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1.
Mol Cell ; 75(3): 644-660.e5, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398325

RESUMO

Cell-cell communication via ligand-receptor signaling is a fundamental feature of complex organs. Despite this, the global landscape of intercellular signaling in mammalian liver has not been elucidated. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing on non-parenchymal cells isolated from healthy and NASH mouse livers. Secretome gene analysis revealed a highly connected network of intrahepatic signaling and disruption of vascular signaling in NASH. We uncovered the emergence of NASH-associated macrophages (NAMs), which are marked by high expression of triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2), as a feature of mouse and human NASH that is linked to disease severity and highly responsive to pharmacological and dietary interventions. Finally, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) serve as a hub of intrahepatic signaling via HSC-derived stellakines and their responsiveness to vasoactive hormones. These results provide unprecedented insights into the landscape of intercellular crosstalk and reprogramming of liver cells in health and disease.

2.
Nature ; 570(7762): 514-518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217584

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. Critical variants may be missed if they have a low frequency or are completely absent in European populations, especially as the field shifts its attention towards rare variants, which are more likely to be population-specific4-10. Additionally, effect sizes and their derived risk prediction scores derived in one population may not accurately extrapolate to other populations11,12. Here we demonstrate the value of diverse, multi-ethnic participants in large-scale genomic studies. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study conducted a GWAS of 26 clinical and behavioural phenotypes in 49,839 non-European individuals. Using strategies tailored for analysis of multi-ethnic and admixed populations, we describe a framework for analysing diverse populations, identify 27 novel loci and 38 secondary signals at known loci, as well as replicate 1,444 GWAS catalogue associations across these traits. Our data show evidence of effect-size heterogeneity across ancestries for published GWAS associations, substantial benefits for fine-mapping using diverse cohorts and insights into clinical implications. In the United States-where minority populations have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic conditions13-the lack of representation of diverse populations in genetic research will result in inequitable access to precision medicine for those with the highest burden of disease. We strongly advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207883

RESUMO

Risk of hyperuricemia is modified by genetic and environmental factors. Our aim was to identify factors associated with serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia in Mexicans. A pilot Genome-wide association study GWAS was performed in a subgroup of participants (n = 411) from the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum uric acid levels were validated in all the HWCS participants (n = 1939) and replicated in independent children (n = 1080) and adult (n = 1073) case-control studies. The meta-analysis of the whole HWCS and replication samples identified three SLC2A9 SNPs: rs1014290 (p = 2.3 × 10-64), rs3775948 (p = 8.2 × 10-64) and rs11722228 (p = 1.1 × 10-17); and an ABCG2 missense SNP, rs2231142 (p = 1.0 × 10-18). Among the non-genetic factors identified, the visceral adiposity index, smoking, the metabolic syndrome and its components (waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and hyperlipidemia) were associated with increased serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia (p < 0.05). Among the female HWCS participants, the odds ratio for hyperuricemia was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.01-1.53) per unit increase in soft drink consumption. As reported in other studies, our findings indicate that diet, adiposity and genetic variation contribute to the elevated prevalence of hyperuricemia in Mexico.

4.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(5): e23278, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to assess the contribution of genomic ancestry and socioeconomic status to obesity in a sample of admixed Latin Americans. METHODS: The study comprised 6776 adult volunteers from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Each volunteer completed a questionnaire about socioeconomic variables. Anthropometric variables such as weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured to calculate body indices: body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Genetic data were extracted from blood samples, and ancestry was estimated using chip genotypes. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between the indices and ancestry, educational level, and economic well-being. The body indices were dichotomized to obesity indices by using appropriate thresholds. Odds ratios were calculated for each obesity index. RESULTS: The sample showed high percentages of obesity by all measurements. However, indices did not overlap consistently when classifying obesity. WHtR resulted in the highest prevalence of obesity. Overall, women with low education level and men with high economic wellness were more likely to be obese. American ancestry was statistically associated with obesity indices, although to a lesser extent than socioeconomic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of obesity was heavily dependent on the index and the population. Genomic ancestry has a significant influence on the anthropometric measurements, especially on central adiposity. As a whole, we detected a large interpopulation variation that suggests that better approaches to overweight and obesity phenotypes are needed in order to obtain more precise reference values.

5.
Trends Microbiol ; 27(6): 473-475, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056302

RESUMO

Host gene variants selected by diet adaptation have been associated with the microbiome. Poole et al. (Cell Host Microbe 2019;25;553-564.E7) reported that AMY1 copy number, associated with obesity, also impacts microbiome composition and function. Complex genetics-diet-microbiome interactions and their effect on obesity could eventually translate into personalized nutrition.

6.
Res Microbiol ; 170(4-5): 235-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922683

RESUMO

A weekly conference series paired with lectures entitled "Microbiome-MX: exploring the Microbiota and Microbiome Research in Mexico" was organized to provide a multidisciplinary overview of the most recent research done in Mexico using high-throughput sequencing. Scientists and postgraduate students from several disciplines such as microbiology, bioinformatics, virology, immunology, nutrition, and medical genomics gathered to discuss state of the art in each of their respective subjects of expertise, as well as advances, applications and new opportunities on microbiota/microbiome research. In particular, high-throughput sequencing is a crucial tool to understand the challenges of a megadiverse developing country as Mexico, and moreover to know the scientific capital and capabilities available for collaboration. The conference series addressed three main topics important for Mexico: i) the complex role of microbiota in health and prevalent diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, tuberculosis, HIV, autoimmune diseases and gastric cancer; ii) the use of local, traditional and prehispanic products as pre/probiotics to modulate the microbiota and improve human health; and iii) the impact of the microbiota in shaping the biodiversity of economically important terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Herein, we summarize the contributions that Mexican microbiota/microbiome research is making to the global trends, describing the highlights of the conferences and lectures, rather than a review of the state-of-the-art of this research. This meeting report also presents the efforts of a multidisciplinary group of scientist to encourage collaborations and bringing this research field closer for younger generations.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , México , Saúde Pública/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 358, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664655

RESUMO

We report a genome-wide association scan in >6,000 Latin Americans for pigmentation of skin and eyes. We found eighteen signals of association at twelve genomic regions. These include one novel locus for skin pigmentation (in 10q26) and three novel loci for eye pigmentation (in 1q32, 20q13 and 22q12). We demonstrate the presence of multiple independent signals of association in the 11q14 and 15q13 regions (comprising the GRM5/TYR and HERC2/OCA2 genes, respectively) and several epistatic interactions among independently associated alleles. Strongest association with skin pigmentation at 19p13 was observed for an Y182H missense variant (common only in East Asians and Native Americans) in MFSD12, a gene recently associated with skin pigmentation in Africans. We show that the frequency of the derived allele at Y182H is significantly correlated with lower solar radiation intensity in East Asia and infer that MFSD12 was under selection in East Asians, probably after their split from Europeans.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Cor de Olho/genética , Genoma Humano , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Evolução Biológica , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/genética
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 902, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: crAssphage is a newly found phage described as the most abundant virus in the human gut microbiome. The majority of the crAssphage proteins are unknown in sequences databases, and its pathogenicity and epidemiology in humans are yet unclear. Hence, being one of the most abundant phages in the human gut microbiome more investigation at the genomic level is necessary to improve our understanding, especially in the Latin American population. DATA DESCRIPTION: In this article, we provide the whole genome of a crAssphage isolated from the human gut microbiome of the Mexican population, which was named Mexican-crAssphage. The genome consists of 96,283 bp, G+C content of 29.24% and 87 coding sequences. Notably, we did not find any transfer RNA genes in the genome sequence. We also sequenced viral-like enriched particles from 28 fecal samples, and we detected the presence of the Mexican-crAssphage genome in 8 samples (28.5%). To our knowledge, our data is the first whole genome report of the crAssphage isolated from the Latin American Population and provides valuable information for the experimental characterization of the most abundant human gut bacteriophage. The whole genome shotgun project of the Mexican-crAssphage is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the GenBank MK069403.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genoma Viral , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , México
9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5388, 2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568240

RESUMO

Historical records and genetic analyses indicate that Latin Americans trace their ancestry mainly to the intermixing (admixture) of Native Americans, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. Using novel haplotype-based methods, here we infer sub-continental ancestry in over 6,500 Latin Americans and evaluate the impact of regional ancestry variation on physical appearance. We find that Native American ancestry components in Latin Americans correspond geographically to the present-day genetic structure of Native groups, and that sources of non-Native ancestry, and admixture timings, match documented migratory flows. We also detect South/East Mediterranean ancestry across Latin America, probably stemming mostly from the clandestine colonial migration of Christian converts of non-European origin (Conversos). Furthermore, we find that ancestry related to highland (Central Andean) versus lowland (Mapuche) Natives is associated with variation in facial features, particularly nose morphology, and detect significant differences in allele frequencies between these groups at loci previously associated with nose morphology in this sample.


Assuntos
Migração Humana , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , México , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , América do Sul
10.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388780

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified copy number variants (CNVs) associated with obesity in chromosomal regions 1p31.1, 10q11.22, 11q11, 16p12.3, and recently 1p21.1, which contains the salivary amylase gene (AMY1). Recent evidence suggests this enzyme may influence gut microbiota composition through carbohydrate (mainly starch) degradation. The role of these CNVs in obesity has been scarcely explored in the Latino population, and thus the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of 1p31.1, 10q11.22, 11q11, 16p12.3 and 1p21.1 CNVs with obesity in 921 Mexican children, to replicate significant associations in 920 Mexican adults, and to analyze the association of AMY1 copy number with gut microbiota in 75 children and 45 adults. Of the five CNVs analyzed, 1q11 CNV was significantly associated with obesity in children, but not in adults. Only AMY1 CNV was significantly associated with obesity in both age groups. Moreover, gut microbiota analyses revealed a positive correlation between AMY1 copy number and Prevotella abundance. This genus has enzymes and gene clusters essential for complex polysaccharide degradation and utilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the association of these five CNVs in the Mexican population and to report a correlation between AMY1 CN and gut microbiota in humans.

11.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) is a heritable trait associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD). Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes associated with SUA, mainly in European populations. However, to date there are few GWAS in Latino populations, and the role of SUA-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cardiovascular disease has not been studied in the Mexican population. METHODS: We performed genome-wide SUA association study in 2153 Mexican children and adults, evaluated whether genetic effects were modified by sex and obesity, and used a Mendelian randomization approach in an independent cohort to study the role of SUA modifying genetic variants in premature CAD. RESULTS: Only two loci were associated with SUA levels: SLC2A9 (ß = -0.47 mg/dl, P = 1.57 × 10-42 for lead SNP rs7678287) and ABCG2 (ß = 0.23 mg/dl, P = 2.42 × 10-10 for lead SNP rs2231142). No significant interaction between SLC2A9 rs7678287 and ABCG2 rs2231142 genotypes and obesity was observed. However, a significant ABCG2 rs2231142 genotype*sex interaction (P = 0.001) was observed in adults but not in children. Although SUA levels were associated with premature CAD, metabolic syndrome and decreased glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), only ABCG2 rs2231142 was associated with decreased eGFR in the premature CAD group. CONCLUSIONS: SUA elevation was independently associated with premature CAD, metabolic syndrome and decreased eGFR in the Mexican population. However, a Mendelian randomization approach using the lead SUA-associated SNPs (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) did not support a causal role of elevated SUA levels for premature CAD.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 14(9): e1007640, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248107

RESUMO

Hair plays an important role in primates and is clearly subject to adaptive selection. While humans have lost most facial hair, eyebrows are a notable exception. Eyebrow thickness is heritable and widely believed to be subject to sexual selection. Nevertheless, few genomic studies have explored its genetic basis. Here, we performed a genome-wide scan for eyebrow thickness in 2961 Han Chinese. We identified two new loci of genome-wide significance, at 3q26.33 near SOX2 (rs1345417: P = 6.51×10-10) and at 5q13.2 near FOXD1 (rs12651896: P = 1.73×10-8). We further replicated our findings in the Uyghurs, a population from China characterized by East Asian-European admixture (N = 721), the CANDELA cohort from five Latin American countries (N = 2301), and the Rotterdam Study cohort of Dutch Europeans (N = 4411). A meta-analysis combining the full GWAS results from the three cohorts of full or partial Asian descent (Han Chinese, Uyghur and Latin Americans, N = 5983) highlighted a third signal of genome-wide significance at 2q12.3 (rs1866188: P = 5.81×10-11) near EDAR. We performed fine-mapping and prioritized four variants for further experimental verification. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing provided evidence that rs1345417 and rs12651896 affect the transcriptional activity of the nearby SOX2 and FOXD1 genes, which are both involved in hair development. Finally, suitable statistical analyses revealed that none of the associated variants showed clear signals of selection in any of the populations tested. Contrary to popular speculation, we found no evidence that eyebrow thickness is subject to strong selective pressure.

13.
Hepatology ; 68(6): 2182-2196, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907965

RESUMO

We report the genetic analysis of a "humanized" hyperlipidemic mouse model for progressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Mice carrying transgenes for human apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden and cholesteryl ester transfer protein and fed a "Western" diet were studied on the genetic backgrounds of over 100 inbred mouse strains. The mice developed hepatic inflammation and fibrosis that was highly dependent on genetic background, with vast differences in the degree of fibrosis. Histological analysis showed features characteristic of human NASH, including macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, inflammatory foci, and pericellular collagen deposition. Time course experiments indicated that while hepatic triglyceride levels increased steadily on the diet, hepatic fibrosis occurred at about 12 weeks. We found that the genetic variation predisposing to NASH and fibrosis differs markedly from that predisposing to simple steatosis, consistent with a multistep model in which distinct genetic factors are involved. Moreover, genome-wide association identified distinct genetic loci contributing to steatosis and NASH. Finally, we used hepatic expression data from the mouse panel and from 68 bariatric surgery patients with normal liver, steatosis, or NASH to identify enriched biological pathways. Conclusion: The pathways showed substantial overlap between our mouse model and the human disease.

14.
Ann Hepatol ; 17(2): 250-255, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene for patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We previously found that Mexican indigenous population had the highest frequency reported of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele. Further, we observed a relationship between M148M genotype with elevated ALT levels in individuals with normal weight, overweight and obese. We sought to investigate whether PNPLA3 polymorphism is associated with NAFLD development in Mexicans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 189 Mexican patients with NAFLD and 201 healthy controls. Anthropometric, metabolic, and biochemical variables were measured, and rs738409 (Ile148Met substitution) polymorphism was genotyped by sequencing. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis, using a recessive model, suggested that PNPLA3 polymorphism in Mexican population is significantly associated (OR = 1.711, 95% CI: 1.014-2.886; P = 0.044) with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: The PNPLA3 gene is associated with NAFLD in Mexican population. More studies are required to explain the high prevalence of PNPLA3 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans, Mexican-Indians, and Mexican-Mestizos.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 963, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343858

RESUMO

Facial asymmetries are usually measured and interpreted as proxies to developmental noise. However, analyses focused on its developmental and genetic architecture are scarce. To advance on this topic, studies based on a comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of modularity, morphological integration and facial asymmetries including both phenotypic and genomic information are needed. Here we explore several modularity hypotheses on a sample of Latin American mestizos, in order to test if modularity and integration patterns differ across several genomic ancestry backgrounds. To do so, 4104 individuals were analyzed using 3D photogrammetry reconstructions and a set of 34 facial landmarks placed on each individual. We found a pattern of modularity and integration that is conserved across sub-samples differing in their genomic ancestry background. Specifically, a signal of modularity based on functional demands and organization of the face is regularly observed across the whole sample. Our results shed more light on previous evidence obtained from Genome Wide Association Studies performed on the same samples, indicating the action of different genomic regions contributing to the expression of the nose and mouth facial phenotypes. Our results also indicate that large samples including phenotypic and genomic metadata enable a better understanding of the developmental and genetic architecture of craniofacial phenotypes.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 104(1): 50-58, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307798

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the accumulation of extra fat in liver cells not caused by alcohol. Elevated transaminase levels are common indicators of liver disease, including NAFLD. Previously, we demonstrated that PNPLA3 (rs738409), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), and GCKR (rs780094) are associated with elevated transaminase levels in overweight/obese Mexican adults. We investigated the association between 288 SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies and risk of elevated transaminase levels in an admixed Mexican-Mestizo sample of 178 cases of NAFLD and 454 healthy controls. The rs2896019, rs12483959, and rs3810622 SNPs in PNPLA3 and rs1227756 in COL13A1 were associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ≥40IU/L). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on six SNPs in the ADIPOQ, COL13A1, PNPLA3, and SAMM50 genes was also associated with elevated ALT. Individuals carrying 9-12 risk alleles had 65.8% and 48.5% higher ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, respectively, than those with 1-4 risk alleles. The PRS showed the greatest risk of elevated ALT levels, with a higher level of significance than the individual variants. Our findings suggest a significant association between variants in COL13A1, ADIPOQ, SAMM50, and PNPLA3, and risk of NAFLD/elevated transaminase levels in Mexican adults with an admixed ancestry. This is the first study to examine high-density single nucleotide screening for genetic variations in a Mexican-Mestizo population. The extent of the effect of these variations on the development and progression of NAFLD in Latino populations requires further analysis.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Colágeno Tipo XIII/genética , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(3): 559-575, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220522

RESUMO

Shape variation of human head hair shows striking variation within and between human populations, while its genetic basis is far from being understood. We performed a series of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replication studies in a total of 28 964 subjects from 9 cohorts from multiple geographic origins. A meta-analysis of three European GWASs identified 8 novel loci (1p36.23 ERRFI1/SLC45A1, 1p36.22 PEX14, 1p36.13 PADI3, 2p13.3 TGFA, 11p14.1 LGR4, 12q13.13 HOXC13, 17q21.2 KRTAP, and 20q13.33 PTK6), and confirmed 4 previously known ones (1q21.3 TCHH/TCHHL1/LCE3E, 2q35 WNT10A, 4q21.21 FRAS1, and 10p14 LINC00708/GATA3), all showing genome-wide significant association with hair shape (P < 5e-8). All except one (1p36.22 PEX14) were replicated with nominal significance in at least one of the 6 additional cohorts of European, Native American and East Asian origins. Three additional previously known genes (EDAR, OFCC1, and PRSS53) were confirmed at the nominal significance level. A multivariable regression model revealed that 14 SNPs from different genes significantly and independently contribute to hair shape variation, reaching a cross-validated AUC value of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.62-0.70) and an AUC value of 0.64 in an independent validation cohort, providing an improved accuracy compared with a previous model. Prediction outcomes of 2504 individuals from a multiethnic sample were largely consistent with general knowledge on the global distribution of hair shape variation. Our study thus delivers target genes and DNA variants for future functional studies to further evaluate the molecular basis of hair shape in humans.

18.
PeerJ ; 5: e4133, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230367

RESUMO

Background: In spite of the emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), microarrays remain in widespread use for gene expression analysis in the clinic. There are over 767,000 RNA microarrays from human samples in public repositories, which are an invaluable resource for biomedical research and personalized medicine. The absolute gene expression analysis allows the transcriptome profiling of all expressed genes under a specific biological condition without the need of a reference sample. However, the background fluorescence represents a challenge to determine the absolute gene expression in microarrays. Given that the Y chromosome is absent in female subjects, we used it as a new approach for absolute gene expression analysis in which the fluorescence of the Y chromosome genes of female subjects was used as the background fluorescence for all the probes in the microarray. This fluorescence was used to establish an absolute gene expression threshold, allowing the differentiation between expressed and non-expressed genes in microarrays. Methods: We extracted the RNA from 16 children leukocyte samples (nine males and seven females, ages 6-10 years). An Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Gene 1.0 ST Array was carried out for each sample and the fluorescence of 124 genes of the Y chromosome was used to calculate the absolute gene expression threshold. After that, several expressed and non-expressed genes according to our absolute gene expression threshold were compared against the expression obtained using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results: From the 124 genes of the Y chromosome, three genes (DDX3Y, TXLNG2P and EIF1AY) that displayed significant differences between sexes were used to calculate the absolute gene expression threshold. Using this threshold, we selected 13 expressed and non-expressed genes and confirmed their expression level by RT-qPCR. Then, we selected the top 5% most expressed genes and found that several KEGG pathways were significantly enriched. Interestingly, these pathways were related to the typical functions of leukocytes cells, such as antigen processing and presentation and natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. We also applied this method to obtain the absolute gene expression threshold in already published microarray data of liver cells, where the top 5% expressed genes showed an enrichment of typical KEGG pathways for liver cells. Our results suggest that the three selected genes of the Y chromosome can be used to calculate an absolute gene expression threshold, allowing a transcriptome profiling of microarray data without the need of an additional reference experiment. Discussion: Our approach based on the establishment of a threshold for absolute gene expression analysis will allow a new way to analyze thousands of microarrays from public databases. This allows the study of different human diseases without the need of having additional samples for relative expression experiments.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 913-924, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198719

RESUMO

The genetic basis of earlobe attachment has been a matter of debate since the early 20th century, such that geneticists argue both for and against polygenic inheritance. Recent genetic studies have identified a few loci associated with the trait, but large-scale analyses are still lacking. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of lobe attachment in a multiethnic sample of 74,660 individuals from four cohorts (three with the trait scored by an expert rater and one with the trait self-reported). Meta-analysis of the three expert-rater-scored cohorts revealed six associated loci harboring numerous candidate genes, including EDAR, SP5, MRPS22, ADGRG6 (GPR126), KIAA1217, and PAX9. The large self-reported 23andMe cohort recapitulated each of these six loci. Moreover, meta-analysis across all four cohorts revealed a total of 49 significant (p < 5 × 10-8) loci. Annotation and enrichment analyses of these 49 loci showed strong evidence of genes involved in ear development and syndromes with auricular phenotypes. RNA sequencing data from both human fetal ear and mouse second branchial arch tissue confirmed that genes located among associated loci showed evidence of expression. These results provide strong evidence for the polygenic nature of earlobe attachment and offer insights into the biological basis of normal and abnormal ear development.


Assuntos
Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Região Branquial/anatomia & histologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor Edar/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1005, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044207

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic structure of Native American populations is important to clarify their diversity, demographic history, and to identify genetic factors relevant for biomedical traits. Here, we show a demographic history reconstruction from 12 Native American whole genomes belonging to six distinct ethnic groups representing the three main described genetic clusters of Mexico (Northern, Southern, and Maya). Effective population size estimates of all Native American groups remained below 2,000 individuals for up to 10,000 years ago. The proportion of missense variants predicted as damaging is higher for undescribed (~ 30%) than for previously reported variants (~ 15%). Several variants previously associated with biological traits are highly frequent in the Native American genomes. These findings suggest that the demographic and adaptive processes that occurred in these groups shaped their genetic architecture and could have implications in biological processes of the Native Americans and Mestizos of today.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , México , Modelos Genéticos , Fatores de Tempo
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