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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16087, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695108

RESUMO

In the last decades the EU has made substantial efforts implementing conservation strategies to halt biodiversity loss. However, little improvement has been reported. Given the proximity of the 2020 landmark set by the EU Biodiversity Strategy and the Convention for Biological Diversity, alternatives to reduce this conservation gap and prospect future strategies must be assessed urgently. Here, we explore how the current Natura 2000 could be used to enhance management of terrestrial and freshwater threatened vertebrates. We identified Natura 2000 sites to increase the coverage of threatened species as target species under two alternative scenarios: a policy-driven approach including only threatened vertebrates listed in the Directives; and a conservation-driven approach, including all the remaining threatened vertebrates. We show that representation of threatened vertebrates in Natura 2000 could be improved by updating lists of target species in less than 1% and 3% of sites in the policy-driven and conservation-driven scenarios, respectively. We highlight the strength of Natura 2000, with sites that complement each other and could contribute to achieving more ambitious conservation targets under future strategies. Prioritisation exercises like this could help realise the potential of this network and enhance the management of threatened species and improve current gaps.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8931, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222043

RESUMO

Campylobacter infections sourced mainly to poultry products, are the most important bacterial foodborne zoonoses worldwide. No effective measures to control these infections in broiler production exist to date. Here, we used passive immunization with hyperimmune egg yolks to confer broad protection of broilers against Campylobacter infection. Two novel vaccines, a bacterin of thirteen Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli strains and a subunit vaccine of six immunodominant Campylobacter antigens, were used for the immunization of layers, resulting in high and prolonged levels of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in the hens' yolks. In the first in vivo trial, yolks (sham, bacterin or subunit vaccine derived) were administered prophylactically in the broiler feed. Both the bacterin- and subunit vaccine-induced IgY significantly reduced the number of Campylobacter-colonized broilers. In the second in vivo trial, the yolks were administered therapeutically during three days before euthanasia. The bacterin IgY resulted in a significant decrease in C. jejuni counts per infected bird. The hyperimmune yolks showed strong reactivity to a broad representation of C. jejuni and C. coli clonal complexes. These results indicate that passive immunization with hyperimmune yolks, especially bacterin derived, offers possibilities to control Campylobacter colonization in poultry.

4.
Science ; 363(6434): 1459-1463, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923224

RESUMO

Anthropogenic trade and development have broken down dispersal barriers, facilitating the spread of diseases that threaten Earth's biodiversity. We present a global, quantitative assessment of the amphibian chytridiomycosis panzootic, one of the most impactful examples of disease spread, and demonstrate its role in the decline of at least 501 amphibian species over the past half-century, including 90 presumed extinctions. The effects of chytridiomycosis have been greatest in large-bodied, range-restricted anurans in wet climates in the Americas and Australia. Declines peaked in the 1980s, and only 12% of declined species show signs of recovery, whereas 39% are experiencing ongoing decline. There is risk of further chytridiomycosis outbreaks in new areas. The chytridiomycosis panzootic represents the greatest recorded loss of biodiversity attributable to a disease.


Assuntos
Anuros/microbiologia , Anuros/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Quitridiomicetos , Extinção Biológica , Micoses/veterinária , Américas/epidemiologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia
5.
Conserv Biol ; 33(5): 1131-1140, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868671

RESUMO

Mitigation of infectious wildlife diseases is especially challenging where pathogens affect communities of multiple host species. Although most ecological studies recognize the challenge posed by multiple-species pathogens, the implications for management are typically assessed only qualitatively. Translating the intuitive understanding that multiple host species are important into practice requires a quantitative assessment of whether and how secondary host species should also be targeted by management and the effort this will require. Using a multiple-species compartmental model, we determined analytically whether and how intensively secondary host species should be managed to prevent outbreaks in focal hosts based on the reproduction number of individual host species and between-species transmission rates. We applied the model to the invasive pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in a 2-host system in northern Europe. Avoiding a disease outbreak in the focal host (fire salamanders [Salamandra salamandra]) was impossible unless management also heavily targeted the secondary host (alpine newts [Ichthyosaura alpestris]). Preventing an outbreak in the community required targeted removal of at least 80% of each species. This proportion increased to 90% in the presence of an environmental reservoir of B. salamandrivorans and when the proportion of individuals removed could not be adjusted for different host species (e.g., when using traps that are not species specific). We recommend the focus of disease-mitigation plans should shift from focal species to the community level and calculate explicitly the management efforts required on secondary host species to move beyond the simple intuitive understanding that multiple host species may all influence the system. Failure to do so may lead to underestimating the magnitude of the effort required and ultimately to suboptimal or futile management attempts.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Urodelos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Europa (Continente)
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4779, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886308

RESUMO

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) are recognised as global extinction drivers of threatened species. Unfortunately, biodiversity managers have few tested solutions to manage them when often the desperate need for solutions necessitates a response. Here we test in situ biosecurity protocols to assess the efficacy of managing Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), one of the most common and emergent viral diseases in wild parrots (Psittaciformes) that is currently affecting numerous threatened species globally. In response to an outbreak of PBFD in Mauritius "echo" parakeets (Psittacula eques), managers implemented a set of biosecurity protocols to limit transmission and impact of Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). Here we used a reciprocal design experiment on the wild population to test whether BFDV management reduced viral prevalence and viral load, and improved nestling body condition and fledge success. Whilst management reduced the probability of nestling infection by approximately 11% there was no observed impact on BFDV load and nestling body condition. In contrast to expectations there was lower fledge success in nests with added BFDV biosecurity (83% in untreated vs. 79% in treated nests). Our results clearly illustrate that management for wildlife conservation should be critically evaluated through targeted monitoring and experimental manipulation, and this evaluation should always focus on the fundamental objective of conservation.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3800, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491409

RESUMO

Lack of disease spill-over between adjacent populations has been associated with habitat fragmentation and the absence of population connectivity. We here present a case which describes the absence of the spill-over of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) between two connected subpopulations of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Based on neutrally evolving microsatellite loci, both subpopulations were shown to form a single genetic cluster, suggesting a shared origin and/or recent gene flow. Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and fire salamanders were found in the landscape matrix between the two sites, which are also connected by a stream and separated by no obvious physical barriers. Performing a laboratory trial using alpine newts, we confirmed that Bsal is unable to disperse autonomously. Vector-mediated dispersal may have been impeded by a combination of sub-optimal connectivity, limited dispersal ability of infected hosts and a lack of suitable dispersers following the rapid, Bsal-driven collapse of susceptible hosts at the source site. Although the exact cause remains unclear, the aggregate evidence suggests that Bsal may be a poorer disperser than previously hypothesized. The lack of Bsal dispersal between neighbouring salamander populations opens perspectives for disease management and stresses the necessity of implementing biosecurity measures preventing human-mediated spread.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Refúgio , Urodelos/microbiologia , Animais , Família Multigênica/genética , Urodelos/genética
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1864)2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978729

RESUMO

Unravelling the multiple interacting drivers of host-pathogen coexistence is crucial in understanding how an apparently stable state of endemism may shift towards an epidemic and lead to biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the apparent coexistence of the global amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) with Bombina variegata populations in The Netherlands over a 7-year period. We used a multi-season mark-recapture dataset and assessed potential drivers of coexistence (individual condition, environmental mediation and demographic compensation) at the individual and population levels. We show that even in a situation with a clear cost incurred by endemic Bd, population sizes remain largely stable. Current environmental conditions and an over-dispersed pathogen load probably stabilize disease dynamics, but as higher temperatures increase infection probability, changing environmental conditions, for example a climate-change-driven rise in temperature, could unbalance the current fragile host-pathogen equilibrium. Understanding the proximate mechanisms of such environmental mediation and of site-specific differences in infection dynamics can provide vital information for mitigation actions.


Assuntos
Anuros , Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Micoses/microbiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Países Baixos , Dinâmica Populacional
10.
Vet Res ; 48(1): 59, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982389

RESUMO

Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, results in substantial economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide. Although a number of different vaccine approaches have been explored with regard to this disease, they show limitations and none of them have reached the market. We here determine the vaccine potential of a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain. The virulence of this strain was assessed in experimental infection trials and its protection against swine dysentery was quantified in a vaccination-challenge experiment using a seeder infection model. Systemic IgG production and local IgA production were monitored in serum and faeces respectively. Across all trials, pigs that were colonized by virulent, strongly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strains consistently developed swine dysentery, in contrast to none of the pigs colonized by the weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae vaccine strain. In the seeder vaccination trial nearly all immunised animals developed swine dysentery on subsequent challenge with a virulent strain, but the speed of spread of swine dysentery and faecal score were significantly reduced in animals immunised with the weakly haemolytic strain compared to sham-immunised animals. The IgA response of immunised animals upon challenge with a virulent B. hyodysenteriae strain significantly correlated to a later onset of disease. The correlation between local IgA production and protection induced by a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain provides leads for future vaccine development against swine dysentery.


Assuntos
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae/patogenicidade , Disenteria/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Disenteria/imunologia , Disenteria/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/transmissão , Masculino , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Virulência
11.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 32(11): 873-880, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890127

RESUMO

Reintroduction biology is a field of scientific research that aims to inform translocations of endangered species. We review two decades of published literature to evaluate whether reintroduction science is evolving in its decision-support role, as called for by advocates of evidence-based conservation. Reintroduction research increasingly addresses a priori hypotheses, but remains largely focused on short-term population establishment. Similarly, studies that directly assist decisions by explicitly comparing alternative management actions remain a minority. A small set of case studies demonstrate full integration of research in the reintroduction decision process. We encourage the use of tools that embed research in decision-making, particularly the explicit consideration of multiple management alternatives because this is the crux of any management decisions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
Nature ; 544(7650): 353-356, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425998

RESUMO

The recent arrival of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe was followed by rapid expansion of its geographical distribution and host range, confirming the unprecedented threat that this chytrid fungus poses to western Palaearctic amphibians. Mitigating this hazard requires a thorough understanding of the pathogen's disease ecology that is driving the extinction process. Here, we monitored infection, disease and host population dynamics in a Belgian fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population for two years immediately after the first signs of infection. We show that arrival of this chytrid is associated with rapid population collapse without any sign of recovery, largely due to lack of increased resistance in the surviving salamanders and a demographic shift that prevents compensation for mortality. The pathogen adopts a dual transmission strategy, with environmentally resistant non-motile spores in addition to the motile spores identified in its sister species B. dendrobatidis. The fungus retains its virulence not only in water and soil, but also in anurans and less susceptible urodelan species that function as infection reservoirs. The combined characteristics of the disease ecology suggest that further expansion of this fungus will behave as a 'perfect storm' that is able to rapidly extirpate highly susceptible salamander populations across Europe.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Urodelos/microbiologia , Animais , Anuros/microbiologia , Bélgica , Quitridiomicetos/imunologia , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Maturidade Sexual , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urodelos/imunologia
13.
Conserv Biol ; 30(3): 599-609, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306549

RESUMO

Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species' persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tomada de Decisões , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Austrália , Incerteza
14.
Ecol Evol ; 5(18): 3927-38, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26442760

RESUMO

Spatial and temporal partitioning of resources underlies the coexistence of species with similar niches. In communities of frogs and toads, the phenology of advertisement calling provides insights into temporal partitioning of reproductive effort and its implications for community dynamics. This study assessed the phenology of advertisement calling in an anuran community from Melbourne, in southern Australia. We collated data from 1432 surveys of 253 sites and used logistic regression to quantify seasonality in the nightly probability of calling and the influence of meteorological variables on this probability for six species of frogs. We found limited overlap in the predicted seasonal peaks of calling among these species. Those shown to have overlapping calling peaks are unlikely to be in direct competition, due to differences in larval ecology (Crinia signifera and Litoria ewingii) or differences in calling behavior and acoustics (Limnodynastes dumerilii and Litoria raniformis). In contrast, closely related and ecologically similar species (Crinia signfera and Crinia parinsignifera;Litoria ewingii and Litoria verreauxii) appear to have staggered seasonal peaks of calling. In combination with interspecific variation in the meteorological correlates of calling, these results may be indicative of temporal partitioning of reproductive activity to facilitate coexistence, as has been reported for tropical and temperate anurans from other parts of the globe.

15.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0120340, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760868

RESUMO

Occupancy surveys should be designed to minimise false absences. This is commonly achieved by increasing replication or increasing the efficiency of surveys. In the case of destructive sampling designs, in which searches of individual microhabitats represent the repeat surveys, minimising false absences leads to an inherent trade-off. Surveyors can sample more low quality microhabitats, bearing the resultant financial costs and producing wider-spread impacts, or they can target high quality microhabitats were the focal species is more likely to be found and risk more severe impacts on local habitat quality. We show how this trade-off can be solved with a decision-theoretic approach, using the Millewa Skink Hemiergis millewae from southern Australia as a case study. Hemiergis millewae is an endangered reptile that is best detected using destructive sampling of grass hummocks. Within sites that were known to be occupied by H. millewae, logistic regression modelling revealed that lizards were more frequently detected in large hummocks. If this model is an accurate representation of the detection process, searching large hummocks is more efficient and requires less replication, but this strategy also entails destruction of the best microhabitats for the species. We developed an optimisation tool to calculate the minimum combination of the number and size of hummocks to search to achieve a given cumulative probability of detecting the species at a site, incorporating weights to reflect the sensitivity of the results to a surveyor's priorities. The optimisation showed that placing high weight on minimising volume necessitates impractical replication, whereas placing high weight on minimising replication requires searching very large hummocks which are less common and may be vital for H. millewae. While destructive sampling methods are sometimes necessary, surveyors must be conscious of the ecological impacts of these methods. This study provides a simple tool for identifying sampling strategies that minimise those impacts.


Assuntos
Modelos Logísticos , Répteis , Animais , Austrália , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Conserv Biol ; 29(2): 341-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354808

RESUMO

Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Árvores de Decisões , Dieta , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Nova Zelândia
17.
Ecol Appl ; 24(5): 1204-12, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154107

RESUMO

The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is one of the main factors in global amphibian decline. Accurate knowledge of its presence and prevalence in an area is needed to trigger conservation actions. However, imperfect capture rates determine the number of individuals caught and tested during field surveys, and contribute to the uncertainty surrounding estimates of prevalence. Screening programs should be planned with the objective of minimizing such uncertainty. We show how this can be achieved by using predictive models that incorporate information about population size and capture rates. Using as a case study an existing screening program for three populations of the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata pachypus) in northern Italy, we sought to quantify the effect of seasonal variation in individual capture rates on the uncertainty surrounding estimates of chytrid prevalence. We obtained estimates of population size and capture rates from mark-recapture data, and found wide seasonal variation in the individual recapture rates. We then incorporated this information in a binomial model to predict the estimates of prevalence that would be obtained by sampling at different times in the season, assuming no infected individuals were found. Sampling during the period of maximum capture probability was predicted to decrease upper 95% credible intervals by a maximum of 36%, compared with least suitable periods, with greater gains when using uninformative priors. We evaluated model predictions by comparing them with the results of screening surveys in 2012. The observed results closely matched the predicted figures for all populations, suggesting that this method can be reliably used to maximize the sampling size of surveillance programs, thus improving their efficiency.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Quitridiomicetos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
18.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e70262, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23922963

RESUMO

Urbanization affects streams by modifying hydrology, increasing pollution and disrupting in-stream and riparian conditions, leading to negative responses by biotic communities. Given the global trend of increasing urbanization, improved understanding of its direct and indirect effects at multiple scales is needed to assist management. The theory of stream ecology suggests that the riverscape and the surrounding landscape are inextricably linked, and watershed-scale processes will also affect in-stream conditions and communities. This is particularly true for species with semi-aquatic life cycles, such as amphibians, which transfer energy between streams and surrounding terrestrial areas. We related measures of urbanization at different scales to frog communities in streams along an urbanization gradient in Melbourne, Australia. We used boosted regression trees to determine the importance of predictors and the shape of species responses. We then used structural equation models to investigate possible indirect effects of watershed imperviousness on in-stream parameters. The proportion of riparian vegetation and road density surrounding the site at the reach scale (500-m radius) had positive and negative effects, respectively, on species richness and on the occurrence of the two most common species in the area (Criniasignifera and Limnodynastesdumerilii). Road density and local aquatic vegetation interacted in influencing species richness, suggesting that isolation of a site can prevent colonization, in spite of apparently good local habitat. Attenuated imperviousness at the catchment scale had a negative effect on local aquatic vegetation, indicating possible indirect effects on frog species not revealed by single-level models. Processes at the landscape scale, particularly related to individual ranging distances, can affect frog species directly and indirectly. Catchment imperviousness might not affect adult frogs directly, but by modifying hydrology it can disrupt local vegetation and prove indirectly detrimental. Integrating multiple-scale management actions may help to meet conservation targets for streams in the face of urbanization.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Ecossistema , Rios , Urbanização , Animais , Austrália , Biodiversidade , Geografia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
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