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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622348

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic antimony halides have attracted increasing attention due to the non-toxicity, stability, and high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY). To shed light on the structural factors that contribute to the high PLQY, five pairs of antimony halides with general formula A2SbCl5 and A2Sb2Cl8 are synthesized via two distinct methods and characterized. The A2SbCl5 type adopts square pyramidal [SbCl5] geometry with near-unity PLQY, while the A2Sb2Cl8 adopts seesaw dimmer [Sb2Cl8] geometry with PLQY~0%. Through combined data analysis with the literature, we have found that A2SbCl5 series with square pyramidal geometry generally has much longer Sb…Sb distances, leading to more expressed lone pairs of Sb (III). Additional factors including Sb─Cl distance and stability of antimony chlorides may also affect PLQY. Our targeted synthesis and correlated insights provide efficient tools to precisely form highly emissive materials for optoelectronic applications.

2.
Sci Adv ; 8(44): eade1473, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322645

RESUMO

A combination of gas adsorption and gas breakthrough measurements show that the metal-organic framework, Al(HCOO)3 (ALF), which can be made inexpensively from commodity chemicals, exhibits excellent CO2 adsorption capacities and outstanding CO2/N2 selectivity that enable it to remove CO2 from dried CO2-containing gas streams at elevated temperatures (323 kelvin). Notably, ALF is scalable, readily pelletized, stable to SO2 and NO, and simple to regenerate. Density functional theory calculations and in situ neutron diffraction studies reveal that the preferential adsorption of CO2 is a size-selective separation that depends on the subtle difference between the kinetic diameters of CO2 and N2. The findings are supported by additional measurements, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and variable temperature powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4470, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918385

RESUMO

Lithium and sodium (Na) mixed polyanion solid electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries display some of the highest ionic conductivities reported to date. However, the effect of polyanion mixing on the ion-transport properties is still not fully understood. Here, we focus on Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) NASICON electrolyte to elucidate the role of polyanion mixing on the Na-ion transport properties. Although NASICON is a widely investigated system, transport properties derived from experiments or theory vary by orders of magnitude. We use more than 2000 distinct ab initio-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to map the compositional space of NASICON over various time ranges, spatial resolutions and temperatures. Via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements on samples with different sodium content, we find that the highest ionic conductivity (i.e., about 0.165 S cm-1 at 473 K) is experimentally achieved in Na3.4Zr2Si2.4P0.6O12, in line with simulations (i.e., about 0.170 S cm-1 at 473 K). The theoretical studies indicate that doped NASICON compounds (especially those with a silicon content x ≥ 2.4) can improve the Na-ion mobility compared to undoped NASICON compositions.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(43): e202208875, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043492

RESUMO

Ge-based hybrid perovskite materials have demonstrated great potential for second harmonic generation (SHG) due to the geometry and lone-pair induced non-centrosymmetric structures. Here, we report a new family of hybrid 3D Ge-based bromide perovskites AGeBr3 , A=CH3 NH3 (MA), CH(NH2 )2 (FA), Cs and FAGe0.5 Sn0.5 Br3 , crystallizing in polar space groups. These compounds exhibit tunable SHG responses, where MAGeBr3 shows the strongest SHG intensity (5×potassium dihydrogen phosphate, KDP). Structural and theoretical analysis indicate the high SHG efficiency is attributed to the displacement of Ge2+ along [111] direction and the relatively strong interactions between lone pair electrons of Ge2+ and polar MA cations along the c-axis. This work provides new structural insights for designing and fine-tuning the SHG properties in hybrid metal halide materials.

6.
ACS Energy Lett ; 7(4): 1403-1411, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434367

RESUMO

Sodium thiophosphates are promising materials for large-scale energy storage applications benefiting from high ionic conductivities and the geopolitical abundance of the elements. A representative of this class is Na4P2S6, which currently shows two known polymorphs-α and ß. This work describes a third polymorph of Na4P2S6, γ, that forms above 580 °C, exhibits fast-ion conduction with low activation energy, and is mechanically soft. Based on high-temperature diffraction, pair distribution function analysis, thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, the γ-Na4P2S6 phase is identified to be a plastic crystal characterized by dynamic orientational disorder of the P2S6 4- anions translationally fixed on a body-centered cubic lattice. The prospect of stabilizing plastic crystals at operating temperatures of solid-state batteries, with benefits from their high ionic conductivities and mechanical properties, could have a strong impact in the field of solid-state battery research.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(13): 5795-5811, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325534

RESUMO

In the pursuit of urgently needed, energy dense solid-state batteries for electric vehicle and portable electronics applications, halide solid electrolytes offer a promising path forward with exceptional compatibility against high-voltage oxide electrodes, tunable ionic conductivities, and facile processing. For this family of compounds, synthesis protocols strongly affect cation site disorder and modulate Li+ mobility. In this work, we reveal the presence of a high concentration of stacking faults in the superionic conductor Li3YCl6 and demonstrate a method of controlling its Li+ conductivity by tuning the defect concentration with synthesis and heat treatments at select temperatures. Leveraging complementary insights from variable temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, density functional theory, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, we identify the nature of planar defects and the role of nonstoichiometry in lowering Li+ migration barriers and increasing Li site connectivity in mechanochemically synthesized Li3YCl6. We harness paramagnetic relaxation enhancement to enable 89Y solid-state NMR and directly contrast the Y cation site disorder resulting from different preparation methods, demonstrating a potent tool for other researchers studying Y-containing compositions. With heat treatments at temperatures as low as 333 K (60 °C), we decrease the concentration of planar defects, demonstrating a simple method for tuning the Li+ conductivity. Findings from this work are expected to be generalizable to other halide solid electrolyte candidates and provide an improved understanding of defect-enabled Li+ conduction in this class of Li-ion conductors.

8.
Chem Mater ; 33(14): 5652-5667, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483480

RESUMO

Solid electrolytes are crucial for next-generation solid-state batteries, and Na3PS4 is one of the most promising Na+ conductors for such applications, despite outstanding questions regarding its structural polymorphs. In this contribution, we present a detailed investigation of the evolution in structure and dynamics of Na3PS4 over a wide temperature range 30 < T < 600 °C through combined experimental-computational analysis. Although Bragg diffraction experiments indicate a second-order phase transition from the tetragonal ground state (α, P4̅21 c) to the cubic polymorph (ß, I4̅3m) above ∼250 °C, pair distribution function analysis in real space and Raman spectroscopy indicate remnants of a tetragonal character in the range 250 < T < 500 °C, which we attribute to dynamic local tetragonal distortions. The first-order phase transition to the mesophasic high-temperature polymorph (γ, Fddd) is associated with a sharp volume increase and the onset of liquid-like dynamics for sodium-cations (translational) and thiophosphate-polyanions (rotational) evident by inelastic neutron and Raman spectroscopies, as well as pair-distribution function and molecular dynamics analyses. These results shed light on the rich polymorphism of Na3PS4 and are relevant for a range host of high-performance materials deriving from the Na3PS4 structural archetype.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(43): 18422-18436, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054192

RESUMO

Fast-ion conductors are critical to the development of solid-state batteries. The effects of mechanochemical synthesis that lead to increased ionic conductivity in an archetypical sodium-ion conductor Na3PS4 are not fully understood. We present here a comprehensive analysis based on diffraction (Bragg and pair distribution function), spectroscopy (impedance, Raman, NMR and INS), and ab initio simulations aimed at elucidating the synthesis-property relationships in Na3PS4. We consolidate previously reported interpretations regarding the local structure of ball-milled samples, underlining the sodium disorder and showing that a local tetragonal framework more accurately describes the structure than the originally proposed cubic one. Through variable-pressure impedance spectroscopy measurements, we report for the first time the activation volume for Na+ migration in Na3PS4, which is ∼30% higher for the ball-milled samples. Moreover, we show that the effect of ball-milling on increasing the ionic conductivity of Na3PS4 to ∼10-4 S/cm can be reproduced by applying external pressure on a sample from conventional high-temperature ceramic synthesis. We conclude that the key effects of mechanochemical synthesis on the properties of solid electrolytes can be analyzed and understood in terms of pressure, strain, and activation volume.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 59(6): 3377-3386, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990531

RESUMO

Bismuth trihalides, BiX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, and I), have been thrust into prominence recently because of their close chemical relationship to the halide perovskites of lead, which exhibit remarkable performance as active layers in photovoltaic cells and other optoelectronic devices. In the present work, we have used calculations based on density functional theory to explore the energetics and electronic properties of BiX3 in a variety of known and hypothetical structure types. The results for BiX3 are compared with those obtained for the halides of the later rare earths, represented by YX3 and LuX3. The relative thermodynamic stabilities of the known and hypothetical structures are calculated, along with their band gaps. For the BiX3 systems, we have explored the role of lone-pair effects associated with bismuth(III), and for BiI3, we have compared the predicted structural behavior as a function of pressure with the available experimental data. We have also attempted to synthesize LuF3 in the perovskite-related ReO3-type structure, which is predicted to be only ∼7.7 kJ mol-1 above the convex hull. This attempt was unsuccessful but led to the discovery of a new hydrated phase, (H3O)Lu3F10H2O, which is isomorphous with the known ytterbium analogue.

11.
Nat Mater ; 18(12): 1278-1291, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427742

RESUMO

In the critical area of sustainable energy storage, solid-state batteries have attracted considerable attention due to their potential safety, energy-density and cycle-life benefits. This Review describes recent progress in the fundamental understanding of inorganic solid electrolytes, which lie at the heart of the solid-state battery concept, by addressing key issues in the areas of multiscale ion transport, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and current processing routes. The main electrolyte-related challenges for practical solid-state devices include utilization of metal anodes, stabilization of interfaces and the maintenance of physical contact, the solutions to which hinge on gaining greater knowledge of the underlying properties of solid electrolyte materials.

12.
Front Chem ; 7: 24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761292

RESUMO

Mg batteries utilizing a Mg metal anode with a high-voltage intercalation cathode define a potential pathway toward energy storage with high energy density. However, the making of Mg batteries is plagued by the instability of existing electrolytes against the Mg-metal anode and high-voltage cathode materials. One viable solution to this problem is the identification of protective coating materials that could effectively separate the distinct chemistries of the metal-anode and the cathode materials from the electrolyte. Using first-principles calculations we mapped the electrochemical stability windows for non-redox-active Mg binary and ternary compounds in order to identify potential coating materials for Mg batteries. Our results identify Mg-halides and Mg(BH4)2 as promising anode coating materials based on their significant reductive stability. On the cathode side, we single out MgF2, Mg(PO3)2, and MgP4O11 as effective passivating agents.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(1): 362-368, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224340

RESUMO

Solid electrolytes are generating considerable interest for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries to address safety and performance issues. Grain boundaries have a significant influence on solid electrolytes and are key hurdles that must be overcome for their successful application. However, grain boundary effects on ionic transport are not fully understood, especially at the atomic scale. The Li-rich anti-perovskite Li3OCl is a promising solid electrolyte, although there is debate concerning the precise Li-ion migration barriers and conductivity. Using Li3OCl as a model polycrystalline electrolyte, we apply large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the ionic transport at stable grain boundaries. Our results predict high concentrations of grain boundaries and clearly show that Li-ion conductivity is severely hindered through the grain boundaries. The activation energies for Li-ion conduction traversing the grain boundaries are consistently higher than that of the bulk crystal, confirming the high grain boundary resistance in this material. Using our results, we propose a polycrystalline model to quantify the impact of grain boundaries on conductivity as a function of grain size. Such insights provide valuable fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries and how tailoring the microstructure can lead to the optimization of new high-performance solid electrolytes.

15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1759, 2017 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170372

RESUMO

Magnesium batteries appear a viable alternative to overcome the safety and energy density limitations faced by current lithium-ion technology. The development of a competitive magnesium battery is plagued by the existing notion of poor magnesium mobility in solids. Here we demonstrate by using ab initio calculations, nuclear magnetic resonance, and impedance spectroscopy measurements that substantial magnesium ion mobility can indeed be achieved in close-packed frameworks (~ 0.01-0.1 mS cm-1 at 298 K), specifically in the magnesium scandium selenide spinel. Our theoretical predictions also indicate that high magnesium ion mobility is possible in other chalcogenide spinels, opening the door for the realization of other magnesium solid ionic conductors and the eventual development of an all-solid-state magnesium battery.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(37): 5171-5174, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439589

RESUMO

We propose that Ti-containing post-spinels may offer a practically-accessible route to fast multivalent ion diffusion in close-packed oxide lattices, with the caveat that substantial thermodynamic driving forces for conversion reactions exist.

17.
Chem Rev ; 117(5): 4287-4341, 2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28269988

RESUMO

The rapidly expanding field of nonaqueous multivalent intercalation batteries offers a promising way to overcome safety, cost, and energy density limitations of state-of-the-art Li-ion battery technology. We present a critical and rigorous analysis of the increasing volume of multivalent battery research, focusing on a wide range of intercalation cathode materials and the mechanisms of multivalent ion insertion and migration within those frameworks. The present analysis covers a wide variety of material chemistries, including chalcogenides, oxides, and polyanions, highlighting merits and challenges of each class of materials as multivalent cathodes. The review underscores the overlap of experiments and theory, ranging from charting the design metrics useful for developing the next generation of MV-cathodes to targeted in-depth studies rationalizing complex experimental results. On the basis of our critical review of the literature, we provide suggestions for future multivalent cathode studies, including a strong emphasis on the unambiguous characterization of the intercalation mechanisms.

18.
J Chem Phys ; 145(7): 074112, 2016 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27544092

RESUMO

The Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) is an established method for finding minimum-energy paths and energy barriers of ion migration in materials, but has been hampered in its general application by its significant computational expense when coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Typically, an NEB calculation is initialized from a linear interpolation of successive intermediate structures (also known as images) between known initial and final states. However, the linear interpolation introduces two problems: (1) slow convergence of the calculation, particularly in cases where the final path exhibits notable curvature; (2) divergence of the NEB calculations if any intermediate image comes too close to a non-diffusing species, causing instabilities in the ensuing calculation. In this work, we propose a new scheme to accelerate NEB calculations through an improved path initialization and associated energy estimation workflow. We demonstrate that for cation migration in an ionic framework, initializing the diffusion path as the minimum energy path through a static potential built upon the DFT charge density reproduces the true NEB path within a 0.2 Å deviation and yields up to a 25% improvement in typical NEB runtimes. Furthermore, we find that the locally relaxed energy barrier derived from this initialization yields a good approximation of the NEB barrier, with errors within 20 meV of the true NEB value, while reducing computational expense by up to a factor of 5. Finally, and of critical importance for the automation of migration path calculations in high-throughput studies, we find that the new approach significantly enhances the stability of the calculation by avoiding unphysical image initialization. Our algorithm promises to enable efficient calculations of diffusion pathways, resolving a long-standing obstacle to the computational screening of intercalation compounds for Li-ion and multivalent batteries.

19.
Nano Lett ; 16(4): 2426-31, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26982964

RESUMO

Cointercalation is a potential approach to influence the voltage and mobility with which cations insert in electrodes for energy storage devices. Combining a robust thermodynamic model with first-principles calculations, we present a detailed investigation revealing the important role of H2O during ion intercalation in nanomaterials. We examine the scenario of Mg(2+) and H2O cointercalation in nanocrystalline Xerogel-V2O5, a potential cathode material to achieve energy density greater than Li-ion batteries. Water cointercalation in cathode materials could broadly impact an electrochemical system by influencing its voltages or causing passivation at the anode. The analysis of the stable phases of Mg-Xerogel V2O5 and voltages at different electrolytic conditions reveals a range of concentrations for Mg in the Xerogel and H2O in the electrolyte where there is no thermodynamic driving force for H2O to shuttle with Mg during electrochemical cycling. Also, we demonstrate that H2O shuttling with the Mg(2+) ions in wet electrolytes yields higher voltages than in dry electrolytes. The thermodynamic framework used to study water and Mg(2+) cointercalation in this work opens the door for studying the general phenomenon of solvent cointercalation observed in other complex solvent-electrode pairs used in the Li- and Na-ion chemical spaces.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(71): 13619-22, 2015 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26225908

RESUMO

A systematic first-principles evaluation of the insertion behavior of multi-valent cations in orthorhombic V2O5 is performed. Layer spacing, voltage, phase stability, and ion mobility are computed for Li(+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Ca(2+), and Al(3+) intercalation in the α and δ polymorphs.

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