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1.
Pain Physician ; 24(2): 175-184, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to insulin. IR has been associated with multiple conditions, including chronic pain. Fibromyalgia (FM) is one of the common generalized chronic painful conditions with an incidence rate affecting 3% to 6% of the population. Substantial interest and investigation into FM continue to generate  many hypotheses.The relationship between IR and FM has not been explored. IR is known to cause abnormalities in the cerebral microvasculature, leading to focal hypoperfusion. IR also has been shown to cause cognitive impairment in FM patients, as in parkinsonism. As demonstrated by advanced imaging methods, similar brain perfusion abnormalities occur in the brain of patients with FM as with IR. OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential association between FM and IR. SETTING: Subspecialty pain medicine clinics. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. METHODS: Laboratory data was extracted through a retrospective review of medical records from patients who had met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for FM. The Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values from 33 patients with FM were compared with the means of the glycated HbA1c levels of 2 control populations. In addition, established indices of IR [Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)] were calculated in a subgroup of patients in whom the analytes necessary for these calculations were available. To assess for confounding factors, the associations between HbA1c, QUICKI, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin levels, and glucose, after controlling for age, were explored by multiple analyses of variance with relation to gender and ethnicity. RESULTS: We found an association between IR and FM that was independent of age, gender, and ethnicity. We found that patients with FM belong to a distinct population that can be segregated from the control groups by their HbA1c levels, a surrogate marker of IR. This was demonstrated by analyzing the data after introducing an age correction into a linear regression model. This strategy showed significant differences between patients with FM and control subjects (P < 0.0001 and P  = 0.0002, for 2 separate control populations, respectively). A subgroup analysis using the QUICKI and HOMA-IR showed that all patients with FM in this subgroup (100%) exhibited laboratory abnormalities pointing to IR. LIMITATIONS: Small observational cross-sectional study. There are also intrinsic limitations that are attributed to cross-sectional studies. CONCLUSION: The association demonstrated in this study warrant further investigation, including the pursuit of randomized, double-blind clinical trials to determine the effect of improving insulin sensitivity in FM related pain scores. Such studies could unveil a potential pathogenetic relationship between FM, central pain, and IR. Based on these initial findings, we present the hypothesis that IR may underlie pathological mechanisms leading to central pain. If confirmed, this may lead to a paradigm shift in the management of central pain.

2.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670393

RESUMO

Complementary and alternative medicines such as herbal medicines are not currently part of the conventional medical system. As the popularity of and global market for herbal medicine grows among all age groups, with supporting scientific data and clinical trials, specific alternative treatments such as herbal medicine can be reclassified as a practice of conventional medicine. One of the most common conditions for which adults use herbal medicine is pain. However, herbal medicines carry safety concerns and may impact the efficacy of conventional therapies. Unfortunately, mechanisms of action are poorly understood, and their use is unregulated and often underreported to medical professionals. This review aims to compile common and available herbal medicines which can be used as an alternative to or in combination with conventional pain management approaches. Efficacy and safety are assessed through clinical studies on pain relief. Ensuing herb-drug interactions such as cytochrome modulation, additive and synergistic effects, and contraindications are discussed. While self-management has been recognized as part of the overall treatment strategy for patients suffering from chronic pain, it is important for practitioners to be able to also optimize and integrate herbal medicine and, if warranted, other complementary and alternative medicines into their care.

3.
Pain Physician ; 24(S1): S1-S26, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The re-engineered definition of clinical guidelines in 2011 from the IOM (Institute of Medicine) states, "clinical practice guidelines are statements that include recommendations intended to optimize patient care that is informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefit and harms of alternative care options." The revised definition distinguishes between the term "clinical practice guideline" and other forms of clinical guidance derived from widely disparate development processes, such as consensus statements, expert advice, and appropriate use criteria. OBJECTIVE: To assess the literature and develop methodology for evidence synthesis and development of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in chronic spinal pain. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature including methodology of guideline development encompassing GRADE approach for guidance on evidence synthesis with recommendations. RESULTS: Some of the many factors described in 2011 continue as of 2020 and impede the development of clinical practice guidelines. These impediments include biases due to a variety of conflicts and confluence of interest, inappropriate and poor methodological quality, poor writing and ambiguous presentation, projecting a view that these are not applicable to individual patients or too restrictive with the elimination of clinician autonomy, and overzealous and inappropriate recommendations, either positive, negative, or non-committal. Thus, ideally, a knowledgeable, multidisciplinary panel of experts with true lack of bias and confluence of interest must develop guidelines based on a systematic review of the existing evidence. This manuscript describes evidence synthesis from observational studies, various types of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and, finally, methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews. The manuscript also describes various methods utilized in the assessment of the quality of observational studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, RCTs, and systematic reviews. LIMITATIONS: Paucity of publications with appropriate evidence synthesis methodology in reference to interventional techniques. CONCLUSION: This review described comprehensive evidence synthesis derived from systematic reviews, including methodologic quality and bias measurement. The manuscript described various methods utilized in the assessment of the quality of the systematic reviews, RCTs, diagnostic accuracy studies, and observational studies.

4.
Pain Physician ; 24(S1): S27-S208, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic spinal pain is the most prevalent chronic disease with employment of multiple modes of interventional techniques including epidural interventions. Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, systematic reviews, and guidelines have been published. The recent review of the utilization patterns and expenditures show that there has been a decline in utilization of epidural injections with decrease in inflation adjusted costs from 2009 to 2018. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) published guidelines for interventional techniques in 2013, and guidelines for facet joint interventions in 2020. Consequently, these guidelines have been prepared to update previously existing guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing therapeutic epidural procedures, including caudal, interlaminar in lumbar, cervical, and thoracic spinal regions, transforaminal in lumbar spine, and percutaneous adhesiolysis in the lumbar spine. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objective and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of epidural interventions was viewed with best evidence synthesis of available literature and  recommendations were provided. RESULTS: In preparation of the guidelines, extensive literature review was performed. In addition to review of multiple manuscripts in reference to utilization, expenditures, anatomical and pathophysiological considerations, pharmacological and harmful effects of drugs and procedures, for evidence synthesis we have included 47 systematic reviews and 43 RCTs covering all epidural interventions to meet the objectives.The evidence recommendations are as follows: Disc herniation: Based on relevant, high-quality fluoroscopically guided epidural injections, with or without steroids, and results of previous systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I for caudal epidural injections, lumbar interlaminar epidural injections, lumbar transforaminal epidural injections, and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing disc herniation based on one high-quality, placebo-controlled RCT is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement in patients nonresponsive to conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. For thoracic disc herniation, based on one relevant, high-quality RCT of thoracic epidural with fluoroscopic guidance, with or without steroids, the evidence is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.Spinal stenosis: The evidence based on one high-quality RCT in each category the evidence is Level III to II for fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation and Level II for fluoroscopically guided lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural injections is Level IV to III with moderate recommendation with fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections for long-term improvement. The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in lumbar stenosis based on relevant, moderate to high quality RCTs, observational studies, and systematic reviews is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. Axial discogenic pain: The evidence for axial discogenic pain without facet joint pain or sacroiliac joint pain in the lumbar and cervical spine with fluoroscopically guided caudal, lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, based on one relevant high quality RCT in each category is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement, with or without steroids. Post-surgery syndrome: The evidence for lumbar and cervical post-surgery syndrome based on one relevant, high-quality RCT with fluoroscopic guidance for caudal and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, with or without steroids, is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement. For percutaneous adhesiolysis, based on multiple moderate to high-quality RCTs and systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I with strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of these guidelines include a continued paucity of high-quality studies for some techniques and various conditions including spinal stenosis, post-surgery syndrome, and discogenic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These epidural intervention guidelines including percutaneous adhesiolysis were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment and determination of level of evidence with strength of recommendations.

5.
Pain Med ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared the reduction in pain and opioid consumption in patients with chronic spinal pain on concomitant gabapentinoids and opioids with patients using opioids only. DESIGN: This was a retrospective chart review of patients with chronic neck or low back pain who were on opioids with at least 24-month follow-up. SETTING: Single-center pain clinic in an urban setting. SUBJECTS: 167 patients with chronic spinal pain lasting at least 6 months. METHOD: Patients on gabapentin or pregabalin were included in the gabapentinoid group, while the other patients were included in the non-gabapentinoid group. Primary outcome was assessment of pain scores measured via a numeric rating scale (NRS), and secondary outcomes were response to the treatment (>2 point reduction on NRS) and daily opioid use measured in morphine milliequivalents. RESULTS: Pain scores were reduced in the first 6 months and plateaued after that in both groups. At the end of 24 months, the average pain score was 6.71 in the gabapentinoid group, while the average pain score was 7.18 in the non-gabapentinoid group. There was no statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.28). There was no difference in response to treatment in gabapentinoid group (33.3%) when compared to non-gabapentinoid group (32.7%). We also failed to find any significant difference in daily opioid usage between the two groups.Conclusion: Gabapentinoids may not lead to reduction in pain or opioid consumption in patients with chronic spinal pain. A careful approach must be adopted while prescribing gabapentinoids in the chronic spinal pain patient population.

6.
Surg Neurol Int ; 11: 262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024600

RESUMO

Background: Cervical nerve root avulsion is a well-documented result of high-velocity motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). In up to 21% of cases, preganglionic cervical root avulsion can result in a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) impacting the quality of life for patients already impaired by motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. The optimal treatment strategies include repeated stellate ganglion blocks (SBGs). Case Description: A 43-year-old male sustained a high-velocity MVA resulting in the left C8 nerve root avulsion. This resulted in weakness in the C8 distribution, tactile allodynia, and dysesthesias. The magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an abnormal signal ventral to the C8-T1 level. As the patient was not considered a candidate for surgical intervention secondary to the attendant brachial plexus injury, a C7-C8 epidural steroid injection was performed; this did not provide improvement. Before placing a spinal cord stimulator, the patient underwent a series of six ultrasound-guided SBGs performed 2 weeks apart; there was 75% improvement in pain and strength. Six years later, the patient continues to do well while receiving SBGs 4 times a year. Conclusion: A preganglionic cervical nerve root avulsion should not be a contraindication for a stellate ganglion block in a patient with established CRPS.

7.
Case Rep Anesthesiol ; 2020: 8821827, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953182

RESUMO

The expertise to recognize and manage the difficult airway is essential in anesthesiology. Conventionally, this refers to anatomical concerns causing difficulties with facemask ventilation and/or with tracheal intubation. Severe derangements in patients' physiology can make induction and intubation likewise difficult, and approximately 30% of critically ill patients had cardiovascular collapse subsequently to intubation. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a past medical history of type II diabetes and hypertension who presented with altered mental status due to severe metabolic acidosis with a pH of 6.8 on admission to the intensive care unit. The anesthesia team was called to urgently intubate the patient. Upon arrival, the patient was localizing to pain and was hypocapnic, tachycardic, and hypotensive despite ongoing therapy with norepinephrine, vasopressin, and bicarbonate drips. Bedside point-of-care ultrasound showed hyperdynamic left ventricle with no other abnormalities. The patient was induced with IV ketamine, and dissociation occurred with maintenance of spontaneous respirations, which was followed by laryngoscopy and intubation causing only minimal hemodynamic changes. The patient was subsequently dialyzed and treated supportively. He was discharged from the hospital two weeks later-neurologically intact and at his baseline. Combination of hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis is particularly a challenging setting for airway management and a major risk factor for adverse events, including cardiopulmonary arrest. Hemodynamically stable induction agents should be preferred. In addition, sustaining spontaneous ventilation and avoiding periods of apnea in the peri-intubation period is paramount-any buildup of CO2 could push a critically low pH even lower and cause cardiovascular collapse. Sympathomimetic properties of ketamine make this induction agent a particularly appealing choice in this setting. This case report further supports the concept that severe physiologic perturbations-in which conventional induction techniques are not feasible-should be included in the current definition of a difficult airway.

8.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S183-204, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the pain and suffering of chronic pain patients due to stoppage of "elective" interventional pain management and office visits across the United States. The reopening of America and restarting of interventional techniques and elective surgical procedures has started. Unfortunately, with resurgence in some states, restrictions are once again being imposed. In addition, even during the Phase II and III of reopening, chronic pain patients and interventional pain physicians have faced difficulties because of the priority selection of elective surgical procedures.Chronic pain patients require high intensity care, specifically during a pandemic such as COVID-19. Consequently, it has become necessary to provide guidance for triaging interventional pain procedures, or related elective surgery restrictions during a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of these guidelines is to provide education and guidance for physicians, healthcare administrators, the public and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our goal is to restore the opportunity to receive appropriate care for our patients who may benefit from interventional techniques. METHODS: The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) has created the COVID-19 Task Force in order to provide guidance for triaging interventional pain procedures or related elective surgery restrictions to provide appropriate access to interventional pain management (IPM) procedures in par with other elective surgical procedures. In developing the guidance, trustworthy standards and appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest were applied with a section of a panel of experts from various regions, specialties, types of practices (private practice, community hospital and academic institutes) and groups. The literature pertaining to all aspects of COVID-19, specifically related to epidemiology, risk factors, complications, morbidity and mortality, and literature related to risk mitigation and stratification was reviewed. The evidence -- informed with the incorporation of the best available research and practice knowledge was utilized, instead of a simplified evidence-based approach. Consequently, these guidelines are considered evidence-informed with the incorporation of the best available research and practice knowledge. RESULTS: The Task Force defined the medical urgency of a case and developed an IPM acuity scale for elective IPM procedures with 3 tiers. These included urgent, emergency, and elective procedures. Examples of urgent and emergency procedures included new onset or exacerbation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), acute trauma or acute exacerbation of degenerative or neurological disease resulting in impaired mobility and inability to perform activities of daily living. Examples include painful rib fractures affecting oxygenation and post-dural puncture headaches limiting the ability to sit upright, stand and walk. In addition, emergency procedures include procedures to treat any severe or debilitating disease that prevents the patient from carrying out activities of daily living. Elective procedures were considered as any condition that is stable and can be safely managed with alternatives. LIMITATIONS: COVID-19 continues to be an ongoing pandemic. When these recommendations were developed, different stages of reopening based on geographical regulations were in process. The pandemic continues to be dynamic creating every changing evidence-based guidance. Consequently, we provided evidence-informed guidance. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges in IPM creating needless suffering for pain patients. Many IPM procedures cannot be indefinitely postponed without adverse consequences. Chronic pain exacerbations are associated with marked functional declines and risks with alternative treatment modalities. They must be treated with the concern that they deserve. Clinicians must assess patients, local healthcare resources, and weigh the risks and benefits of a procedure against the risks of suffering from disabling pain and exposure to the COVID-19 virus.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/cirurgia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Triagem/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Dor Crônica/classificação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/classificação , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(9)2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967120

RESUMO

Etiology of back pain is multifactorial and not completely understood, and for the majority of people who suffer from chronic low back pain (cLBP), the precise cause cannot be determined. We know that back pain is somewhat heritable, chronic pain more so than acute. The aim of this review is to compile the genes identified by numerous genetic association studies of chronic pain conditions, focusing on cLBP specifically. Higher-order neurologic processes involved in pain maintenance and generation may explain genetic contributions and functional predisposition to formation of cLBP that does not involve spine pathology. Several genes have been identified in genetic association studies of cLBP and roughly, these genes could be grouped into several categories, coding for: receptors, enzymes, cytokines and related molecules, and transcription factors. Treatment of cLBP should be multimodal. In this review, we discuss how an individual's genotype could affect their response to therapy, as well as how genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 and other enzymes are crucial for affecting the metabolic profile of drugs used for the treatment of cLBP. Implementation of gene-focused pharmacotherapy has the potential to deliver select, more efficacious drugs and avoid unnecessary, polypharmacy-related adverse events in many painful conditions, including cLBP.

10.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(18): 2231-2248, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies have shown that 6.9-10% of people suffer from neuropathic pain, a complex painful condition which is often undertreated. Data regarding the effectiveness of treatment options for patients with neuropathic pain is inconsistent, and there is no single treatment option that shows cost-effectiveness across studies. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, the authors present the results of different prospective, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses assessing the effects of different oral medications in the management of various peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. The authors discuss the effectiveness of commonly used oral medications such as voltage-gated calcium channels antagonists, voltage-gated sodium channel antagonists, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, NMDA antagonists, and medications with other mechanisms of action. EXPERT OPINION: Most of the presented medications were more effective than placebo; however, when compared to each other, none of them were significantly superior. The heterogeneity of the studies looking into different oral neuropathic conditions has been the major issue that prevents us from making stronger recommendations. There are multiple reasons including high placebo responsiveness, improperly treated underlying comorbidities (particularly anxiety and depression), and inter-patient variability. Different sensory phenotypes should also be taken into consideration when designing future clinical trials for neuropathic pain.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842609

RESUMO

Tryptophan (TRP) is an essential, aromatic amino acid catabolized by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) enzymes into kynurenine. The IDO enzyme is expressed in peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Another enzyme of interest in the kynurenine signaling pathway is kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of TRP and the kynurenine signaling pathway in different chronic pain patients. The IDO-1, IDO-2, and KMO enzymes and the kynurenine metabolite have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and other painful conditions (migraine, cluster headache, etc.) as well as depressive behavior. We highlighted the analgesic potential of novel agents targeting the enzymes of the kynurenine signaling pathway to explore their efficacy in both future basic science and transitional studies. Upcoming studies conducted on animal models will need to take into consideration the differences in TRP metabolism between human and non-human species. Since chronic painful conditions and depression have common pathophysiological patterns, and the kynurenine signaling pathway is involved in both of them, future clinical studies should aim to have outcomes targeting not only pain, but also functionality, mood changes, and quality of life.

12.
Pain Physician ; 23(3S): S1-S127, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.Summary of Evidence and Recommendations:Non-interventional diagnosis: • The level of evidence is II in selecting patients for facet joint nerve blocks at least 3 months after onset and failure of conservative management, with strong strength of recommendation for physical examination and clinical assessment. • The level of evidence is IV for accurate diagnosis of facet joint pain with physical examination based on symptoms and signs, with weak strength of recommendation. Imaging: • The level of evidence is I with strong strength of recommendation, for mandatory fluoroscopic or computed tomography (CT) guidance for all facet joint interventions. • The level of evidence is III with weak strength of recommendation for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) . • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for scintography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) .Interventional Diagnosis:Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is I to II with moderate to strong strength of recommendation for lumbar diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies with 4 of 10 studies utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetics with concordant pain relief criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence rates ranged from 27% to 40% with false-positive rates of 27% to 47%, with ≥80% pain relief.Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, 9 of the 10 studies with either controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks or placebo controls with concordant pain relief with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence and false-positive rates ranged from 29% to 60% and of 27% to 63%, with high variability. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Three relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, with controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks, with concordant pain relief, with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence varied from 34% to 48%, whereas false-positive rates varied from 42% to 58%.Therapeutic Facet Joint Interventions: Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for lumbar radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of 11 relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 2 negative studies and 4 studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is IV with weak strength of recommendation for lumbar facet joint intraarticular injections with inclusion of 9 relevant randomized controlled trials, with majority of them showing lack of effectiveness without the use of local anesthetic. Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for cervical radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with positive results and 2 observational studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic cervical facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for cervical intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with 2 observational studies, the majority showing lack of effectiveness, whereas one study with 6-month follow-up, showed lack of long-term improvement. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation with emerging evidence for thoracic radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic therapeutic facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 2 randomized controlled trials and one observational study with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with 6 month follow-up, with emerging evidence. Antithrombotic Therapy: • Facet joint interventions are considered as moderate to low risk procedures; consequently, antithrombotic therapy may be continued based on overall general status. Sedation: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation to avoid opioid analgesics during the diagnosis with interventional techniques. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation that moderate sedation may be utilized for patient comfort and to control anxiety for therapeutic facet joint interventions. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of these guidelines include a paucity of high-quality studies in the majority of aspects of diagnosis and therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These facet joint intervention guidelines were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment with determination of level of evidence and strength of recommendations. KEY WORDS: Chronic spinal pain, interventional techniques, diagnostic blocks, therapeutic interventions, facet joint nerve blocks, intraarticular injections, radiofrequency neurolysis.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/terapia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Articulação Zigapofisária , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Surg Neurol Int ; 11: 85, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363076

RESUMO

Background: In this article, we discuss the dramatic decline in the utilization of invasive cranial monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Case Description: A 52-year-old male presented with a severe TBI following a motor vehicle accident. The initial computed tomography scan showed a subdural hematoma, and the patient underwent a craniotomy. However, preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively, the critical care team never utilized invasive cranial monitoring. Therefore, when the patient expired several weeks later due to multiorgan failure, his death was in part attributed to the neurocritical care specialists' failure to employ invasive cranial monitoring techniques. Conclusion: Evidence-based and defensive medicine, cost containment, and a lack of leadership have contributed to neurocritical care specialists' increased failure to utilize invasive hemodynamic and neurological monitoring for TBI.

14.
Pain physician ; 23(3S): S1-S127, May 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1129928

RESUMO

Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain. To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions. The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Dor nas Costas/terapia , Denervação/métodos , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Terapia por Radiofrequência , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Injeções Intra-Articulares
15.
Surg Neurol Int ; 11: 41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257567

RESUMO

Background: Suicide cases are the end product of a combination of biological, clinical, psychological, social, and cultural risk/protective factors, and attempts to remain unpredictable. Case Description: A 43-year-old male presented to the hospital with jaundiced skin/eyes of 7 days' duration. He had a history of a major depressive disorder and chronic alcohol consumption (e.g., 3-5 alcoholic drinks/day for the past 15 years). Studies documented acute hepatic disease (e.g., biopsy-documented hepatocellular alcoholic hepatitis), accompanied by a cholestatic disease. The patient was discharged on clonidine, iron multivitamin, folic acid, gabapentin, and prednisone. Eight days postdischarge from the hospital, he committed suicide (e.g., self- inflicted gunshot wound to the head). Conclusion: Concomitant administration of gabapentin, prednisone, and clonidine, especially if used for the first time, may play a synergistic effect in increasing a patient's suicide risk.

16.
Pain Physician ; 23(2): E85-E131, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders has become increasingly popular over the last several years, as technology has improved along with the need for better solutions for these pathologies. The use of cellular tissue raises a number of issues regarding the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation in classifying these treatments as a drug versus just autologous tissue transplantation. In the case of BMC in musculoskeletal and spine care, this determination will likely hinge on whether BMC is homologous to the musculoskeletal system and spine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to describe the current regulatory guidelines set in place by the FDA, specifically the terminology around "minimal manipulation" and "homologous use" within Regulation 21 CFR Part 1271, and specifically how this applies to the use of BMC in interventional musculoskeletal medicine. METHODS: The methodology utilized here is similar to the methodology utilized in preparation of multiple guidelines employing the experience of a panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties from differing regions of the world. The collaborators who developed these position statements have submitted their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these position statements. The literature pertaining to BMC, its effectiveness, adverse consequences, FDA regulations, criteria for meeting the standards of minimal manipulation, and homologous use were comprehensively reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available and relevant literature. RESULTS/Summary of Evidence: In conjunction with evidence-based medicine principles, the following position statements were developed: Statement 1: Based on a review of the literature in discussing the preparation of BMC using accepted methodologies, there is strong evidence of minimal manipulation in its preparation, and moderate evidence for homologous utility for various musculoskeletal and spinal conditions qualifies for the same surgical exemption. Statement 2: Assessment of clinical effectiveness based on extensive literature shows emerging evidence for multiple musculoskeletal and spinal conditions. • The evidence is highest for knee osteoarthritis with level II evidence based on relevant systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies. There is level III evidence for knee cartilage conditions. • Based on the relevant systematic reviews, randomized trials, and nonrandomized studies, the evidence for disc injections is level III. • Based on the available literature without appropriate systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials, the evidence for all other conditions is level IV or limited for BMC injections. Statement 3: Based on an extensive review of the literature, there is strong evidence for the safety of BMC when performed by trained physicians with the appropriate precautions under image guidance utilizing a sterile technique. Statement 4: Musculoskeletal disorders and spinal disorders with related disability for economic and human toll, despite advancements with a wide array of treatment modalities. Statement 5: The 21st Century Cures Act was enacted in December 2016 with provisions to accelerate the development and translation of promising new therapies into clinical evaluation and use. Statement 6: Development of cell-based therapies is rapidly proliferating in a number of disease areas, including musculoskeletal disorders and spine. With mixed results, these therapies are greatly outpacing the evidence. The reckless publicity with unsubstantiated claims of beneficial outcomes having putative potential, and has led the FDA Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to issue multiple warnings. Thus the US FDA is considering the appropriateness of using various therapies, including BMC, for homologous use. Statement 7: Since the 1980's and the description of mesenchymal stem cells by Caplan et al, (now called medicinal signaling cells), the use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders has been increasing in the management of pain and promoting tissue healing. Statement 8: The Public Health Service Act (PHSA) of the FDA requires minimal manipulation under same surgical procedure exemption. Homologous use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders is provided by preclinical and clinical evidence. Statement 9: If the FDA does not accept BMC as homologous, then it will require an Investigational New Drug (IND) classification with FDA (351) cellular drug approval for use. Statement 10: This literature review and these position statements establish compliance with the FDA's intent and corroborates its present description of BMC as homologous with same surgical exemption, and exempt from IND, for use of BMC for treatment of musculoskeletal tissues, such as cartilage, bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and spinal discs. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the review of all available and pertinent literature, multiple position statements have been developed showing that BMC in musculoskeletal disorders meets the criteria of minimal manipulation and homologous use. KEY WORDS: Cell-based therapies, bone marrow concentrate, mesenchymal stem cells, medicinal signaling cells, Food and Drug Administration, human cells, tissues, and cellular tissue-based products, Public Health Service Act (PHSA), minimal manipulation, homologous use, same surgical procedure exemption.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Manejo da Dor/normas , Médicos/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas
17.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 29(3): 259-271, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070160

RESUMO

Introduction: Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that significantly affects the quality of life of millions of people globally. Most of the pharmacologic treatments currently in use demonstrate modest efficacy and over half of all patients do not respond to medical management. Hence, there is a need for new, efficacious drugs. Evidence points toward voltage-gated sodium channels as a key target for novel analgesics.Area covered: The role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathophysiology is illuminated and the preclinical and clinical data for new sodium channel blockers and toxin-derived lead compounds are examined. The expansion of approved sodium channel blockers is discussed along with the limitations of current research, trends in drug development, and the potential of personalized medicine.Expert opinion: The transition from preclinical to clinical studies can be difficult because of the inherent inability of animal models to express the complexities of pain states. Pain pathways are notoriously intricate and may be pharmacologically modulated at a variety of targets; it is unlikely that action at a single target could completely abolish a pain response because pain is rarely unifactorial. Combination therapy may be necessary and this could further confound the discovery of novel agents.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Medicina de Precisão , Qualidade de Vida , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/farmacologia
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 465-486, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791564

RESUMO

Chronic pain management techniques have evolved in recent years. With regard to this, ultrasound (US) technology has become a standard for most acute pain procedures and essential for postsurgical pain relief and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. This manuscript summarizes clinical studies evaluating US use for chronic pain management and compares efficacy with standard techniques including fluoroscopy (FL). US possesses several unique benefits when compared with FL, including elimination of radiation exposure while providing similar clinical outcomes. In summary, US use for chronic pain procedures is emerging as a viable, safe, and effective modality. Additional studies are needed to best appreciate US and its role in chronic pain management.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Crônica/terapia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Manejo da Dor/instrumentação , Medição da Dor/instrumentação , Medição da Dor/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/instrumentação
19.
Surg Neurol Int ; 10: 224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819818

RESUMO

Background: Athletic pubalgia is a painful complex syndrome encountered by many athletes involved in sports. Multiple pathologies often coexist, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. The current case reflects the failure to distinguish pubalgia from lumbar radiculopathy. Case Description: Originally, a 47-year-old male with left-sided inner thigh pain was diagnosed as having a L3-4-disc herniation and spinal stenosis; he underwent a L3-4 and L4-5 laminectomy/discectomy. For 2 years postoperatively, the pain persisted. Ultimately, he underwent surgical reinsertion of the adductor muscle and experienced immediate and sustained pain relief. Conclusion: This case report highlights how pubalgia may be misdiagnosed as a lumbar disc herniation and may inadvertently lead to unnecessary lumbar surgery.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731606

RESUMO

Ovarian hormones play an important role in pain perception, and are responsible, at least in part, for the pain threshold differences between the sexes. Modulation of pain and its perception are mediated by neurochemical changes in several pathways, affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of the most studied neurotransmitters related to pain disorders is serotonin. Estrogen can modify serotonin synthesis and metabolism, promoting a general increase in its tonic effects. Studies evaluating the relationship between serotonin and disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, migraine, and other types of headache suggest a clear impact of this neurotransmitter, thereby increasing the interest in serotonin as a possible future therapeutic target. This literature review describes the importance of substances such as serotonin and ovarian hormones in pain perception and illustrates the relationship between those two, and their direct influence on the presentation of the aforementioned pain-related conditions. Additionally, we review the pathways and receptors implicated in each disorder. Finally, the objective was to stimulate future pharmacological research to experimentally evaluate the potential of serotonin modulators and ovarian hormones as therapeutic agents to regulate pain in specific subpopulations.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Fibromialgia/metabolismo , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo
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