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1.
Prostate ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations of the BRCA2 gene are the most frequent alterations found in germline DNA from men with prostate cancer (PrCa), but clinical parameters that could better orientate for BRCA2 mutation screening need to be established. METHODS: Germline DNA from 325 PrCa patients (median age at diagnosis: 57 years old) was screened for BRCA2 mutation. The mutation frequency was compared between three subgroups: patients with an age at diagnosis at 55 years old and under (Group I); a personal or family history of breast, uterine or ovarian cancer (Group II); or a metastatic disease (Group III). Frequency of BRCA2 mutations was established for each combination of phenotypes, and compared between patients meeting or not the criteria for each subgroup using Fisher's exact test. Mutual information, direct effect, elasticity and contribution to the mutational status of each phenotype, taking into account overlap between subgroups, were also estimated using Bayesian algorithms. RESULTS: The proportion of BRCA2 mutation was 5.9% in Group I, 10.9% in Group II and 6.9% in Group III. The frequency of BRCA2 mutation was significantly higher among patients of Group II (p = .006), and reached 15.6% among patients of this group who presented a metastatic disease. Mutual information, direct effect, elasticity and contribution to the mutational status were the highest for phenotype II. Fifteen (71.4%) of the 21 BRCA2 mutation carriers had an aggressive form of the disease. Four (19%) of them died from PrCa after a median follow-up duration of 64.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that a higher frequency of BRCA2 mutation carriers is observed, not only among PrCa patients with young onset or a metastatic disease, but also with a personal or a familial history of breast cancer.

2.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline ATM mutations are suggested to contribute to predisposition to prostate cancer (PrCa). Previous studies have had inadequate power to estimate variant effect sizes. OBJECTIVE: To precisely estimate the contribution of germline ATM mutations to PrCa risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed next-generation sequencing data from 13 PRACTICAL study groups comprising 5560 cases and 3353 controls of European ancestry. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Variant Call Format files were harmonised, annotated for rare ATM variants, and classified as tier 1 (likely pathogenic) or tier 2 (potentially deleterious). Associations with overall PrCa risk and clinical subtypes were estimated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PrCa risk was higher in carriers of a tier 1 germline ATM variant, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-9.5). There was also evidence that PrCa cases with younger age at diagnosis (<65 yr) had elevated tier 1 variant frequencies (pdifference = 0.04). Tier 2 variants were also associated with PrCa risk, with an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of pathogenic ATM variants have an elevated risk of developing PrCa and are at an increased risk for earlier-onset disease presentation. These results provide information for counselling of men and their families. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we estimated that men who inherit a likely pathogenic mutation in the ATM gene had an approximately a fourfold risk of developing prostate cancer. In addition, they are likely to develop the disease earlier.

3.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462368

RESUMO

The homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score integrates three DNA-based measures of genomic instability, and has been understudied in prostate cancer. Given the recent FDA approval of two PARP inhibitors for prostate cancer, HRD score analysis could help to refine treatment selection. We assessed HRD score (defined as the sum of loss-of-heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance, and large-scale state transitions) in three cohorts of primary prostate cancer, including a Johns Hopkins University (JHU) cohort with germline mutations in BRCA2, ATM, or CHEK2 (n = 64), the TCGA cohort (n = 391), and the PROGENE cohort (n = 102). In the JHU cohort, tumors with germline BRCA2 mutations had higher HRD scores (median = 27) than those with germline ATM or CHEK2 mutations (median = 16.5 [p = 0.029] and 9 [p < 0.001], respectively). For TCGA tumors without underlying HR pathway mutations, the median HRD score was 11, significantly lower than ovarian carcinoma lacking BRCA1/2 mutations (median = 28). In the absence of HR gene mutations, the median HRD score was unexpectedly higher among prostate cancers with TP53 mutations versus those without (17 vs. 11; p = 0.015); this finding was confirmed in the PROGENE cohort (24 vs. 16; p = 0.001). Finally, among eight BRCA2-altered patients who received olaparib, progression-free survival trended longer in those with HRD scores above versus below the median (14.9 vs. 9.9 months). We conclude that HRD scores are low in primary prostate cancer and higher in cases with germline BRCA2 or somatic TP53 mutations. Germline BRCA2-altered cases have significantly higher HRD scores than germline ATM-altered or CHEK2-altered cases, consistent with the lower efficacy of PARP inhibitors among the latter.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255593

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major concern in public health, with many genetically distinct subsets. Genomic alterations in PCa are extraordinarily complex, and both germline and somatic mutations are of great importance in the development of this tumor. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of genetic changes that can occur in the development of PCa and their role in potential therapeutic approaches. Various pathways and mechanisms proposed to play major roles in PCa are described in detail to provide an overview of current knowledge.

6.
Cytopathology ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a frequent and mortal disease. The aim of the study was to accelerate with the help of prostate cytology the handling of PCa patients by giving results within 3 hours. Standard histology served as control. The aim was to introduce a « diagnosis and handling of PCa in one day ¼ concept. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After multiparametric MRI, prostate biopsies were taken and one of the biopsies was used for cytology on superfrost slides. The cytology samples were stained by p63/p504s double staining, a standard stain in PCa histology, interpretation took place within 3 hours. RESULTS: Among 129 patients 39.5% had a prior history of PCa and were either under active surveillance or had been treated by focal therapy. The others came with suspicion of PCa. In 80.8% the cytology and histology results were concordant. In low grade PCa the detection was more difficult with 72.4% of detection, in high grade PCa the result were according to the differentiation between 81.8 and 90%. False positive cases were less than 4.0%. CONCLUSION: Cytology of the prostate is unusual, our study is the first to show that prostate cytology is feasible and gives satisfying immediate results, especially in more aggressive disease. Immunocytology can be easily integrated into the laboratory. Our technique allows a quicker handling of PCa and allows to soften the psychological impact on men waiting for the diagnosis of PCa.

7.
BJU Int ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with patterns of aggressiveness of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2018, 476 patients with NMIBC were prospectively included. The first step aimed to identify SNPs associated with aggressiveness patterns (e.g. ≥pT1or high-grade/Grade 3 or presence of carcinoma in situ) by analysing the data of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 165 patients with BC. The second step aimed to validate the SNPs previously identified, by genotyping the germline DNA of 311 patients with NMIBC. RESULTS: Overall, the median (interquartile range) age was 66 (58-75) years and the rate of patients with aggressive NMIBC was comparable between both groups (46% vs 46%, P = 1). GWAS data analysis identified four SNPs associated with an aggressive NMIBC (rs12615669, rs4976845, rs2989734, and rs2802288). In the validation cohort, the genotype CC of rs12615669, as well as age >70 years at the time of diagnosis were associated with aggressive NMIBC (P = 0.008 and P < 0.001, respectively). Genotyping of the entire cohort showed an association between aggressive NMIBC and the T allele of rs12615669 (P = 0.0007), the A allele of rs4976845 (P = 0.012), and the A allele of rs2989734 (P = 0.007). A significant association was also found for the entire cohort between the risk of progression and the A allele of rs4976845 (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: This two-phase study identified three SNPs (rs12615669, rs4976845, and rs2989734) associated with aggressive NMIBC and one SNP (rs4976845) associated with a higher risk of progression.

8.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of prostate cancer (PCa) is a well-known risk factor, and both common and rare genetic variants are associated with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To detect new genetic variants associated with PCa, capitalizing on the role of family history and more aggressive PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-stage design was used. In stage one, whole-exome sequencing was used to identify potential risk alleles among affected men with a strong family history of disease or with more aggressive disease (491 cases and 429 controls). Aggressive disease was based on a sum of scores for Gleason score, node status, metastasis, tumor stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, systemic recurrence, and time to PCa death. Genes identified in stage one were screened in stage two using a custom-capture design in an independent set of 2917 cases and 1899 controls. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Frequencies of genetic variants (singly or jointly in a gene) were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Eleven genes previously reported to be associated with PCa were detected (ATM, BRCA2, HOXB13, FAM111A, EMSY, HNF1B, KLK3, MSMB, PCAT1, PRSS3, and TERT), as well as an additional 10 novel genes (PABPC1, QK1, FAM114A1, MUC6, MYCBP2, RAPGEF4, RNASEH2B, ULK4, XPO7, and THAP3). Of these 10 novel genes, all but PABPC1 and ULK4 were primarily associated with the risk of aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach demonstrates the advantage of gene sequencing in the search for genetic variants associated with PCa and the benefits of sampling patients with a strong family history of disease or an aggressive form of disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Multiple genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) among men with a strong family history of this disease or among men with an aggressive form of PCa.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3119-3129, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506468

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, several studies have attempted to understand the hypothesis that disrupting the circadian rhythm may promote the development of cancer. Some have suggested that night work and some circadian genes polymorphisms are associated with cancer, including prostate cancer. Our study aims to test the hypothesis that prostate cancer risk among night workers may be modulated by genetic polymorphisms in the circadian pathway genes based on data from the EPICAP study, a population-based case-control study including 1511 men (732 cases/779 controls) with genotyped data. We estimated odds ratio (ORs) and P values of the association between prostate cancer and circadian gene variants using logistic regression models. We tested the interaction between circadian genes variants and night work indicators that were significantly associated with prostate cancer at pathway, gene and SNP levels. Analyses were also stratified by each of these night work indicators and by cancer aggressiveness. The circadian pathway was significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer among night workers (P = .004), particularly for men who worked at night for <20 years (P = .0002) and those who performed long night shift (>10 hours, P = .001). At the gene level, we observed among night workers significant associations between aggressive prostate cancer and ARNTL, NPAS2 and RORA. At the SNP-level, no significant association was observed. Our findings provide some clues of a potential modulating effect of circadian genes in the relationship between night work and prostate cancer. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings and to better elucidate the biological pathways involved.

10.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

11.
Urol Oncol ; 38(8): 661-670, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409202

RESUMO

Often contraindicated because of the theoretical risk of progression based on the dogma of hormone dependent prostate cancer (CaP), testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is increasingly discussed and proposed for hypogonadal patients with localized CaP. To perform a systematic literature review to determine the relationship between TRT and the risk of CaP with a focus on the impact of TRT in the setting of previous or active localized CaP. As of October 15, 2019, systematic review was performed via Medline Embase and Cochrane databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. All full text articles in English published from January 1994 to February 2018 were included. Articles were considered if they reported about the relationship between total testosterone or bioavailable testosterone and CaP. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized controlled trials. Articles about the safety of the testosterone therapy were categorized by type of CaP management (active surveillance or curative treatment by radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy or brachytherapy). Until more definitive data becomes available, clinicians wishing to treat their hypogonadal patients with localized CaP with TRT should inform them of the lack of evidence regarding the safety of long-term treatment for the risk of CaP progression. However, in patients without known CaP, the evidence seems sufficient to think that androgen therapy does not increase the risk of subsequent discovery of CaP.

12.
Nucl Med Biol ; 84-85: 88-95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251995

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peptide-based imaging agents targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have revolutionized the evaluation of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) but lacks sensitivity at very low serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Once recurrence is suspected, other positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers could be of interest to discriminate between local and distant relapse. We studied [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) targeting glucose metabolism, [18F]fluorocholine ([18F]FCH) targeting membrane metabolism and peptide-based imaging agents [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11, [68Ga]Ga-AMBA, [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA-RGD and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-NT-20.3 targeting PSMA, gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr), αvß3 integrin and neurotensin type 1 receptor (NTSR1) respectively, in different PCa tumour models. METHODS: Mice were xenografted with 22Rv1, an androgen-receptor (AR)-positive, PCa cell line that expresses PSMA and PC3, an AR-negative one that does not express PSMA. PET imaging using the different radiotracers was performed sequentially and the uptake characteristics compared to one other. NTSR1 and PSMA expression levels were analysed in tumours by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: [18F]FDG displayed low but sufficient uptake to visualize PC3 and 22Rv1 derived tumours. We also observed a low efficacy of [18F]FCH PET imaging and a low [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA-RGD tumour uptake in those tumours. As expected, an elevated tumour uptake was obtained for [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 in 22Rv1 derived tumour although no uptake was measured in the androgen independent cell line PC3, derived from a bone metastasis of a high-grade PCa. Moreover, in PC3 cell line, we obtained good tumour uptake, high tumour-to-background contrast using [68Ga]Ga-AMBA and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-NT-20.3. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed high NTSR1 expression in PC3 derived tumours and conversely high PSMA expression in 22Rv1 derived tumours. CONCLUSION: PET imaging using [68Ga]Ga-AMBA and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-NT-20.3 demonstrates that GRPr and NTSR1 could represent viable alternative targets for diagnostic or therapeutic applications in PCa with limited PSMA expression levels. More preclinical and clinical studies will follow to explore this potential. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT: Peptide-based imaging agents targeting PSMA represent a major progress in the evaluation of biochemical recurrence of PCa but sometimes yield false negative results in some lesions. Continuing efforts have thus been made to evaluate other radiotracers. Our preclinical results suggest that [68Ga]labelled bombesin and neurotensin analogues could serve as alternative PET radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic or therapy in cases of PSMA-negative PCa.

13.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061548

RESUMO

Although predominantly urothelial, some bladder cancer and upper tract urothelial cancer (BC/UTUC) harbor histologic variants. Small cell BC (SCBC) variants comprised ˜5% of The Cancer Genome Atlas BC cohort, with a poor prognosis. We describe genomic profiles of BC/UTUC with small cell/neuroendocrine features identified in the Foundation Medicine database from June 2012 to September 2018. Of 3368 BC/UTUC samples, 3.92% (132) harbored small cell/neuroendocrine features by immunohistochemistry. Mutations were noted in: TP53 (92%), RB1 (75%), combined TP53/RB1 (72%), and TERT promoter (68%). Of the samples, 6.5% had TMB ≥ 10 mutations/Mb. RNA expression profiling of 24 pure SCBC and 51 urothelial BC (UBC) muscle-invasive samples evaluated from a separate cohort revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes with suppression of several inflammatory pathways in SCBC compared with UBC. This largest reported SCBC dataset to date confirms enrichment of signatures in SCBC similar to small cell lung cancer and describes unique gene expression compared with UBC. These findings may explain aggressive SCBC phenotype. PATIENT SUMMARY: Small cell bladder cancer (SCBC) is an aggressive subtype that microscopically resembles aggressive small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This study confirms that SCBC shares DNA changes similar to SCLC and that SCBC expresses many genes that urothelial bladder cancer does not, possibly explaining aggressive SCBC activity.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores Sexuais
15.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(7): 1745-1753, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665264

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms regulate several physiological functions and genes controlling the circadian rhythm were found to regulate cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated the role of those circadian genes in prostate cancer occurrence. We aim to investigate the relationship between circadian genes polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk based on data from the EPICAP study, a population-based case-control study including 1,515 men (732 cases / 783 controls) with genotyped data. Odds Ratios (ORs) for association between prostate cancer and circadian gene variants were estimated for each of the 872 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 31 circadian clock genes. We also used a gene-based and pathway-based approach with a focus on the pathway including 9 core circadian genes. Separate analyses were conducted by prostate cancer aggressiveness. The core-circadian pathway (p = 0.0006) was significantly associated to prostate cancer, for either low (p = 0.002) or high (p = 0.01) grade tumor. At the gene level, we observed significant associations between all prostate cancer and NPAS2 and PER1 after correcting for multiple testing, while only RORA was significant for aggressive tumors. At the SNP-level, no significant association was observed. Our findings provide additional evidence of a potential link between genetic variants in circadian genes and prostate cancer risk. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings and to better understand the biological pathways involved.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relógios Circadianos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 208-216, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centers with men ages 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: (i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); (ii) fatty acids and ratios; (iii) amino acids; (iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Metaboloma , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Reino Unido
19.
Eur Urol ; 75(1): 11-15, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245085

RESUMO

Causes of high mortality of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry living in the French West Indies are still debated, between suspicions of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. We report an integrated genomic study of 25 tumour tissues from radical prostatectomy of aggressive (defined by International Society of Urological Pathology ≥3) prostate cancer patients (10 African Caribbean and 15 French Caucasian) using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, whole-genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing. The results show that African Caribbean tumours are characterised by a more frequent deletion at 1q41-43 encompassing the DNA repair gene PARP1, and a higher proportion of intrachromosomal rearrangements including duplications associated with CDK12 truncating mutations. Transcriptome analyses show an overexpression of genes related to androgen receptor activity in African Caribbean tumours, and of PVT1, a long non-coding RNA located at 8q24 that confirms the strong involvement of this region in prostate tumours from men of African ancestry. Patient summary: Mortality of prostate cancer is higher in African Caribbean men than in French Caucasian men. Specificities of the former could be explained by genomic events linked with key genes such as DNA damage pathway genes PARP1, CDK12, and the oncogenic long non-coding RNA gene PVT1 at the 8q24 prostate cancer susceptibility locus.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4616, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397198

RESUMO

Chromosome 8q24 is a susceptibility locus for multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Here we combine genetic data across the 8q24 susceptibility region from 71,535 prostate cancer cases and 52,935 controls of European ancestry to define the overall contribution of germline variation at 8q24 to prostate cancer risk. We identify 12 independent risk signals for prostate cancer (p < 4.28 × 10-15), including three risk variants that have yet to be reported. From a polygenic risk score (PRS) model, derived to assess the cumulative effect of risk variants at 8q24, men in the top 1% of the PRS have a 4-fold (95%CI = 3.62-4.40) greater risk compared to the population average. These 12 variants account for ~25% of what can be currently explained of the familial risk of prostate cancer by known genetic risk factors. These findings highlight the overwhelming contribution of germline variation at 8q24 on prostate cancer risk which has implications for population risk stratification.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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