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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e012797, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902327

RESUMO

Background Improved heart failure (HF) risk stratification after a recent acute coronary syndrome may identify those who can benefit from therapies that reduce HF risk. We aimed to identify clinical and biomarker predictors for expanded HF outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after recent acute coronary syndrome. Methods and Results The EXAMINE (Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes with Alogliptin versus Standard of Care) trial was a multicenter, non-inferiority, double-masked, placebo-controlled study which randomized 5380 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after recent acute coronary syndrome to alogliptin or placebo. Baseline biomarkers were measured in 5154 patients: NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin I, adiponectin, growth-differentiation-factor-15, and galectin-3. Our primary outcome was cardiovascular) death, HF hospitalization, elevated NT-proBNP during follow-up, or loop diuretics initiation. The association between clinical variables, biomarkers, and outcomes were assessed using Cox regression models. In the study population, the median age was 61.0 years, 67.7% were men, and 28.0% had baseline HF (median follow-up was 18 months). In multivariable analyses, NT-proBNP had the strongest association with the primary outcome (per log2, hazard ratio 1.24; Wald χ2 67.4; P<0.0001) followed by a prior HF history (hazard ratio 1.42; Wald χ2 20.8; P<0.0001). A model with clinical variables and biomarkers allowed for risk prediction for expanded HF outcomes (C-statistic=0.72). Discrimination results were similar for cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization. Conclusions Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after recent acute coronary syndrome, the use biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and clinical variables enables risk stratification for expanded HF outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00968708.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014908, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992158

RESUMO

Background Several trials have demonstrated protective effects from inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is uncertainty about the consistency of the cardiovascular benefits achieved across patient subsets. Methods and Results We included 4 large-scale trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition compared with placebo in patients with diabetes mellitus that reported effects on cardiovascular outcomes overall and for participant subgroups defined at baseline by cardiovascular disease, reduced kidney function, and heart failure. Fixed effects models with inverse variance weighting were used to estimate summary hazard ratios and 95% CIs. There were 38 723 patients from 4 trials, with a mean 2.9 years of follow-up. Of the patients, 22 870 (59%) had cardiovascular disease, 7754 (20%) had reduced kidney function, and 4543 (12%) had heart failure. There were 3828 major adverse cardiac events. There was overall benefit for major adverse cardiac events (0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.94; P<0.001) and no evidence that the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition varied across patient subgroups, defined by the presence of cardiovascular disease or heart failure at baseline (all P interaction >0.252; I2<25%). All patient subgroups benefited with respect to hospitalization for heart failure (all P interaction>0.302; I2<10%), cardiovascular death (all P interaction>0.167; I2<50%), and death from any cause (all P interaction>0.354; I2=0%). The only difference in effects across subgroups was for stroke, with protection observed among those with reduced kidney function but not those with preserved kidney function (P interaction=0.020; I2=81%). Conclusions Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors protect against cardiovascular disease and death in diverse subsets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus regardless of cardiovascular disease history.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 735-743, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924322

RESUMO

The RE-DUAL PCI trial reported that dabigatran dual therapy (110/150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy (warfarin plus aspirin and clopidogrel or ticagrelor) in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, with noninferiority in composite thromboembolic events. In this prespecified analysis, risks of first major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event and composite end point of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization were compared between dabigatran dual therapy and warfarin triple therapy in older (≥ 75 years) and younger (< 75 years) patients, using Cox proportional hazard regression. Of 2,725 patients randomized to treatment, 1,026 (37.7%) were categorized into older and 1,699 (62.3%) into younger age groups. Dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy lowered bleeding risk versus warfarin triple therapy in older (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 0.89) and younger patients (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.54); interaction p value: 0.0125. Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy lowered bleeding risk versus warfarin triple therapy in younger patients (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.74), whereas no benefit could be observed in older patients (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.77); interaction p value: 0.0013. For the thromboembolic end point, there was a trend for a higher risk with dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy in older patients, compared with warfarin triple therapy, whereas the risk was similar in younger patients. For dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy, the thromboembolic risk versus warfarin triple therapy was similar in older and younger patients. In conclusion, the benefits of dabigatran dual therapy differed in the 2 age groups, which may help dose selection when using dabigatran dual therapy.

6.
Am Heart J ; 219: 70-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for managing patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) recommend statin therapy initially. Target levels/goals for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were initially included, subsequently de-emphasized in 2013, and then re-introduced as thresholds, leading to confusion in clinical practice. We designed a multicenter, observational registry of patients with ASCVD, to describe and track LDL-C treatment patterns in the United States over time. METHODS: Patients with ASCVD receiving any pharmacologic lipid-lowering therapy were eligible for enrollment in one of three cohorts: 1) currently receiving a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i), or not receiving PCSK9i with 2) LDL-C 70-99 mg/dL, or 3) LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Patients undergo a 1-year retrospective chart review, followed by chart reviews and phone interviews every 6 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 5006 patients were enrolled at 119 centers. Mean age was 68 years, 40% of patients were female, 86% were white, 80% had coronary artery disease, and 33% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among those not on a PCSK9i, high-intensity statins and ezetimibe were utilized in only 44% and 9%, respectively. Among women vs men, only 36.6% vs 48.2% received high-intensity statins (P < .001). Among patients on a PCSK9i, only one-third were receiving a statin, suggesting statin intolerance is a driver of PCSK9i use at present. CONCLUSION: Our data on current practice in the US continue to illustrate that high-intensity statins and ezetimibe are underutilized in at-risk patients outside of clinical trials, particularly women. This study will track temporal changes in treatment patterns and identify opportunities for improvement in lipid management in patients with ASCVD.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(23): 2331-2341, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess if prior oral anticoagulant agent (OAC) use modifies the lower bleeding risk observed with dabigatran dual therapy (dabigatran twice daily plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) versus warfarin triple therapy (warfarin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor plus aspirin) in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: In the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial, the primary outcome of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was lower with dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent PCI. METHODS: A total of 2,725 patients were randomized to dual therapy with dabigatran (110 or 150 mg twice daily) plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor or triple therapy with warfarin plus aspirin and clopidogrel or ticagrelor. Subgroup analysis compared risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding and a composite thromboembolic endpoint in patients with prior OAC use and in those who were OAC treatment naive. RESULTS: Risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was reduced with both dabigatran dual therapies compared with warfarin triple therapy in both the prior OAC use group (hazard ratios: 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42 to 0.81] and 0.61 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.92] with 110 and 150 mg dabigatran, respectively) and the OAC-naive group (hazard ratios: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.63] and 0.76 [95% CI: 0.59 to 0.97] with 110 and 150 mg dabigatran) (p for interaction = 0.42 and 0.37, 110 and 150 mg dabigatran, respectively). The risk for thromboembolic events seemed similar with dabigatran dual therapy (both doses) and warfarin triple therapy across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding risk was reduced with dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation after PCI, regardless of whether they were prior OAC users or OAC treatment naive. These results suggest that it is also safe to switch patients on OAC pre-PCI to dabigatran dual therapy post-PCI.

8.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(23): 2346-2355, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with or without diabetes mellitus in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial. BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether dual therapy is as safe and efficacious as triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: In RE-DUAL PCI, 2,725 patients with atrial fibrillation (993 with diabetes) who had undergone PCI were assigned to warfarin triple therapy (warfarin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin) or dabigatran dual therapy (dabigatran 110 mg or 150 mg twice daily and clopidogrel or ticagrelor). Median follow-up was 13 months. The primary outcome was the composite of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and the main efficacy outcome was the composite of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization. RESULTS: Among patients with diabetes, the incidence of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was 15.2% in the dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy group versus 27.5% in the warfarin triple therapy group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35 to 0.67) and 23.8% in the dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy group versus 25.1% in the warfarin triple therapy group (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.22). Risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was also reduced with both dabigatran doses among patients without diabetes (dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.70; dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.83). Risk for the efficacy endpoint was comparable between treatment groups for both patients with and those without diabetes. No interaction between treatment and diabetes subgroup could be observed, either for bleeding or for composite efficacy endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis, dabigatran dual therapy had a lower risk for bleeding and a comparable rate of the efficacy endpoint compared with warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with or without diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 3013-3022, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains disputed whether women are at excess risk of adverse outcomes versus men after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) or whether differences are explained by discordant risk factors. OBJECTIVES: A sex-specific analysis of cardiovascular outcomes after NSTEACS across trials conducted by the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group was performed to determine the impact of sex on cardiovascular outcomes in this dataset. METHODS: Ten TIMI trials were identified that enrolled >2,500 patients with NSTEACS within 30 days of hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of sex with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) after adjusting for relevant risk factors in individual trials; point estimates were then combined by using random effects models. Individual components of the composite outcome and all-cause mortality were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 68,730 patients with NSTEACS, 19,827 (29%) were women. Women were older and more frequently had hypertension, diabetes, prior heart failure, and renal impairment than men. Before considering relevant confounders, women were at similar risk of MACE compared with men (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99 to 1.09; p = 0.16) but at higher risk of all-cause death (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.24; p = 0.03). After adjustment for baseline differences, risks of MACE (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.98; p < 0.01) and all-cause death (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.90; p < 0.0001) were lower among women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, women enrolled in clinical trials were at lower risk of MACE than men after NSTEACS. Women, however, remain undertreated with many evidence-based therapies.

10.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619878075, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. We aimed to determine whether baseline inflammatory markers were associated with clinical outcomes and the observed superiority of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO study. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 16,400 patients within 24 hours of the onset of acute coronary syndrome, at the time of random assignment to ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO study and prior to invasive procedures. The differential white blood cell count and plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were determined and their relationships with clinical outcomes were assessed according to quartiles and using continuous models. The substudy primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Compared to the lowest quartile, the risk of the primary endpoint was significantly elevated in patients in the highest quartile of white blood cell count (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30; P=0.01), neutrophil count (HR 1.33; P=0.007), monocyte count (HR 1.24; P=0.004), C-reactive protein (HR 1.93; P<0.001) and interleukin-6 (HR 2.29; P<0.001). This was predominantly driven by an association with cardiovascular death. Following adjustment for clinical characteristics, troponin, cystatin C and N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide, only white blood cell count and neutrophil count maintained a significant association with the primary endpoint. Ticagrelor had a consistent relative cardiovascular benefit compared to clopidogrel in each quartile of each of the inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Acute coronary syndrome patients with elevated levels of baseline inflammatory markers are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, particularly cardiovascular death. The consistent cardiovascular benefit of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel tended to confer a greater absolute risk reduction in patients with the highest levels of inflammatory markers, as they were at highest risk.

12.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707795

RESUMO

Traditional management of diabetes mellitus has focused on glycemic control, beginning with lifestyle changes, followed by metformin, and then other classes of antiglycemic agents.1 Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular (CV) events, including CV death, myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, and slow progression of renal dysfunction, including prevention of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).2-3 Because initial clinical trials included mostly patients with baseline HbA1c >7%, current guidelines have recommended this class as add-on therapy for patients whose HbA1c is not at goal, typically ≥7%.1 We hypothesized that there would be similar benefits on CV and renal endpoints regardless of baseline HbA1c, including those with HbA1c <7%.

13.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(6): 979-988.e10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alirocumab is a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). OBJECTIVE: Changes in PCSK9, alirocumab, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were assessed after treatment with alirocumab at doses of 75 or 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W). METHODS: Data were analyzed from 4 phase 3 trials (MONO; COMBO II; FH I; LONG TERM); all but MONO enrolled patients on statins. Three trials evaluated alirocumab 75 mg Q2W, with possible dose increase to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 based on week 8 LDL-C; LONG TERM studied alirocumab 150 mg Q2W. RESULTS: Patients on background statin therapy had higher mean baseline free PCSK9 concentrations vs patients not on statin. After alirocumab administration, increased alirocumab concentrations were associated with dramatic reductions in circulating free PCSK9, resulting in significant LDL-C reductions and a corresponding increase in inactive PCSK9:alirocumab complex. Alirocumab dose increase was associated with a further lowering of PCSK9 and LDL-C. Patients with higher baseline LDL-C levels (>160 mg/dL) were more likely to have their dose increased. LDL-C reductions with alirocumab were consistent between patients with baseline PCSK9 levels above or below the median when the dose increase strategy was used. When started as alirocumab 150 mg Q2W, patients with PCSK9 levels above vs below the median had a greater LDL-C reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab-induced changes in PCSK9 and LDL-C levels were consistent with the known physiologic relationship between PCSK9, LDL receptor, and LDL-C levels, as well as statin-induced increases in PCSK9 production.

14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721978

RESUMO

Importance: The Affordability and Real-World Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness After Myocardial Infarction Study (ARTEMIS) cluster-randomized trial found that copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors improved 1-year patient persistence in taking that medication. Objective: To assess whether providing copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors increases patient persistence in taking other secondary prevention cardiovascular medications. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the ARTEMIS trial includes data from 287 hospitals that enrolled patients between June 2015 and September 2016. Patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction were included. Data analysis occurred from May 2018 through August 2019. Interventions: Hospitals randomized to the intervention provided patients vouchers that waived copayments for P2Y12 inhibitors fills for 1 year. Hospitals randomized to usual care did not provide study vouchers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Persistence in taking ß-blocker, statin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker medications at 1 year, defined as the absence of a gap in medication supply of 30 or more days by pharmacy fill data in the intervention-arm (intent-to-treat) population. Results: A total of 131 hospitals (with 5109 patients) were randomized to the intervention, and 156 hospitals (with 3264 patients) randomized to the control group. Patients discharged from intervention hospitals had higher persistence in taking statins (2247 [46.1%] vs 1300 [41.9%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.00-1.24]), and ß-blockers (2235 [47.6%] vs 1277 [42.5%]; odds ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.10-1.38]), although the association was smaller than that seen for P2Y12 inhibitors (odds ratio, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.29-1.66]). Persistence in taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II-receptor blockers were also numerically higher among patients in the intervention arm than in the usual-care arm, but this was not significant after risk adjustment (1520 [43.9%] vs 847 [40.5%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.97-1.24]). Patients in the intervention arm reported greater financial burden associated with medication cost than the patients in the usual-care arm at baseline, but these differences were no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions and Relevance: Reducing patient copayments for 1 medication class increased persistence not only to that therapy class but may also have modestly increased persistence to other post-myocardial infarction secondary prevention medications. These findings have important implications for the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of medication cost-assistance programs. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02406677.

15.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(12): 1202-1209, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess associations between circulating IL-18 concentrations and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). HYPOTHESIS AND METHODS: Plasma IL-18 concentrations were measured at admission, discharge, 1 month, and 6 months in patients with ACS in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Associations with outcomes were evaluated with Cox regression models on the composite of CV death, spontaneous myocardial infarction (sMI), or stroke; and on CV death or sMI separately, including adjustment for clinical risk factors and biomarkers (cTnT-hs, NT-proBNP, cystatin C, CRP-hs, and GDF-15). RESULTS: Median IL-18 concentrations at baseline, discharge, 1 month, and 6 months were 237, 283, 305, and 320 ng/L (n = 16 636). Male sex, obesity, diabetes, and plasma levels of cystatin C, GDF-15, and CRP-hs were independently associated with higher IL-18 levels. Higher baseline IL-18 levels were associated with the composite endpoint and with CV death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-1.07 and HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.14, respectively, per 25% increase of IL-18 levels). Associations remained significant after adjustment for clinical variables but became non-significant after adjustment for all biomarkers (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.04 and HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08, respectively). There were no associations with sMI. CONCLUSIONS: In ACS patients, IL-18 concentrations increased after the acute event and remained increased for 6 months. Baseline IL-18 levels were significantly associated with CV mortality, independent of clinical characteristics and indicators of renal/cardiac dysfunction but this association was attenuated after adjustment for multiple biomarkers.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular outcomes in a contemporary cohort of young individuals presenting with their first myocardial infarction (MI) at age ≤50 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records of patients presenting with a first type 1 MI at age ≤50 years from 2000 to 2016. Diabetes was defined as a hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or a documented diagnosis of or treatment for diabetes. Vital status was ascertained for all patients, and cause of death was adjudicated. RESULTS: Among 2,097 young patients who had a type 1 MI (mean age 44.0 ± 5.1 years, 19.3% female, 73% white), diabetes was present in 416 (20%), of whom 172 (41%) were receiving insulin. Over a median follow-up of 11.2 years (interquartile range 7.3-14.2 years), diabetes was associated with a higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.30; P < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (2.68; P < 0.001). These associations persisted after adjusting for baseline covariates (all-cause mortality: 1.65; P = 0.008; cardiovascular mortality: 2.10; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was present in 20% of patients who presented with their first MI at age ≤50 years and was associated with worse long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. These findings highlight the need for implementing more-aggressive therapies aimed at preventing future adverse cardiovascular events in this population.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 40(43): 3526-3528, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495878
18.
Am Heart J ; 216: 30-41, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386936

RESUMO

In patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), guidelines recommend statins as first-line lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) with addition of nonstatin agents in those with persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. METHODS: To estimate the cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction implications of treatment intensification, we used a previously reported simulation model with enhancements. An ASCVD cohort was developed from a US claims database. A Cox model was used to estimate baseline risk of CV events: myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, unstable angina hospitalization, elective coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death. Patients were sampled with replacement (bootstrapping) and entered the simulation model, which applied stepwise LLT intensification logic, with a goal of achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 70 mg/dL at each step. CV risk reduction assumptions were based on published data. Two treatment intensification scenarios were investigated: ideal and real-world (which accounted for statin intolerance, nonadherence, and payer restrictions). RESULTS: In a cohort of 1,000 patients with ASCVD, approximately 813 (809-818) would require treatment intensification with LLT under an ideal treatment intensification scenario. Before treatment intensification, 183 (179-187) events would be expected to occur over 5 years. With treatment intensification, 40 (34-45) of these events could be avoided. In a real-world scenario, about 818 (813-823) patients require treatment intensification with LLT, resulting in 29 (24-34) events avoided over 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Intensification of LLT in an ASCVD population translates into a substantial number of CV events avoided. This simulation-based model could assist in assessing the potential benefits of various types of population-level LLT interventions.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(8): 1057-1068, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy reduces the risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with prior acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The role of biomarkers in identifying subsets of patients who may derive greater clinical benefit with ezetimibe is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the role of established CV biomarkers in assessing likely benefit with ezetimibe added to statin therapy in post-ACS patients. METHODS: In a pre-specified nested analysis within a randomized, double-blind trial of ezetimibe/simvastatin versus placebo/simvastatin (IMPROVE-IT [Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial]), high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, growth-differentiation factor-15, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured in 7,195 patients stabilized (1 month post-randomization) after ACS. A multimarker approach based on biomarker values was used to examine the risk of recurrent CV events and clinical benefit with ezetimibe. RESULTS: Elevated levels of each biomarker were independently associated with higher risks of CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke and CV death/heart failure (ptrend < 0.001 for each). There was a pattern of greater absolute risk reduction in CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke with the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy in patients at higher risk on the basis of biomarker levels. High-risk patients (≥3 biomarkers "positive"; n = 1,437) had an absolute risk difference of -7.3% (95% confidence interval: -13.8% to -0.8%; p = 0.02) with ezetimibe, and intermediate-risk patients (1 to 2 biomarkers positive; n = 3,842) had an absolute risk difference of -4.4% (95% confidence interval: -9.7% to 0.8%), translating into numbers needed to treat at 7 years of 14 and 23, respectively. Low-risk patients (0 biomarkers positive; n = 1,916) did not appear to benefit from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy. CONCLUSIONS: A biomarker-based strategy identifies a gradient of risk among patients post-ACS, offering the potential to identify higher-risk patients with a correspondingly high absolute benefit from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy.

20.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(16): 1553-1561, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to evaluate the effect of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy across categories of renal function in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran versus Triple Therapy with Warfarin in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial. BACKGROUND: The RE-DUAL PCI (NCT02164864) trial of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention reported that dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced the primary endpoint of major bleeding events (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (CRNMBE) compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events. METHODS: Risk of a first MBE or CRNMBE and the composite of death or thromboembolic event (DTE) or unplanned revascularization were evaluated in 2,725 patients according to baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) categories: 30 to <50, 50 to <80, and ≥80 ml/min. RESULTS: Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE across all categories of CrCl (p for interaction = 0.19). Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE regardless of the CrCl category (p for interaction = 0.31). Risk of DTE or unplanned revascularization was similar to warfarin triple therapy for dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy across all CrCl categories. Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy had similar risk for DTE or unplanned revascularization in patients with CrCl 30 to <80 ml/min and lower risk at CrCl ≥80 ml/min (p for interaction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy irrespective of renal function, with overall similar risks of thromboembolic events but lower risks with dabigatran 150 mg in patients with normal CrCl.

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