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1.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108309, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751612

RESUMO

Mutations affecting the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB were recently identified to underlie a form of common variable immunodeficiency strongly associated with autoimmunity. Although intrinsic B-cell abnormalities explain most of the humoral defects of this disease, detailed data on the impact of NFKB2 on follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tregs) T cells are scarce. Here, we show that Tfh, CXCR5+, and CXCR5- Treg cell subsets were significantly reduced in patients heterozygous for a truncating mutation of NFKB2. Plasma CXCL13 levels were reduced, underlining an important role for NFKB2 in regulating the germinal center (GC) response. Proinflammatory IFNγ, IL-17 and IL-10 cytokine production by CD4 T cells was lower in the mutated patients, but the production of IL-4 and IL-21 was not altered. Taken together, our findings show that NFKB2 influences the quality and efficiency of human GC reaction, by affecting not only the B cells but also GC-relevant T cell subsets.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736942

RESUMO

Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) exhibit T lymphopenia and profound impairments in cellular and humoral immunity. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) deficiency is a rare form of SCID that usually presents in the first months of life with severe and opportunistic infections, failure to thrive and high risk of mortality unless treated. Here, we reported an atypical and delayed onset of IL7Rα-SCID in a 15-month-old girl presenting with thrombocytopenia. Immunological investigations showed a normal lymphocyte count with isolated CD4-penia, absence of naïve T cells, marked hypergammaglobulinemia, and maternal T cell engraftment. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the IL-7Rα gene: c.160T>C (p.S54P) and c.245G>T (p.C82F). The atypical onset and the unusual immunological phenotype expressed by our patient highlights the diagnostic challenge in the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and in particular in SCID patients where prompt diagnosis and therapy greatly affects survival.

3.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple monogenic disorders present as very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) or as IBD with severe and atypical features. Establishing a genetic diagnosis may change patients' management and prognosis. In this study, we describe the diagnostic approach to suspected monogenic IBD in a real clinical setting, discussing genetic and phenotypic findings and therapeutic implications of molecular diagnosis. METHODS: Information of patients with VEO-IBD and early onset IBD with severe/atypical phenotypes (EO-IBD s/a) managed between 2008-2017 who underwent a genetic workup were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were included, and 12 (13%) reached a genetic diagnosis. Candidate sequencing (CS) was performed in 47 patients (50%), and next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 84 patients (90%). Candidate sequencing had a good diagnostic performance only when guided by clinical features specific for known monogenic diseases, whereas NGS helped finding new causative genetic variants and would have anticipated one monogenic diagnosis (XIAP) and consequent bone marrow transplant (BMT). Patients with monogenic IBD more frequently were male (92% vs 54%; P = 0.02), had extraintestinal findings (100% vs 34%; P < 0.001), and had disease onset ≤1 month of life (25% vs 1%; P = 0.006). Genetic diagnosis impacted patient management in 11 patients (92%), 7 of whom underwent BMT. CONCLUSION: A genetic diagnosis can be established in a significant proportion of suspected monogenic IBD and has an impact on patients' management. Candidate sequencing may be deployed when clinical findings orientate toward a specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing should be preferred in patients with nonspecific phenotypes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use. METHODS: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID. CONCLUSIONS: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366013

RESUMO

Natural Killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against viral infections. The mechanisms of recognition and killing of virus-infected cells mediated by NK cells are still only partially defined. Several viruses induce, on the surface of target cells, the expression of molecules that are specifically recognized by NK cell-activating receptors. The main NK cell-activating receptors involved in the recognition and killing of virus-infected cells are NKG2D and DNAM-1. In particular, ligands for DNAM-1 are nectin/nectin-like molecules involved also in mechanisms allowing viral infection. Viruses adopt several immune evasion strategies, including those affecting NK cell-mediated immune surveillance, causing persistent viral infection and the development of virus-associated diseases. The virus's immune evasion efficacy depends on molecules differently expressed during the various phases of infection. In this review, we overview the molecular strategies adopted by viruses, specifically cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpes virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), aiming to evade NK cell-mediated surveillance, with a special focus on the modulation of DNAM-1 activating receptor and its ligands in various phases of the viral life cycle. The increasing understanding of mechanisms involved in the modulation of activating ligands, together with those mediating the viral immune evasion strategies, would provide critical tools leading to design novel NK cell-based immunotherapies aiming at viral infection control, thus improving cure strategies of virus-associated diseases.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 476-485, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mutations affecting the TMEM173 gene cause STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). No standard immunosuppressive treatment approach is able to control disease progression in patients with SAVI. We studied the efficacy and safety of targeting type I IFN signaling with the Janus kinase inhibitor, ruxolitinib. METHODS: We used DNA sequencing to identify mutations in TMEM173 in patients with peripheral blood type I IFN signature. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib was administered on an off-label basis. RESULTS: We identified three patients with SAVI presenting with skin involvement and progressive severe interstitial lung disease. Indirect echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension were present in one case. Following treatment with ruxolitinib, we observed improvements of respiratory function including increased forced vital capacity in two patients, with discontinuation of oxygen therapy and resolution of echocardiographic abnormalities in one case. Efficacy was persistent in one patient and only transitory in the other two patients. Clinical control of skin complications was obtained, and one patient discontinued steroid treatment. One patient, who presented with kidney involvement, showed resolution of hematuria. One patient experienced increased recurrence of severe viral respiratory infections. Monitoring of peripheral blood type I interferon signature during ruxolitinib treatment did not show a stable decrease. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that targeting type I IFN receptor signaling may represent a promising therapeutic option for a subset of patients with SAVI syndrome and severe lung involvement. However, the occurrence of viral respiratory infection might represent an important cautionary note for the application of such form of treatment.

9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 447, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949166

RESUMO

The thymus plays a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining central and peripheral tolerance and defects in thymic architecture or AIRE expression result in the development of autoreactive lymphocytes. Patients with partial DiGeorge Syndrome (pDGS) and Down Syndrome (DS) present alterations in size and architecture of the thymus and higher risk to develop autoimmunity. We sought to evaluate thymic architecture and thymocyte development in DGS and DS patients and to determine the extent to which thymic defects result in immune dysregulation and T cell homeostasis perturbation in these patients. Thymi from pediatric patients and age-matched controls were obtained to evaluate cortex and medullary compartments, AIRE expression and thymocyte development. In the same patients we also characterized immunophenotype of peripheral T cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of thymic and peripheral regulatory T (Treg) cells was finally assessed. Histologic analysis revealed peculiar alterations in thymic medulla size and maturation in DGS and DS patients. Perturbed distribution of thymocytes and altered thymic output was also observed. DGS patients showed lower mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cell frequency, associated with reduced proportion and function of Tregs both in thymus and peripheral blood. DS patients showed increased frequency of single positive (SP) thymocytes and thymic Treg cells. However, Tregs isolated both from thymus and peripheral blood of DS patients showed reduced suppressive ability. Our results provide novel insights on thymic defects associated with DGS and DS and their impact on peripheral immune dysregulation. Indeed, thymic abnormalities and defect in thymocyte development, in particular in Treg cell number and function could contribute in the pathogenesis of the immunodysregulation present in pDGS and in DS patients.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031743

RESUMO

Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2369-2376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may develop severe thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia. There are no reliable predictors for the development of hematologic autoimmunity (HA) in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the peculiar B and T subpopulation defects in patients with 22q11DS who have developed HA and test if these defects precede the development of HA. METHODS: We performed a case-control multicenter study. Patients with HA were compared with a control population of 22q11.2DS without HA (non-HA). A complete immunological evaluation was performed at diagnosis and at the last follow-up including extensive T and B phenotypes. RESULTS: Immunophenotype at the last follow-up was available in 23 HA and 45 non-HA patients. HA patients had significantly decreased percentage of naïve CD4+ cells (26.8% vs 43.2%, P = .003) and recent thymic emigrants (48.6% vs 80.5%, P = .046); decreased class-switched B cells (2.0% vs 5.9%, P = .04) and increased naive B cells (83.5% vs 71.4%, P = .02); increased CD16+/56+ both in absolute number (312 vs 199, P = .009) and percentage (20.0% vs 13.0%, P = .03). Immunophenotype was performed in 36 patients (11 HA and 25 non-HA) at diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) of immune cytopenia were estimated for both CD4 naïve ≤30% (OR 14.0, P = .002) and switched memory B cells ≤2% (OR 44.0, P = .01). The estimated survival curves reached statistical significance, respectively, P = .0001 and P = .002. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with 22q11.2DS, those with HA have characteristic lymphocyte anomalies that appear considerably before HA onset. Systematic immunophenotyping of patients with 22q11.2DS at diagnosis is advisable for early identification of patients at risk for this severe complication.

13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837984

RESUMO

We described for the first time a female patient with the simultaneous presence of two homozygous mutations in MYD88 and CARD9 genes presenting with pyogenic bacterial infections, elevated IgE, and persistent EBV viremia. In addition to defective TLR/IL1R-signaling, we described novel functional alterations into the myeloid compartment. In particular, we demonstrated a defective production of reactive oxygen species exclusively in monocytes upon E. coli stimulation, the inability of immature mono-derived DCs (iDCs) to differentiate into mature DCs (mDCs) and the incapacity of mono-derived macrophages (MDMs) to resolve BCG infection in vitro. Our data do not provide any evidence for digenic inheritance in our patient, but rather for the association of two monogenic disorders. This case illustrates the importance of using next generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the most accurate and early diagnosis in atypical clinical and immunological phenotypes, and with particular concern in consanguineous families. Indeed, besides the increased susceptibility to recurrent invasive pyogenic bacterial infections due to MYD88 deficiency, the identification of CARD9 mutations underline the risk of developing invasive fungal infections emphasizing the careful monitoring for the occurrence of fungal infection and the opportunity of long-term antifungal prophylaxis.

14.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jagunal homolog 1 (JAGN1) gene was identified as a novel responsible for severe congenital neutropenia. The protein encoded by this gene is required for neutrophil differentiation, survival and function in microbial activity. JAGN1-deficient human neutrophils are characterized by alterations in trafficking within the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi compartments because of ultrastructural defects in endoplasmic reticulum and susceptibility to apoptosis. OBSERVATIONS: We report a patient exhibiting an intermittent neutropenia, for which a next-generation sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation in the JAGN1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The patient extends the clinical variability associated to JAGN1 mutations, and this case highlights the importance of genetic investigations in patients with suspected neutropenia.

17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(5): 713-721, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) usually characterized by the absence of both T and NK cells, but preserved numbers of B lymphocytes (T-B+NK-SCID). The detection of larger (>100 bp) genomic duplications or deletions can be more difficult to be detected by PCR-based methods or standard NGS protocols, and a broad range of mutation detection techniques are necessary. METHODS: We report four unrelated Italian patients (two females and two males) with SCID phenotype. Protein expression, functional studies, molecular analysis by standard methods and NGS, and transcripts studies were performed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. RESULTS: Here, we describe four JAK3-deficient patients from four unrelated families. The first patient is homozygous for the known c.1951 C>T mutation causing the amino acidic change p.R651W. The other two patients, originating from the same small Italian town, resulted compound heterozygotes for the same g.15410_16542del deletion and two different novel mutations, g.13319_13321delTTC and c.933T>G (p.F292V), respectively. The fourth patient was compound heterozygous for the novel mutations p.V599G and p.W709R. Defective STAT5 phosphorylation after IL2 or IL15 stimulation corroborated the mutation pathogenicity. Concerning g.15410_16542del mutation, probably due to an unequal homologous recombination between Alu elements of JAK3 gene, microsatellites analysis revealed that both unrelated Pt2 and Pt3 and their carrier family members shared the same haplotype. These data support the hypothesis of a founder effect for the g.15410_16542del mutation that might have inherited in both unrelated families from the same ancient progenitor. CONCLUSION: Different molecular techniques are still required to obtain a definitive diagnosis of AR-SCID particularly in all cases in which a monoallelic mutation is found by standard mutation scanning methods.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599784

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ Syndrome (APDS), caused by autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3CD (APDS1) or PIK3R1 (APDS2), is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency. While initial cohort-descriptions summarized the spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations, questions about long-term disease evolution and response to therapy remain. The prospective European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)-APDS registry aims to characterize the disease course, identify outcome predictors, and evaluate treatment responses. So far, 77 patients have been recruited (51 APDS1, 26 APDS2). Analysis of disease evolution in the first 68 patients pinpoints the early occurrence of recurrent respiratory infections followed by chronic lymphoproliferation, gastrointestinal manifestations, and cytopenias. Although most manifestations occur by age 15, adult-onset and asymptomatic courses were documented. Bronchiectasis was observed in 24/40 APDS1 patients who received a CT-scan compared with 4/15 APDS2 patients. By age 20, half of the patients had received at least one immunosuppressant, but 2-3 lines of immunosuppressive therapy were not unusual before age 10. Response to rapamycin was rated by physician visual analog scale as good in 10, moderate in 9, and poor in 7. Lymphoproliferation showed the best response (8 complete, 11 partial, 6 no remission), while bowel inflammation (3 complete, 3 partial, 9 no remission) and cytopenia (3 complete, 2 partial, 9 no remission) responded less well. Hence, non-lymphoproliferative manifestations should be a key target for novel therapies. This report from the ESID-APDS registry provides comprehensive baseline documentation for a growing cohort that will be followed prospectively to establish prognostic factors and identify patients for treatment studies.

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