Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 89
Filtrar
1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398909

RESUMO

Bone dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) are a large group of conditions associated with short stature, skeletal disproportion, and radiographic abnormalities of skeletal elements. Nearly all are genetic in origin. We report a series of seven children with similar findings of chondrodysplasia and growth failure following early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for pediatric non-oncologic disease: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or HLH (five children, three with biallelic HLH-associated variants [in PRF1 and UNC13D] and one with HLH secondary to visceral Leishmaniasis), one child with severe combined immunodeficiency and one with Omenn syndrome (both children had biallelic RAG1 pathogenic variants). All children had normal growth and no sign of chondrodysplasia at birth and prior to their primary disease. After HSCT, all children developed growth failure, with standard deviation scores for height at or below -3. Radiographically, all children had changes in the spine, metaphyses and epiphyses, compatible with a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia. Genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants in genes associated with osteochondrodysplasias. We propose that such chondrodysplasia with growth failure is a novel, rare, but clinically important complication following early HSCT for non-oncologic pediatric diseases. The pathogenesis is unknown but could possibly involve loss or perturbation of the cartilage-bone stem cell population.

2.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 75-78, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236427

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a complex new viral disease, in which a strict balance between anti-viral immune response and the ensuing organ inflammation has a critical role in determining the clinical course. In adults, compelling evidence exists indicating that an uncontrolled inflammatory response ("cytokine storm") is pivotal in determining disease progression and mortality. Children may rarely present with severe disease. Modulating factors related to the host's genetic factors, age-related susceptibility, and the capability to mount appropriate immune responses might play a role in control virus load at an early stage and regulating the inflammatory reaction. Elucidating these mechanisms seems crucial in developing target therapies according to patient's age, immunologic status, and disease evolution in COVID-19.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , /etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Pneumonia/complicações
3.
Acta Biomed ; 91(11-S): e2020010, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004780

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited disorders classically characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Nevertheless, in the last two decades, genomic analysis (such as NGS) coupled with biochemical and cellular studies led to a more accurate definition for a growing number of novel genetic disorders associated with PIDs. This revealed new aspects of the immune system and its function and regulation within these diseases. In particular, it has been clarified that the clinical features of PIDs are much broader that originally thought and extend beyond an increased susceptibility to infections. More specifi- cally, immune dysregulation is very often described in novel characterized PIDs and can lead to multiple autoimmune diseases, lymphoproliferation and malignancies. If not promptly diagnosed, these could negatively impact patient's prognosis. The aim of this review is to increase the awareness of recently discovered PIDs, characterized predominantly by immune dysregulation phenotypes. Findings highlighted in this review  suggest screening for immunodeficiency in patients with lymphoproliferation or early onset/multiple autoimmune diseases. Prompt diagnosis would potentially allow most successful treatment and clinical outcome for patients with PIDs.

4.
J Immunol ; 205(11): 2979-2987, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115853

RESUMO

Mutations in two genes can result in activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS), a rare immunodeficiency disease with limited therapeutic options. Seletalisib, a potent, selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, was evaluated in patients with APDS1 and APDS2. In the phase 1b study (European Clinical Trials Database 2015-002900-10) patients with genetic and clinical confirmation of APDS1 or APDS2 received 15-25 mg/d seletalisib for 12 wk. Patients could enter an extension study (European Clinical Trials Database 2015-005541). Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, with exploratory efficacy and immunology endpoints. Seven patients (median age 15 years; APDS1 n = 3; APDS2 n = 4) received seletalisib; five completed the phase 1b study. For the extension study, four patients entered, one withdrew consent (week 24), three completed ≥84 wk of treatment. In the phase 1b study, patients had improved peripheral lymphadenopathy (n = 2), lung function (n = 1), thrombocyte counts (n = 1), and chronic enteropathy (n = 1). Overall, effects were maintained in the extension. In the phase 1b study, percentages of transitional B cells decreased, naive B cells increased, and senescent CD8 T cells decreased (human cells); effects were generally maintained in the extension. Seletalisib-related adverse events occurred in four of seven patients (phase 1b study: hepatic enzyme increased, dizziness, aphthous ulcer, arthralgia, arthritis, increased appetite, increased weight, restlessness, tendon disorder, and potential drug-induced liver injury) and one of four patients had adverse events in the extension (aphthous ulcer). Serious adverse events occurred in three of seven patients (phase 1b study: hospitalization, colitis, and potential drug-induced liver injury) and one of four patients had adverse events in the extension (stomatitis). Patients with APDS receiving seletalisib had improvements in variable clinical and immunological features, and a favorable risk-benefit profile was maintained for ≤96 wk.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(7): 1026-1037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803625

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are heterogeneous disorders, characterized by variable clinical and immunological features. National PID registries offer useful insights on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and natural history of these disorders. In 1999, the Italian network for primary immunodeficiencies (IPINet) was established. We report on data collected from the IPINet registry after 20 years of activity. A total of 3352 pediatric and adult patients affected with PIDs are registered in the database. In Italy, a regional distribution trend of PID diagnosis was observed. Based on the updated IUIS classification of 2019, PID distribution in Italy showed that predominantly antibody deficiencies account for the majority of cases (63%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (22.5%). The overall age at diagnosis was younger for male patients. The minimal prevalence of PIDs in Italy resulted in 5.1 per 100.000 habitants. Mortality was similar to other European registries (4.2%). Immunoglobulin replacement treatment was prescribed to less than one third of the patient cohort. Collectively, this is the first comprehensive description of the PID epidemiology in Italy.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 967-983, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827505

RESUMO

Medical advances have dramatically improved the long-term prognosis of children and adolescents with inborn errors of immunity (IEIs). Transfer of the medical care of individuals with pediatric IEIs to adult facilities is also a complex task because of the large number of distinct disorders, which requires involvement of patients and both pediatric and adult care providers. To date, there is no consensus on the optimal pathway of the transitional care process and no specific data are available in the literature regarding patients with IEIs. We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the transition process to adult health care services for patients with IEIs. Physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network centers formulated and answered questions after examining the currently published literature on the transition from childhood to adulthood. The authors voted on each recommendation. The most frequent IEIs sharing common main clinical problems requiring full attention during the transitional phase were categorized into different groups of clinically related disorders. For each group of clinically related disorders, physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network institutions focused on selected clinical issues representing the clinical hallmark during early adulthood.

8.
J Leukoc Biol ; 108(2): 739-748, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392633

RESUMO

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) caused by full mutation of the IL2RG gene leads to T- B+ NK- phenotype and is usually associated with severe opportunistic infections, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. When IL2RG hypomorphic mutation occurs, diagnosis could be delayed and challenging since only moderate reduction of T and NK cells may be present. Here, we explored phenotypic insights and the impact of the p.R222C hypomorphic mutation (IL2RGR222C ) in distinct cell subsets in an 8-month-old patient with atypical X-SCID. We found reduced CD4+ T cell counts, a decreased frequency of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and an expansion of B cells. Ex vivo STAT5 phosphorylation was impaired in CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells, yet compensated by supraphysiological doses of IL-2. Sanger sequencing on purified cell subsets showed a partial reversion of the mutation in total CD3+ cells, specifically in recent thymic emigrants (RTE), effector memory (EM), and CD45RA+ terminally differentiated EM (EMRA) CD4+ T cells. Of note, patient's NK cells had a normal frequency compared to age-matched healthy subjects, but displayed an expansion of CD56bright cells with higher perforin content and cytotoxic potential, associated with accumulation of NK-cell stimulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15). Overall, this report highlights an alteration in the NK-cell compartment that, together with the high disease-phenotype variability, should be considered in the suspicion of X-SCID with hypomorphic IL2RG mutation.


Assuntos
Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Mutação , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/etiologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Masculino
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(4): 610-618, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved survival in ADA-SCID patients is revealing new aspects of the systemic disorder. Although increasing numbers of reports describe the systemic manifestations of adenosine deaminase deficiency, currently there are no studies in the literature evaluating genital development and pubertal progress in these patients. METHODS: We collected retrospective data on urogenital system and pubertal development of 86 ADA-SCID patients followed in the period 2000-2017 at the Great Ormond Street Hospital (UK) and 5 centers in Italy. In particular, we recorded clinical history and visits, and routine blood tests and ultrasound scans were performed as part of patients' follow-up. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found a higher frequency of congenital and acquired undescended testes compared with healthy children (congenital, 22% in our sample, 0.5-4% described in healthy children; acquired, 16% in our sample, 1-3% in healthy children), mostly requiring orchidopexy. No urogenital abnormalities were noted in females. Spontaneous pubertal development occurred in the majority of female and male patients with a few cases of precocious or delayed puberty; no patient presented high FSH values. Neither ADA-SCID nor treatment performed (PEG-ADA, BMT, or GT) affected pubertal development or gonadic function. CONCLUSION: In summary, this report describes a high prevalence of cryptorchidism in a cohort of male ADA-SCID patients which could represent an additional systemic manifestation of ADA-SCID. Considering the impact urogenital and pubertal abnormalities can have on patients' quality of life, we feel it is essential to include urogenital evaluation in ADA-SCID patients to detect any abnormalities, initiate early treatment, and prevent long-term complications.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 429-437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is the prototype of primary humoral immunodeficiencies. Long-term follow-up studies regarding disease-related complications and outcome are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the natural history of XLA. METHODS: A nationwide multicenter study based on the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry was established in 2000 in Italy. Affected patients were enrolled by documenting centers, and the patients' laboratory, clinical, and imaging data were recorded on an annual base. RESULTS: Data on the patients (N = 168) were derived from a cumulative follow-up of 1370 patient-years, with a mean follow-up of 8.35 years per patient. The mean age at diagnosis decreased after establishment of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry (84 months before vs 23 months after). Respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal manifestations were the most frequent clinical symptoms at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Regular immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduced the incidence of invasive infections. Affected patients developed chronic lung disease over time (47% after 40 years of follow-up) in the presence of chronic sinusitis (84%). Malignancies were documented in a minority of cases (3.7%). Overall survival for affected patients was significantly reduced when compared with that for the healthy male Italian population, and it further deteriorated in the presence of chronic lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed long-term follow-up study for patients with XLA, revealing that although immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduces the incidence of invasive infections, it does not appear to influence the development of chronic lung disease. The overall survival of affected patients is reduced. Further studies are warranted to improve patients' clinical management and increase awareness among physicians.

11.
Cell Rep ; 30(9): 2963-2977.e6, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130900

RESUMO

Memory B cells (MBCs) epitomize the adaptation of the immune system to the environment. We identify two MBC subsets in peripheral blood, CD27dull and CD27bright MBCs, whose frequency changes with age. Heavy chain variable region (VH) usage, somatic mutation frequency replacement-to-silent ratio, and CDR3 property changes, reflecting consecutive selection of highly antigen-specific, low cross-reactive antibody variants, all demonstrate that CD27dull and CD27bright MBCs represent sequential MBC developmental stages, and stringent antigen-driven pressure selects CD27dull into the CD27bright MBC pool. Dynamics of human MBCs are exploited in pregnancy, when 50% of maternal MBCs are lost and CD27dull MBCs transit to the more differentiated CD27bright stage. In the postpartum period, the maternal MBC pool is replenished by the expansion of persistent CD27dull clones. Thus, the stability and flexibility of human B cell memory is ensured by CD27dull MBCs that expand and differentiate in response to change.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 273-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use. METHODS: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID. CONCLUSIONS: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.

13.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(5): 720-727, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple monogenic disorders present as very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) or as IBD with severe and atypical features. Establishing a genetic diagnosis may change patients' management and prognosis. In this study, we describe the diagnostic approach to suspected monogenic IBD in a real clinical setting, discussing genetic and phenotypic findings and therapeutic implications of molecular diagnosis. METHODS: Information of patients with VEO-IBD and early onset IBD with severe/atypical phenotypes (EO-IBD s/a) managed between 2008-2017 who underwent a genetic workup were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were included, and 12 (13%) reached a genetic diagnosis. Candidate sequencing (CS) was performed in 47 patients (50%), and next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 84 patients (90%). Candidate sequencing had a good diagnostic performance only when guided by clinical features specific for known monogenic diseases, whereas NGS helped finding new causative genetic variants and would have anticipated one monogenic diagnosis (XIAP) and consequent bone marrow transplant (BMT). Patients with monogenic IBD more frequently were male (92% vs 54%; P = 0.02), had extraintestinal findings (100% vs 34%; P < 0.001), and had disease onset ≤1 month of life (25% vs 1%; P = 0.006). Genetic diagnosis impacted patient management in 11 patients (92%), 7 of whom underwent BMT. CONCLUSION: A genetic diagnosis can be established in a significant proportion of suspected monogenic IBD and has an impact on patients' management. Candidate sequencing may be deployed when clinical findings orientate toward a specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing should be preferred in patients with nonspecific phenotypes.

14.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108309, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751612

RESUMO

Mutations affecting the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB were recently identified to underlie a form of common variable immunodeficiency strongly associated with autoimmunity. Although intrinsic B-cell abnormalities explain most of the humoral defects of this disease, detailed data on the impact of NFKB2 on follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tregs) T cells are scarce. Here, we show that Tfh, CXCR5+, and CXCR5- Treg cell subsets were significantly reduced in patients heterozygous for a truncating mutation of NFKB2. Plasma CXCL13 levels were reduced, underlining an important role for NFKB2 in regulating the germinal center (GC) response. Proinflammatory IFNγ, IL-17 and IL-10 cytokine production by CD4 T cells was lower in the mutated patients, but the production of IL-4 and IL-21 was not altered. Taken together, our findings show that NFKB2 influences the quality and efficiency of human GC reaction, by affecting not only the B cells but also GC-relevant T cell subsets.

15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849946

RESUMO

Multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) represents a rapid, highly reproducible, and sensitive diagnostic technology for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which are characterized by a wide range of T cell perturbations and a broad clinical and genetic heterogeneity. MFC data from CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were examined in 100 patients referred for Primary Immunodeficiencies to our center. Naïve, central memory, effector memory, and terminal effector memory cell differentiation stages were defined by the combined expression CD45RA/CD27 for CD4 and CD45RA/CCR7 for CD8. Principal component analysis (PCA), a non-hypothesis driven statistical analysis, was applied to analyze MFC data in order to distinguish the diverse PIDs. Among severe lymphopenic patients, those affected by severe combined and combined immunodeficiency (SCID and CID) segregated in a specific area, reflecting a homogenous, and a more severe T cell impairment, compared to other lymphopenic PID, such as thymectomized and partial DiGeorge syndrome patients. PID patients with predominantly antibody defects were distributed in a heterogeneous pattern, but unexpectedly PCA was able to cluster some patients' resembling CID, hence warning for additional and more extensive diagnostic tests and a diverse clinical management. In conclusion, PCA applied to T cell MFC data might help the physician to estimate the severity of specific PID and to diversify the clinical and diagnostic approach of the patients.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Imunofenotipagem , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Criança , Análise de Dados , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/etiologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736942

RESUMO

Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) exhibit T lymphopenia and profound impairments in cellular and humoral immunity. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) deficiency is a rare form of SCID that usually presents in the first months of life with severe and opportunistic infections, failure to thrive and high risk of mortality unless treated. Here, we reported an atypical and delayed onset of IL7Rα-SCID in a 15-month-old girl presenting with thrombocytopenia. Immunological investigations showed a normal lymphocyte count with isolated CD4-penia, absence of naïve T cells, marked hypergammaglobulinemia, and maternal T cell engraftment. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the IL-7Rα gene: c.160T>C (p.S54P) and c.245G>T (p.C82F). The atypical onset and the unusual immunological phenotype expressed by our patient highlights the diagnostic challenge in the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and in particular in SCID patients where prompt diagnosis and therapy greatly affects survival.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366013

RESUMO

Natural Killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against viral infections. The mechanisms of recognition and killing of virus-infected cells mediated by NK cells are still only partially defined. Several viruses induce, on the surface of target cells, the expression of molecules that are specifically recognized by NK cell-activating receptors. The main NK cell-activating receptors involved in the recognition and killing of virus-infected cells are NKG2D and DNAM-1. In particular, ligands for DNAM-1 are nectin/nectin-like molecules involved also in mechanisms allowing viral infection. Viruses adopt several immune evasion strategies, including those affecting NK cell-mediated immune surveillance, causing persistent viral infection and the development of virus-associated diseases. The virus's immune evasion efficacy depends on molecules differently expressed during the various phases of infection. In this review, we overview the molecular strategies adopted by viruses, specifically cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpes virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), aiming to evade NK cell-mediated surveillance, with a special focus on the modulation of DNAM-1 activating receptor and its ligands in various phases of the viral life cycle. The increasing understanding of mechanisms involved in the modulation of activating ligands, together with those mediating the viral immune evasion strategies, would provide critical tools leading to design novel NK cell-based immunotherapies aiming at viral infection control, thus improving cure strategies of virus-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vigilância Imunológica , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Nectinas/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Replicação Viral
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 476-485, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mutations affecting the TMEM173 gene cause STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). No standard immunosuppressive treatment approach is able to control disease progression in patients with SAVI. We studied the efficacy and safety of targeting type I IFN signaling with the Janus kinase inhibitor, ruxolitinib. METHODS: We used DNA sequencing to identify mutations in TMEM173 in patients with peripheral blood type I IFN signature. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib was administered on an off-label basis. RESULTS: We identified three patients with SAVI presenting with skin involvement and progressive severe interstitial lung disease. Indirect echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension were present in one case. Following treatment with ruxolitinib, we observed improvements of respiratory function including increased forced vital capacity in two patients, with discontinuation of oxygen therapy and resolution of echocardiographic abnormalities in one case. Efficacy was persistent in one patient and only transitory in the other two patients. Clinical control of skin complications was obtained, and one patient discontinued steroid treatment. One patient, who presented with kidney involvement, showed resolution of hematuria. One patient experienced increased recurrence of severe viral respiratory infections. Monitoring of peripheral blood type I interferon signature during ruxolitinib treatment did not show a stable decrease. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that targeting type I IFN receptor signaling may represent a promising therapeutic option for a subset of patients with SAVI syndrome and severe lung involvement. However, the occurrence of viral respiratory infection might represent an important cautionary note for the application of such form of treatment.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA