paternally expressed Plagl1 gene. We identified three novel Plagl1 transcripts, only one of which contains protein-coding exons. In addition, we characterised two unspliced ncRNAs, Hymai, the mouse orthologue of HYMAI, and Plagl1it (Plagl1 intronic transcript), a transcript located in intron 5 of Plagl1. Imprinted expression of these novel ncRNAs requires DNMT3L-mediated maternal DNA methylation, which is also indispensable for establishing the correct chromatin profile at the Plagl1 DMR. Significantly, the two ncRNAs are retained in the nucleus, consistent with a potential regulatory function at the imprinted domain. Analysis with catRAPID, a protein-ncRNA association prediction algorithm, suggests that Hymai and Plagl1it RNAs both have potentially high affinity for Trithorax chromatin regulators. The two ncRNAs could therefore help to protect the paternal allele from DNA methylation by attracting Trithorax proteins that mediate H3 lysine-4 methylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Impressão Genômica , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Isoformas de RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , Transporte de RNA , Transcrição Genética
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 711: 103-16, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21627045

RESUMO

In the 19th century Gregor Mendel defined the laws of genetic inheritance by crossing different types of peas. From these results arose his principle of equivalence: the gene will have the same behaviour whether it is inherited from the mother or the father. Today, several key exceptions to this principle are known, for example sex-linked traits and genes in the mitochondrial genome, whose inheritance patterns are referred to as 'non mendelian'. A third, important exception in mammals is that of genomic imprinting, where transcripts are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from only the maternal or the paternal chromosome. In this chapter, we discuss how parent-of-origin effects and genomic imprinting may play a role in autoimmunity and speculate how imprinted miRNAs may influence the expression of many target autoimmune associated genes.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Impressão Genômica , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Epigênese Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 20(16): 3188-97, 2011 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21593219

RESUMO

Nuclear transfer experiments undertaken in the mid-80's revealed that both maternal and paternal genomes are necessary for normal development. This is due to genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that results in parent-of-origin monoallelic expression of genes regulated by germline-derived allelic methylation. To date, ∼100 imprinted transcripts have been identified in mouse, with approximately two-thirds showing conservation in humans. It is currently unknown how many imprinted genes are present in humans, and to what extent these transcripts exhibit human-specific imprinted expression. This is mainly due to the fact that the majority of screens for imprinted genes have been undertaken in mouse, with subsequent analysis of the human orthologues. Utilizing extremely rare reciprocal genome-wide uniparental disomy samples presenting with Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndrome-like phenotypes, we analyzed ∼0.1% of CpG dinculeotides present in the human genome for imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using the Illumina Infinium methylation27 BeadChip microarray. This approach identified 15 imprinted DMRs associated with characterized imprinted domains, and confirmed the maternal methylation of the RB1 DMR. In addition, we discovered two novel DMRs, first, one maternally methylated region overlapping the FAM50B promoter CpG island, which results in paternal expression of this retrotransposon. Secondly, we found a paternally methylated, bidirectional repressor located between maternally expressed ZNF597 and NAT15 genes. These three genes are biallelically expressed in mice due to lack of differential methylation, suggesting that these genes have become imprinted after the divergence of mouse and humans.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 39(11): 4577-86, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21300645

RESUMO

Imprinted retrotransposed genes share a common genomic organization including a promoter-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) and a position within the intron of a multi-exonic 'host' gene. In the mouse, at least one transcript of the host gene is also subject to genomic imprinting. Human retrogene orthologues are imprinted and we reveal that human host genes are not imprinted. This coincides with genomic rearrangements that occurred during primate evolution, which increase the separation between the retrogene DMRs and the host genes. To address the mechanisms governing imprinted retrogene expression, histone modifications were assayed at the DMRs. For the mouse retrogenes, the active mark H3K4me2 was associated with the unmethylated paternal allele, while the methylated maternal allele was enriched in repressive marks including H3K9me3 and H4K20me3. Two human retrogenes showed monoallelic enrichment of active, but not of repressive marks suggesting a partial uncoupling of the relationship between DNA methylation and repressive histone methylation, possibly due to the smaller size and lower CpG density of these DMRs. Finally, we show that the genes immediately flanking the host genes in mouse and human are biallelically expressed in a range of tissues, suggesting that these loci are distinct from large imprinted clusters.


Assuntos
Impressão Genômica , Histonas/metabolismo , Retroelementos , Alelos , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
15.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 133(17): 649-656, nov. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-84202

RESUMO

Introducción: El Síndrome de rader-Willi (SPW) es una enfermedad genética que se caracteriza por hipotonía neonatal, hipogonadismo, hiperfagia que conduce a obesidad, estatura baja, retraso en el desarrollo, retraso mental moderado, alteración del comportamiento y apariencia facial característica. Se origina por la pérdida o inactivación de genes de expresión paterna incluidos en la región 15q11-13 regulada por impronta genómica. Existen diferentes causas genéticas: deleción de la región 15q11-q13 de origen paterno en el 70% de los pacientes, disomía uniparental materna en el 20-25% y menos de un 5% presenta defecto de impronta. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el estudio transversal clínico-genético de 77 pacientes SPW. Pacientes y métodos: Se ha realizado el estudio de 374 pacientes con sospecha de SPW. Se emplean técnicas citogenéticas de cariotipo con bandas G e hibridación in situ fluorescente (FISH) y técnicas moleculares de microsatélites, Southern blot, MS-PCR y secuenciación. Se emplean los criterios de Holm para la correlación fenotipo-genotipo en 48 pacientes. Resultados: Se confirma el diagnóstico de SPW en 77 pacientes, 46 con deleción, 16 con disomía uniparental, 2 con defecto de impronta y 13 con solo un patrón de metilación SPW. No se observan diferencias significativas en la correlación fenotipo –genotipo. Conclusiones: Las frecuencias de las alteraciones moleculares, 71,87% deleción, 25% DUPmat y 3,12% DI, son similares a las descritas en la literatura. Se presenta el algoritmo de diagnóstico utilizado con la MS-PCR como técnica rápida para confirmar el diagnóstico de SPW (AU)


Background: The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a disease of genetic origin. It is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, hypogonadism, hiperfagia leading to obesity, low stature, developmental delay, moderate mental retardation, abnormal behavior and characteristic facial appearance. It is caused by the loss or the inactivation of paternal genes of the imprinted region 15q11-13. There are different genetic causes: paternal 15q11-q13 deletion in 70% of patients, maternal uniparental disomy in the 20-25% and less than 5% have an imprinting defect. We present the results obtained in the transverse clinical - genetic study of 77 PWS patients. Results: WS was confirmed in 77 patients, 46 deletion, 16 uniparental disomy, two imprinting defect and 13 only PWS methylation pattern. Significant differences do not observe in the correlation phenotype - genotype. Conclusions: The frequencies of the molecular alterations, 71.87 % deletion, 25 % UPD and 3.12 % DI, they are similar to described in the literature. It presents the algorithm of diagnosis used with the MS-PCR as rapid technology to confirm PWS (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Estudos Transversais , Análise Citogenética
16.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 133(17): 649-56, 2009 Nov 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19748638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a disease of genetic origin. It is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, hypogonadism, hiperfagia leading to obesity, low stature, developmental delay, moderate mental retardation, abnormal behavior and characteristic facial appearance. It is caused by the loss or the inactivation of paternal genes of the imprinted region 15q11-13. There are different genetic causes: paternal 15q11-q13 deletion in 70% of patients, maternal uniparental disomy in the 20-25% and less than 5% have an imprinting defect. We present the results obtained in the transverse clinical - genetic study of 77 PWS patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: There has been realized the study of 374 suspected PWS patients. Cytogenetics studies of bands G and hybridization in situ fluorescent (FISH) and molecular genetics analysis of microsatellites, Southern blot, MS-PCR and sequenciation were carried out. Holm's criteria use for the correlation phenotype - genotype in 48 patients. RESULTS: PWS was confirmed in 77 patients, 46 deletion, 16 uniparental disomy, two imprinting defect and 13 only PWS methylation pattern. Significant differences do not observe in the correlation phenotype - genotype. CONCLUSIONS: The frequencies of the molecular alterations, 71.87 % deletion, 25 % UPD and 3.12 % DI, they are similar to described in the literature. It presents the algorithm of diagnosis used with the MS-PCR as rapid technology to confirm PWS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 149A(3): 343-8, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19213023

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of UBE3A imprinted gene expression from the maternal chromosome 15. In 10% of AS cases the genetic cause is a mutation affecting the maternal copy of the UBE3A gene. In two large Spanish series of clinically stringently selected and nonstringently selected patients, we have identified 11 pathological mutations--eight of them novel mutations--and 14 sequence changes considered polymorphic variants. Remarkably, single nucleotide substitutions are more likely to be inherited, while multiple nucleotide deletions or insertions are less frequently inherited, thus indicating that single nucleotide substitutions are more likely to originate from the paternal germline. Additionally, there seems to be a different distribution of nucleotide changes and multiple nucleotide deletions or insertions along the UBE3A gene sequence.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Mutagênese Insercional , Mutação , Deleção de Sequência , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Códon , Sequência Conservada , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Pai , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Irmãos
18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 50(1): 11-20, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17095305

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are genetic disorders caused by a deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal or maternal chromosome 15, respectively. This deficiency is due to the deletion of the 15q11-q13 region, parental uniparental disomy of the chromosome 15, or imprinting defect (ID). Mutation of the UBE3A gene causes approximately 10% of AS cases. In this present study, we describe the molecular analysis and phenotypes of two PWS patients and four AS patients with ID. One of the PWS patients has a non-familial imprinting center (IC) deletion and displayed a severe phenotype with an atypical PWS appearance, hyperactivity and psychiatric vulnerability. The other PWS and AS patients did not present genetic abnormalities in the IC, suggesting an epimutation as the genetic cause. The methylation pattern of two AS patients showed a faint maternal band corresponding to a mosaic ID. One of these mosaic patients displayed a mild AS phenotype while the other displayed a PWS-like phenotype.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Impressão Genômica , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Adulto , Síndrome de Angelman/patologia , Southern Blotting , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia
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