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2.
Plant J ; 100(5): 1066-1082, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433882

RESUMO

We report reference-quality genome assemblies and annotations for two accessions of soybean (Glycine max) and for one accession of Glycine soja, the closest wild relative of G. max. The G. max assemblies provided are for widely used US cultivars: the northern line Williams 82 (Wm82) and the southern line Lee. The Wm82 assembly improves the prior published assembly, and the Lee and G. soja assemblies are new for these accessions. Comparisons among the three accessions show generally high structural conservation, but nucleotide difference of 1.7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) per kb between Wm82 and Lee, and 4.7 snps per kb between these lines and G. soja. snp distributions and comparisons with genotypes of the Lee and Wm82 parents highlight patterns of introgression and haplotype structure. Comparisons against the US germplasm collection show placement of the sequenced accessions relative to global soybean diversity. Analysis of a pan-gene collection shows generally high conservation, with variation occurring primarily in genomically clustered gene families. We found approximately 40-42 inversions per chromosome between either Lee or Wm82v4 and G. soja, and approximately 32 inversions per chromosome between Wm82 and Lee. We also investigated five domestication loci. For each locus, we found two different alleles with functional differences between G. soja and the two domesticated accessions. The genome assemblies for multiple cultivated accessions and for the closest wild ancestor of soybean provides a valuable set of resources for identifying causal variants that underlie traits for the domestication and improvement of soybean, serving as a basis for future research and crop improvement efforts for this important crop species.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 527, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breeding programs benefit from information about marker-trait associations for many traits, whether the goal is to place those traits under active selection or to maintain them through background selection. Association studies are also important for identifying accessions bearing potentially useful alleles by characterizing marker-trait associations and allelic states across germplasm collections. This study reports the results of a genome-wide association study and evaluation of epistatic interactions for four agronomic and seed-related traits in soybean. RESULTS: Using 419 diverse soybean accessions, together with genotyping data from the SoySNP50K Illumina Infinium BeadChip, we identified marker-trait associations for internode number (IN), plant height (PH), seed weight (SW), and seed yield per plant (SYP). We conducted a genome-wide epistatic study (GWES), identifying candidate genes that show evidence of SNP-SNP interactions. Although these candidate genes will require further experimental validation, several appear to be involved in developmental processes related to the respective traits. For IN and PH, these include the Dt1 determinacy locus (a soybean meristematic transcription factor), as well as a pectinesterase gene and a squamosa promoter binding gene that in other plants are involved in cell elongation and the vegetative-to-reproductive transition, respectively. For SW, candidate genes include an ortholog of the AP2 gene, which in other species is involved in maintaining seed size, embryo size, seed weight and seed yield. Another SW candidate gene is a histidine phosphotransfer protein - orthologs of which are involved in cytokinin-mediated seed weight regulating pathways. The SYP association loci overlap with regions reported in previous QTL studies to be involved in seed yield. CONCLUSIONS: This study further confirms the utility of GWAS and GWES approaches for identifying marker-trait associations and interactions within a diverse germplasm collection.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/genética , Genótipo , Tamanho do Órgão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 481, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the recent domestication of peanut from a single tetraploidization event, relatively little genetic diversity underlies the extensive morphological and agronomic diversity in peanut cultivars today. To broaden the genetic variation in future breeding programs, it is necessary to characterize germplasm accessions for new sources of variation and to leverage the power of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to discover markers associated with traits of interest. We report an analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD), population structure, and genetic diversity, and examine the ability of GWA to infer marker-trait associations in the U.S. peanut mini core collection genotyped with a 58 K SNP array. RESULTS: LD persists over long distances in the collection, decaying to r2 = half decay distance at 3.78 Mb. Structure within the collection is best explained when separated into four or five groups (K = 4 and K = 5). At K = 4 and 5, accessions loosely clustered according to market type and subspecies, though with numerous exceptions. Out of 107 accessions, 43 clustered in correspondence to the main market type subgroup whereas 34 did not. The remaining 30 accessions had either missing taxonomic classification or were classified as mixed. Phylogenetic network analysis also clustered accessions into approximately five groups based on their genotypes, with loose correspondence to subspecies and market type. Genome wide association analysis was performed on these lines for 12 seed composition and quality traits. Significant marker associations were identified for arachidic and behenic fatty acid compositions, which despite having low bioavailability in peanut, have been reported to raise cholesterol levels in humans. Other traits such as blanchability showed consistent associations in multiple tests, with plausible candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on GWA, population structure as well as additional simulation results, we find that the primary limitations of this collection for GWAS are a small collection size, significant remaining structure/genetic similarity and long LD blocks that limit the resolution of association mapping. These results can be used to improve GWAS in peanut in future studies - for example, by increasing the size and reducing structure in the collections used for GWAS.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Variação Genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105714

RESUMO

Based on evolutionary, phylogenomic, and synteny analyses of genome sequences for more than a dozen diverse legume species as well as analysis of chromosome counts across the legume family, we conclude that the genus Cercis provides a plausible model for an early evolutionary form of the legume genome. The small Cercis genus is in the earliest-diverging clade in the earliest-diverging legume subfamily (Cercidoideae). The Cercis genome is physically small, and has accumulated mutations at an unusually slow rate compared to other legumes. Chromosome counts across 477 legume genera, combined with phylogenetic reconstructions and histories of whole-genome duplications, suggest that the legume progenitor had 7 chromosomes - as does Cercis. We propose a model in which a legume progenitor, with 7 chromosomes, diversified into species that would become the Cercidoideae and the remaining legume subfamilies; then speciation in the Cercidoideae gave rise to the progenitor of the Cercis genus. There is evidence for a genome duplication in the remaining Cercidoideae, which is likely due to allotetraploidy involving hybridization between a Cercis progenitor and a second diploid species that existed at the time of the polyploidy event. Outside the Cercidoideae, a set of probably independent whole-genome duplications gave rise to the five other legume subfamilies, at least four of which have predominant counts of 12-14 chromosomes among their early-diverging taxa. An earlier study concluded that independent duplications occurred in the Caesalpinioideae, Detarioideae, and Papilionoideae. We conclude that Cercis may be unique among legumes in lacking evidence of polyploidy, a process that has shaped the genomes of all other legumes thus far investigated.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 877-884, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043755

RESUMO

Like many other crops, the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is of hybrid origin and has a polyploid genome that contains essentially complete sets of chromosomes from two ancestral species. Here we report the genome sequence of peanut and show that after its polyploid origin, the genome has evolved through mobile-element activity, deletions and by the flow of genetic information between corresponding ancestral chromosomes (that is, homeologous recombination). Uniformity of patterns of homeologous recombination at the ends of chromosomes favors a single origin for cultivated peanut and its wild counterpart A. monticola. However, through much of the genome, homeologous recombination has created diversity. Using new polyploid hybrids made from the ancestral species, we show how this can generate phenotypic changes such as spontaneous changes in the color of the flowers. We suggest that diversity generated by these genetic mechanisms helped to favor the domestication of the polyploid A. hypogaea over other diploid Arachis species cultivated by humans.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Arachis/classificação , Argentina , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , Domesticação , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Fenótipo , Poliploidia , Recombinação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Tetraploidia
7.
Plant J ; 98(5): 767-782, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017340

RESUMO

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) is a major crop for worldwide food and nutritional security, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, that is resilient to hot and drought-prone environments. An assembly of the single-haplotype inbred genome of cowpea IT97K-499-35 was developed by exploiting the synergies between single-molecule real-time sequencing, optical and genetic mapping, and an assembly reconciliation algorithm. A total of 519 Mb is included in the assembled sequences. Nearly half of the assembled sequence is composed of repetitive elements, which are enriched within recombination-poor pericentromeric regions. A comparative analysis of these elements suggests that genome size differences between Vigna species are mainly attributable to changes in the amount of Gypsy retrotransposons. Conversely, genes are more abundant in more distal, high-recombination regions of the chromosomes; there appears to be more duplication of genes within the NBS-LRR and the SAUR-like auxin superfamilies compared with other warm-season legumes that have been sequenced. A surprising outcome is the identification of an inversion of 4.2 Mb among landraces and cultivars, which includes a gene that has been associated in other plants with interactions with the parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of a putative syntelog for multiple organ gigantism in legumes. A revised numbering system has been adopted for cowpea chromosomes based on synteny with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). An estimate of nuclear genome size of 640.6 Mbp based on cytometry is presented.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Tamanho do Genoma/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Vigna/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sintenia
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1216, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872580

RESUMO

Efficient crop improvement depends on the application of accurate genetic information contained in diverse germplasm resources. Here we report a reference-grade genome of wild soybean accession W05, with a final assembled genome size of 1013.2 Mb and a contig N50 of 3.3 Mb. The analytical power of the W05 genome is demonstrated by several examples. First, we identify an inversion at the locus determining seed coat color during domestication. Second, a translocation event between chromosomes 11 and 13 of some genotypes is shown to interfere with the assignment of QTLs. Third, we find a region containing copy number variations of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) genes. Such findings illustrate the power of this assembly in the analysis of large structural variations in soybean germplasm collections. The wild soybean genome assembly has wide applications in comparative genomic and evolutionary studies, as well as in crop breeding and improvement programs.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/genética , Evolução Biológica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Domesticação , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Translocação Genética/genética
9.
New Phytol ; 223(4): 2090-2103, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834536

RESUMO

Reconstruction of an ancestral genome for a set of plant species has been a challenging task because of complex histories that may include whole-genome duplications, segmental duplications, independent gene duplications or losses, diploidization and rearrangement events. Here, we describe the reconstruction a hypothetical ancestral genome for the papilionoid legumes (the largest subfamily within the third largest family in flowering plants), and evaluate the results relative to phylogenetic and chromosomal count data for this group of legumes, spanning 294 diverse papilionoid genera. To reconstruct the ancestral genomes for nine legume species with sequenced genomes, we used a maximum likelihood approach combined with a novel method for identifying informative markers for this purpose. Analyzing genomes from four species within the Phaseoleae, two in Dalbergieae, two in the 'inverted repeat loss' clade, and one in the Robinieae, we infer a common ancestral genome with nine chromosomes. The reconstructed genome structural histories are consistent with chromosomal and phylogenetic histories, but we also infer that a common ancestor with nine chromosomes was probably intermediate to an earlier state of 14 chromosomes following a whole-genome duplication that pre-dated the radiation of the papilionoid legumes, evidence for which is found in early-diverging papilionoid lineages.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fabaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta , Marcadores Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Sintenia/genética
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 14(12): e1006472, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589835

RESUMO

As sequencing prices drop, genomic data accumulates-seemingly at a steadily increasing pace. Most genomic data potentially have value beyond the initial purpose-but only if shared with the scientific community. This, of course, is often easier said than done. Some of the challenges in sharing genomic data include data volume (raw file sizes and number of files), complexities, formats, nomenclatures, metadata descriptions, and the choice of a repository. In this paper, we describe 10 quick tips for sharing open genomic data.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Genômica , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
11.
Front Genet ; 9: 454, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356760

RESUMO

The factors behind genome size evolution have been of great interest, considering that eukaryotic genomes vary in size by more than three orders of magnitude. Using a model of two wild peanut relatives, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, in which one genome experienced large rearrangements, we find that the main determinant in genome size reduction is a set of inversions that occurred in A. duranensis, and subsequent net sequence removal in the inverted regions. We observe a general pattern in which sequence is lost more rapidly at newly distal (telomeric) regions than it is gained at newly proximal (pericentromeric) regions - resulting in net sequence loss in the inverted regions. The major driver of this process is recombination, determined by the chromosomal location. Any type of genomic rearrangement that exposes proximal regions to higher recombination rates can cause genome size reduction by this mechanism. In comparisons between A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, we find that the inversions all occurred in A. duranensis. Sequence loss in those regions was primarily due to removal of transposable elements. Illegitimate recombination is likely the major mechanism responsible for the sequence removal, rather than unequal intrastrand recombination. We also measure the relative rate of genome size reduction in these two Arachis diploids. We also test our model in other plant species and find that it applies in all cases examined, suggesting our model is widely applicable.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0189597, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522524

RESUMO

Recombination (R) rate and linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses are the basis for plant breeding. These vary by breeding system, by generation of inbreeding or outcrossing and by region in the chromosome. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a favored food legume with a small sequenced genome (514 Mb) and n = 11 chromosomes. The goal of this study was to describe R and LD in the common bean genome using a 768-marker array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) based on Trans-legume Orthologous Group (TOG) genes along with an advanced-generation Recombinant Inbred Line reference mapping population (BAT93 x Jalo EEP558) and an internationally available diversity panel. A whole genome genetic map was created that covered all eleven linkage groups (LG). The LGs were linked to the physical map by sequence data of the TOGs compared to each chromosome sequence of common bean. The genetic map length in total was smaller than for previous maps reflecting the precision of allele calling and mapping with SNP technology as well as the use of gene-based markers. A total of 91.4% of TOG markers had singleton hits with annotated Pv genes and all mapped outside of regions of resistance gene clusters. LD levels were found to be stronger within the Mesoamerican genepool and decay more rapidly within the Andean genepool. The recombination rate across the genome was 2.13 cM / Mb but R was found to be highly repressed around centromeres and frequent outside peri-centromeric regions. These results have important implications for association and genetic mapping or crop improvement in common bean.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Phaseolus/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recombinação Genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Família Multigênica , Melhoramento Vegetal
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 131(2): 333-351, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071392

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We report a linkage map for Apios americana and describe synteny with selected warm-season legumes. A translocation event in common bean and soybean is confirmed against Apios and Vigna species. Apios (Apios americana; "apios"), a tuberous perennial legume in the Phaseoleae tribe, was widely used as a food by Native Americans. Work in the last 40 years has led to several improved breeding lines. Aspects of the pollination biology (complex floral structure and tripping mechanism) have made controlled crosses difficult, and the previous reports indicated that the plant is likely primarily an outcrosser. We used a pseudo-testcross strategy to construct a genetic map specific to the maternal parent. The map was built using single-nucleotide polymorphism markers identified by comparing the expressed sequences of individuals in the mapping population against a de novo maternal reference transcriptome assembly. The apios map consists of 11 linkage groups and 1121 recombinationally distinct loci, covering ~ 938.6 cM. By sequencing the transcriptomes of all potential pollen parents, we were able to identify the probable pollen donors and to discover new aspects of the pollination biology in apios. No selfing was observed, but multiple pollen parents were seen within individual pods. Comparisons with genome sequences in other species in the Phaseoleae showed extended synteny for most apios linkage groups. This synteny supports the robustness of the map, and also sheds light on the history of the Phaseoleae, as apios is relatively early diverging in this tribe. We detected a translocation event that separates apios and two Vigna species from Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max. This apios mapping work provides a general protocol for sequencing-based construction of high-density linkage maps in outcrossing species with heterogeneous pollen parents.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Ligação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sintenia , Transcriptoma , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Phaseolus/genética , Soja/genética , Vigna/genética
14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34908, 2016 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27721469

RESUMO

For species with potential as new crops, rapid improvement may be facilitated by new genomic methods. Apios (Apios americana Medik.), once a staple food source of Native American Indians, produces protein-rich tubers, tolerates a wide range of soils, and symbiotically fixes nitrogen. We report the first high-quality de novo transcriptome assembly, an expression atlas, and a set of 58,154 SNP and 39,609 gene expression markers (GEMs) for characterization of a breeding collection. Both SNPs and GEMs identify six genotypic clusters in the collection. Transcripts mapped to the Phaseolus vulgaris genome-another phaseoloid legume with the same chromosome number-provide provisional genetic locations for 46,852 SNPs. Linkage disequilibrium decays within 10 kb (based on the provisional genetic locations), consistent with outcrossing reproduction. SNPs and GEMs identify more than 21 marker-trait associations for at least 11 traits. This study demonstrates a holistic approach for mining plant collections to accelerate crop improvement.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Phaseolus/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
BMC Genomics ; 17(1): 613, 2016 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. RESULTS: We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. CONCLUSIONS: We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Phaseolus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Potyvirus/patogenicidade , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Phaseolus/imunologia , Phaseolus/virologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Potyvirus/genética , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 151: 198-205, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474558

RESUMO

Apios americana is a wild legume-bearing plant with edible tubers. Domestication of Apios is in progress because of the superior nutritional value and health benefits of the tuber. Objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize physicochemical properties of the Apios tuber starch; and (2) understand differences in starch structures and properties between the mother (seed) and child (progeny) tubers and the mechanism of starch development. Granules of the Apios tuber starch displayed ellipsoidal, rod, or kidney shape with diameter ranges of 1-30µm. The mother tuber starches displayed greater percentage crystallinity, larger gelatinization enthalpy-changes, longer branch-chain lengths of amylopectin, and lower pasting viscosity than their counterpart child tuber starches. The mother tuber starch of Apios 2127 displayed distinct two peaks of gelatinization, which were attributed to starch granules located at different regions of the tuber having different structures and properties. The mother tuber displayed more active starch biosynthesis in the periphery than in the center of the tuber.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Tubérculos , Amido/química , Amilose/análise , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Amido/biossíntese , Viscosidade
17.
Nat Genet ; 48(4): 438-46, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26901068

RESUMO

Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Genoma de Planta , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Evolução Molecular , Ligação Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Ploidias , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sintenia
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 44(D1): D1181-8, 2016 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26546515

RESUMO

Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/classificação , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Internet , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sintenia
19.
Plant Methods ; 11: 10, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant phenotype datasets include many different types of data, formats, and terms from specialized vocabularies. Because these datasets were designed for different audiences, they frequently contain language and details tailored to investigators with different research objectives and backgrounds. Although phenotype comparisons across datasets have long been possible on a small scale, comprehensive queries and analyses that span a broad set of reference species, research disciplines, and knowledge domains continue to be severely limited by the absence of a common semantic framework. RESULTS: We developed a workflow to curate and standardize existing phenotype datasets for six plant species, encompassing both model species and crop plants with established genetic resources. Our effort focused on mutant phenotypes associated with genes of known sequence in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis), Zea mays L. subsp. mays (maize), Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic or Medicago), Oryza sativa L. (rice), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean), and Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato). We applied the same ontologies, annotation standards, formats, and best practices across all six species, thereby ensuring that the shared dataset could be used for cross-species querying and semantic similarity analyses. Curated phenotypes were first converted into a common format using taxonomically broad ontologies such as the Plant Ontology, Gene Ontology, and Phenotype and Trait Ontology. We then compared ontology-based phenotypic descriptions with an existing classification system for plant phenotypes and evaluated our semantic similarity dataset for its ability to enhance predictions of gene families, protein functions, and shared metabolic pathways that underlie informative plant phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ontologies, annotation standards, shared formats, and best practices for cross-taxon phenotype data analyses represents a novel approach to plant phenomics that enhances the utility of model genetic organisms and can be readily applied to species with fewer genetic resources and less well-characterized genomes. In addition, these tools should enhance future efforts to explore the relationships among phenotypic similarity, gene function, and sequence similarity in plants, and to make genotype-to-phenotype predictions relevant to plant biology, crop improvement, and potentially even human health.

20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 32(1): 193-210, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25349287

RESUMO

Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae-Cassiinae-Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/classificação , Fabaceae/genética , Tetraploidia , Evolução Molecular , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Simbiose
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