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1.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although clinical factors related to intraoperative opioid administration have been described, there is little research evaluating whether administration is influenced by drug formulation and, specifically, the unit dose of the drug. The authors hypothesized that the unit dose of hydromorphone is an independent determinant of the quantity of hydromorphone administered to patients intraoperatively. METHODS: This observational cohort study included 15,010 patients who received intraoperative hydromorphone as part of an anesthetic at the University of California, Los Angeles hospitals from February 2016 to March 2018. Before July 2017, hydromorphone was available as a 2-mg unit dose. From July 1, 2017 to November 20, 2017, hydromorphone was only available in a 1-mg unit dose. On November 21, 2017, hydromorphone was reintroduced in the 2-mg unit dose. An interrupted time series analysis was performed using segmented Poisson regression with two change-points, the first representing the switch from a 2-mg to 1-mg unit dose, and the second representing the reintroduction of the 2-mg dose. RESULTS: The 2-mg to 1-mg unit dose change was associated with a 49% relative decrease in the probability of receiving a hydromorphone dose greater than 1 mg (risk ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.40-0.66; P < 0.0001). The reintroduction of a 2-mg unit dose was associated with a 48% relative increase in the probability of administering a dose greater than 1 mg (risk ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.11-1.98; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: This observational study using an interrupted time series analysis demonstrates that unit dose of hydromorphone (2 mg vs. 1 mg) is an independent determinant of the quantity of hydromorphone administered to patients in the intraoperative period.

2.
Transplant Proc ; 52(1): 246-258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926745

RESUMO

Prediction models of post-liver transplant mortality are crucial so that donor organs are not allocated to recipients with unreasonably high probabilities of mortality. Machine learning algorithms, particularly deep neural networks (DNNs), can often achieve higher predictive performance than conventional models. In this study, we trained a DNN to predict 90-day post-transplant mortality using preoperative variables and compared the performance to that of the Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation (SOFT) and Balance of Risk (BAR) scores, using United Network of Organ Sharing data on adult patients who received a deceased donor liver transplant between 2005 and 2015 (n = 57,544). The DNN was trained using 202 features, and the best DNN's architecture consisted of 5 hidden layers with 110 neurons each. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of the best DNN model was 0.703 (95% CI: 0.682-0.726) as compared to 0.655 (95% CI: 0.633-0.678) and 0.688 (95% CI: 0.667-0.711) for the BAR score and SOFT score, respectively. In conclusion, despite the complexity of DNN, it did not achieve a significantly higher discriminative performance than the SOFT score. Future risk models will likely benefit from the inclusion of other data sources, including high-resolution clinical features for which DNNs are particularly apt to outperform conventional statistical methods.

3.
Anesthesiology ; 132(2): 253-266, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive changes after anesthesia and surgery represent a significant public health concern. We tested the hypothesis that, in patients 60 yr or older scheduled for noncardiac surgery, automated management of anesthetic depth, cardiac blood flow, and protective lung ventilation using three independent controllers would outperform manual control of these variables. Additionally, as a result of the improved management, patients in the automated group would experience less postoperative neurocognitive impairment compared to patients having standard, manually adjusted anesthesia. METHODS: In this single-center, patient-and-evaluator-blinded, two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled, superiority study, 90 patients having noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, anesthesia management was performed manually while in the closed-loop group, the titration of anesthesia, analgesia, fluids, and ventilation was performed by three independent controllers. The primary outcome was a change in a cognition score (the 30-item Montreal Cognitive Assessment) from preoperative values to those measures 1 week postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included a battery of neurocognitive tests completed at both 1 week and 3 months postsurgery as well as 30-day postsurgical outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-three controls and 44 closed-loop patients were assessed for the primary outcome. There was a difference in the cognition score compared to baseline in the control group versus the closed-loop group 1 week postsurgery (-1 [-2 to 0] vs. 0 [-1 to 1]; difference 1 [95% CI, 0 to 3], P = 0.033). Patients in the closed-loop group spent less time during surgery with a Bispectral Index less than 40, had less end-tidal hypocapnia, and had a lower fluid balance compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Automated anesthetic management using the combination of three controllers outperforms manual control and may have an impact on delayed neurocognitive recovery. However, given the study design, it is not possible to determine the relative contribution of each controller on the cognition score.

4.
J Anesth ; 34(1): 104-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555916

RESUMO

Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic therapy (GDHT) has evolved from invasive "supra-physiological" maximization of oxygen delivery to minimally or even noninvasively guided automated stroke volume optimization. Over the past four decades, investigators have simultaneously developed novel monitors, updated strategies, and automated technologies to improve GDHT. Decision support technology, which proposes an intervention based on the patient's real time physiologic status, was an important step towards automation. Closed-loop systems have now been created to both increase GDHT compliance and decrease physician workload. These automated systems offer an elegant approach to optimize cardiac output and end-organ perfusion during the perioperative period. Most notably, automated preload optimization guided by dynamic indicators of fluid responsiveness has shown its feasibility, safety, and impact. Making the leap into fully automated GDHT has been accomplished on a small scale, but there are considerable challenges that must be surpassed before integrating all hemodynamic components into an automated system during general anesthesia. In this review, we will discuss the evolution and potential future of automated GDHT during the perioperative period.

5.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797199

RESUMO

Transfusion decisions are guided by clinical factors and measured hemoglobin (Hb). Time required for blood sampling and analysis may cause Hb measurement to lag clinical conditions, thus continuous intraoperative Hb trend monitoring may provide useful information. This multicenter study was designed to compare three methods of determining intraoperative Hb changes (trend accuracy) to laboratory determined Hb changes. Adult surgical patients with planned arterial catheterization were studied. With each blood gas analysis performed, pulse cooximetry hemoglobin (SpHb) was recorded, and arterial blood Hb was measured by hematology (tHb), arterial blood gas cooximetry (ABGHb), and point of care (aHQHb) analyzers. Hb change was calculated and trend accuracy assessed by modified Bland-Altman analysis. Secondary measures included Hb measurement change direction agreement. Trend accuracy mean bias (95% limits of agreement; g/dl) for SpHb was 0.10 (- 1.14 to 1.35); for ABGHb was - 0.02 (- 1.06 to 1.02); and for aHQHb was 0.003 (- 0.95 to 0.95). Changes more than ± 0.5 g/dl agreed with tHb changes more than ± 0.25 g/dl in 94.2% (88.9-97.0%) SpHb changes, 98.9% (96.1-99.7%) ABGHb changes and 99.0% (96.4-99.7%) aHQHb changes. Sequential changes in SpHb, ABGHb and aHQHb exceeding ± 0.5 g/dl have similar agreement to the direction but not necessarily the magnitude of sequential tHb change. While Hb blood tests should continue to be used to inform transfusion decisions, intraoperative continuous noninvasive SpHb decreases more than - 0.5 g/dl could be a good indicator of the need to measure tHb.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e031988, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: About 42 million surgeries are performed annually in the USA. While the postoperative mortality is less than 2%, 12% of all patients in the high-risk surgery group account for 80% of postoperative deaths. New onset of haemodynamic instability is common in surgical patients and its delayed treatment leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this proposal is to develop, validate and test real-time intraoperative risk prediction tools based on clinical data and high-fidelity physiological waveforms to predict haemodynamic instability during surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will initiate our work using an existing annotated intraoperative database from the University of California Irvine, including clinical and high-fidelity waveform data. These data will be used for the training and development of the machine learning model (Carnegie Mellon University) that will then be tested on prospectively collected database (University of California Los Angeles). Simultaneously, we will use existing knowledge of haemodynamic instability patterns derived from our intensive care unit cohorts, medical information mart for intensive care II data, University of California Irvine data and animal studies to create smart alarms and graphical user interface for a clinical decision support. Using machine learning, we will extract a core dataset, which characterises the signatures of normal intraoperative variability, various haemodynamic instability aetiologies and variable responses to resuscitation. We will then employ clinician-driven iterative design to create a clinical decision support user interface, and evaluate its effect in simulated high-risk surgeries. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We will publish the results in a peer-reviewed publication and will present this work at professional conferences for the anaesthesiology and computer science communities. Patient-level data will be made available within 6 months after publication of the primary manuscript. The study has been approved by University of California, Los Angeles Institutional review board. (IRB #19-0 00 354).

7.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administrative data can be used to identify cases of postoperative respiratory failure (PRF). We aimed to determine if recent changes to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicator 11 (PSI 11) and adoption of clinical documentation improvement programs have improved the validity of PSI 11. We also analyzed reasons why PSI 11 was falsely triggered. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of all eligible discharges using health record data from five academic medical centers between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2015. RESULTS: Of 437 flagged records, 434 (99.3%) were accurately coded and 414 (94.7%) represented true clinical PRF. None of the false positive records involved respiratory failure present on admission. Most (78.3%) false positive records required airway protection but did not have respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: The validity of PSI 11 has improved with recent changes to the code criterion and adoption of clinical documentation improvement programs.

8.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714268

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Recommendations for anesthetic care are often difficult to implement in the intraoperative setting because of the requirement for continuous attention WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Closed-loop, automated management of anesthetic, analgesic, fluid, and ventilation parameters was superior to manual control and might influence postoperative outcomes BACKGROUND:: Cognitive changes after anesthesia and surgery represent a significant public health concern. We tested the hypothesis that, in patients 60 yr or older scheduled for noncardiac surgery, automated management of anesthetic depth, cardiac blood flow, and protective lung ventilation using three independent controllers would outperform manual control of these variables. Additionally, as a result of the improved management, patients in the automated group would experience less postoperative neurocognitive impairment compared to patients having standard, manually adjusted anesthesia. METHODS: In this single-center, patient-and-evaluator-blinded, two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled, superiority study, 90 patients having noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, anesthesia management was performed manually while in the closed-loop group, the titration of anesthesia, analgesia, fluids, and ventilation was performed by three independent controllers. The primary outcome was a change in a cognition score (the 30-item Montreal Cognitive Assessment) from preoperative values to those measures 1 week postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included a battery of neurocognitive tests completed at both 1 week and 3 months postsurgery as well as 30-day postsurgical outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-three controls and 44 closed-loop patients were assessed for the primary outcome. There was a difference in the cognition score compared to baseline in the control group versus the closed-loop group 1 week postsurgery (-1 [-2 to 0] vs. 0 [-1 to 1]; difference 1 [95% CI, 0 to 3], P = 0.033). Patients in the closed-loop group spent less time during surgery with a Bispectral Index less than 40, had less end-tidal hypocapnia, and had a lower fluid balance compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Automated anesthetic management using the combination of three controllers outperforms manual control and may have an impact on delayed neurocognitive recovery. However, given the study design, it is not possible to determine the relative contribution of each controller on the cognition score.

9.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 877-886, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid, preoperative identification of patients with the highest risk for medical complications is necessary to ensure that limited infrastructure and human resources are directed towards those most likely to benefit. Existing risk scores either lack specificity at the patient level or utilise the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, which requires a clinician to review the chart. METHODS: We report on the use of machine learning algorithms, specifically random forests, to create a fully automated score that predicts postoperative in-hospital mortality based solely on structured data available at the time of surgery. Electronic health record data from 53 097 surgical patients (2.01% mortality rate) who underwent general anaesthesia between April 1, 2013 and December 10, 2018 in a large US academic medical centre were used to extract 58 preoperative features. RESULTS: Using a random forest classifier we found that automatically obtained preoperative features (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.932, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.910-0.951) outperforms Preoperative Score to Predict Postoperative Mortality (POSPOM) scores (AUC of 0.660, 95% CI 0.598-0.722), Charlson comorbidity scores (AUC of 0.742, 95% CI 0.658-0.812), and ASA physical status (AUC of 0.866, 95% CI 0.829-0.897). Including the ASA physical status with the preoperative features achieves an AUC of 0.936 (95% CI 0.917-0.955). CONCLUSIONS: This automated score outperforms the ASA physical status score, the Charlson comorbidity score, and the POSPOM score for predicting in-hospital mortality. Additionally, we integrate this score with a previously published postoperative score to demonstrate the extent to which patient risk changes during the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Aprendizado de Máquina , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 199-209, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582099

RESUMO

As the operating room and intensive care settings become increasingly complex, the required vigilance practitioners must dedicate to a wide array of clinical systems has increased concordantly. The resulting shortage of available attention to these various clinical tasks creates a vacuum for the introduction of systems that can administer well-established goal-directed therapies without significant provider feedback. Recently, there has been an explosion of academic exploration into creating such automated systems, with a strong specific focus on hemodynamic control. Within this field, the largest focus has been on goal-directed fluid therapy as systems automating vasopressor administration have only recently become viable options. Our goal in this review article is to summarize the validity of the relevant goal-directed hemodynamic systems and explore the expanding role of automation within these systems.

11.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 887-897, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An unintended consequence of medical technologies is loss of personal interactions and humanism between patients and their healthcare providers, leading to depersonalisation of medicine. As humanism is not integrated as part of formal postgraduate anaesthesiology education curricula, our goal was to design, introduce, and evaluate a comprehensive humanism curriculum into anaesthesiology training. METHODS: Subject-matter experts developed and delivered the humanism curriculum, which included interactive workshops, simulation sessions, formal feedback, and patient immersion experience. The effectiveness of the programme was evaluated using pre- and post-curriculum assessments in first-year postgraduate trainee doctors (residents). RESULTS: The anaesthesiology residents reported high satisfaction scores. Pre-/post-Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy showed an increase in empathy ratings with a median improvement of 12 points (range; P=0.013). After training, patients rated the residents as more empathetic (31 [4] vs 22 [5]; P<0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7-12) and professional (47 [3] vs 35 [8]; P<0.001; 95% CI: 9-16). Patient overall satisfaction with their anaesthesia provider improved after training (51 [6] vs 37 [10]; P<0.001; 95% CI: 10-18). Patients rated their anxiety lower in the post-training period compared with pretraining (1.8 [2.3] vs 3.6 [1.6]; P=0.001; 95% CI: 0.8-2.9). Patient-reported pain scores decreased after training (2.3 [2.5] vs 3.8 [2.1]; P=0.010; 95% CI: 0.4-2.8). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a humanism curriculum during postgraduate anaesthesiology training was well accepted, and can result in increased physician empathy and professionalism. This may improve patient pain, anxiety, and overall satisfaction with perioperative care.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Humanismo , Internato e Residência , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesiologia/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302789

RESUMO

Evaluation of cardiac function during periods of stress is of key importance for the perioperative setting. Non-invasive hemodynamic monitors provide markers of cardiac function. This pilot study sought to evaluate the ability of a non-invasive hemodynamic monitor to detect cardiac stress during formal stress echocardiography testing. The primary goal was to compare the change in hemodynamic values during the pre/during/post phases of stress echocardiography testing in patients who had results negative versus positive for myocardial ischemia. Adult patients scheduled for outpatient cardiac stress testing were screened. Only patients scheduled for stress-echocardiography testing were consented. Patients with history of arrhythmias were excluded. During the testing, patients wore a cuff-based hemodynamic sensor (Nexfin system, Edwards Lifesciences). Data from the hemodynamic sensor were compared to the findings of the stress study. A total of 37 patients were enrolled, with 31 patients included for analysis. Five patients had stress studies positive for coronary ischemia. Comparison of the hemodynamic variables between patients who had a positive stress study versus negative showed a significant reduction in the percentage change in dP/dt and stroke volume from baseline (p < 0.05). This pilot study indicates that patients who have abnormal stress echocardiograms also have significantly reduced values from a noninvasive hemodynamic monitor. Further evaluation of the clinical utility of this technology, to assist in the care of patients at risk for cardiac ischemia, should be carried out.

15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33 Suppl 1: S76-S83, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279357
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(4): 430-438, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are used to prevent intraoperative hypotension and ensure adequate perfusion. Vasopressors are usually administered as intermittent boluses or manually adjusted infusions, but this practice requires considerable time and attention. We have developed a closed-loop vasopressor (CLV) controller to correct hypotension more efficiently. Here, we conducted a proof-of-concept study to assess the feasibility and performance of CLV control in surgical patients. METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for elective surgical procedures were included in this study. The goal of the CLV system was to maintain MAP within 5 mm Hg of the target MAP by automatically adjusting the rate of a norepinephrine infusion using MAP values recorded continuously from an arterial catheter. The primary outcome was the percentage of time that patients were hypotensive, as defined by a MAP of 5 mm Hg below the chosen target. Secondary outcomes included the total dose of norepinephrine, percentage of time with hypertension (MAP>5 mm Hg of the chosen target), raw percentage "time in target" and Varvel performance criteria. RESULTS: The 20 subjects (median age: 64 years [52-71]; male (35%)) underwent elective surgery lasting 154 min [124-233]. CLV control maintained MAP within ±5 mm Hg of the target for 91.6% (85.6-93.3) of the intraoperative period. Subjects were hypotensive for 2.6% of the intraoperative period (range, 0-8.4%). Additional performance criteria for the controller included mean absolute performance error of 2.9 (0.8) and mean predictive error of 0.5 (1.0). No subjects experienced major complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof of concept study, CLV control minimised perioperative hypotension in subjects undergoing moderate- or high-risk surgery. Further studies to demonstrate efficacy are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT03515161 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Infusões Intravenosas/instrumentação , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Anestesia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
17.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1107-1117, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094775

RESUMO

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols represent patient-centered, evidence-based, multidisciplinary care of the surgical patient. Although these patterns have been validated in numerous surgical specialities, ERAS has not been widely described for patients undergoing hip fracture (HFx) repair. As part of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery, we have conducted a full evidence review of interventions that form the basis of the anesthesia components of the ERAS HFx pathway. A literature search was performed for each protocol component, and the highest levels of evidence available were selected for review. Anesthesiology components of care were identified and evaluated across the perioperative continuum. For the preoperative phase, the use of regional analgesia and nonopioid multimodal analgesic agents is suggested. For the intraoperative phase, a standardized anesthetic with postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis is suggested. For the postoperative phase, a multimodal (primarily nonopioid) analgesic regimen is suggested. A summary of the best available evidence and recommendations for inclusion in ERAS protocols for HFx repair are provided.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/métodos , Anestesiologia/normas , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Bloqueio Nervoso , Manejo da Dor , Segurança do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Período Perioperatório , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
18.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): e88-e92, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094779

RESUMO

Automated titration of intravenous anesthesia and analgesia using processed electroencephalography monitoring is no longer a novel concept. Closed-loop control of fluid administration to provide goal-directed fluid therapy has also been increasingly described. However, simultaneously combining 2 independent closed-loop systems together in patients undergoing major vascular surgery has not been previously detailed. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the clinical performance of fully automated hypnosis, analgesia, and fluid management using 2 independent closed-loop controllers in patients undergoing major vascular surgery before implementation within a larger study evaluating true patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia com Circuito Fechado/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Automação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
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